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■ - ■ H 







OiF«D Umvutnrv Pan Waiukhiu 

Machiliai) & Co., U Fifth Atehuk 








nUiOw 01 EiNo'a collkgb, cavbhidgk 


'i- - 






This volume is iBteoded to be a contribution towards 
filling up the gap between the 'Select Charters ' edited by 
the Bishop of Oxford, and Mr S. R Oarditter's ' Conatitu- 
tional Documents of the Puritan Revolution-' Of the 
documents which it contains, a few of the moat important, 
such as the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity and the 
High Commission of 1559, are printed in full : the rest are 
given in an abbreviated form. Of the latter it is hardly 
necessary to say that no alteration has been made in the 
texts, but owing to exigencies of space certain portions have 
been omitted. Where the omitted passages posaeaa any 
importance, and the omission is not shown by the number- 
ing of the paragraphs, it is indicated by dots. In the case 
uf superfluities, such as are indicated by brackets in the 
following phrases: — 'person [and persons],' 'all [and 
every],' 'prescribed [and appointed],' 'shall [and may] be 
lawful [to and] for,' 'the same [or any of them],' 'bring 
[or cause to be brought],' 'be it further enacted [by 
the authority aforesaid],' 'provided [always and be it 
»-nacted],' '[any law statute or usage to the contrary not- 
withstanding^' 'he [she and they],' and the like, I have not 
thou^t it necessary to call attention to the omission. All 
additions to, or substitutes for, the original text are enclosed 

vi Preface. 

in sciuare brackets. When a date is given in a shortened 
form it ia similarly indicated. The spelling of the Eoglii^h 
documents has been modernized throughout 

Documents which have not, so far aa I am aware, been 
printed before, are indicated in the Table of Contents by 
an • ; those that have been partially printed, witli an -t ; whiW 
such as have been printed before but are now reprinted 
directly from the USS. are marked vrith a %. 

The index is not intended to be an indc^r nomxmim except 
in a few important eases, but I have taken pains by nteann 
of a full analytical index rervm and a glossary to make the 
collection as useful as I can. 

Finally, I have to acknowledge, with much gratitude, the 
help and encouragement ungrudgingly given me by the 
Bishop of Oxford, the Bishop of Peterborough, Professor 
Maitland, Mr S. E. Gardiner, and Mr Hubert Hall of the 
Record Office ; but I need hardly add that these gentlemen 
are in no way responsible for any mistakes which this book 
may contain. 


Kioto's Collede, Cahrriik)!, 
JaHtUHji ai, [B94. 




The Honarchj and the Kftti'ja ■ ivii 

Cborch uid State m 

PaHuuneDt Ill 

Coancil, Hinktry and Star-Chuab«r xcTJil 

Hie Jndiotura cvii 

Army md Nary czix 

n« PrerogatiTe ciiii 


/. — Slatutet. 
I Eliz. cap. 1 . Act of Supremacy .... 

„ „ t. Act of Unifonnity .... 

„ „ 3. Recognition of the Qneen'i title 

„ n 4- for the TeatitDtioD of Eint-Fraita, &C. 

„ „ s. Act of trewoD 

„ „ II. For eoitomi on iweet winea, Ac. 

„ „ 10. Toniuge and Poundage . 

„ 1, II. Act ofSobiidy .... 

„ „ II. Ordinance* for cathedmla. &a. . 

„ „ 14. Annexation of rellgioui hoans to the Cro 

5 Elix. ca^i. I. For the aanirance of the Qneen'i power 

„ „ 3. For the reUef of the poor . 

„ „ 4- For artificer*, labourer*, apprentice*, &,c. 

„ „ 19. Confirmation of ■ Clericnl Sobiidy . 

8 Elii. cap. 4. To take away Bene6t of Clergy (robbery) 
13 Elia. e*p. i. Act of Treaaon .... 

„ H I- Apinat the bringing in of Bolls, &c 

„ _ 11. Fei the nftnoation of Miniitan 











viii Contents. ^^H 

i4Blicc*p. I. AyHMtooMqiinc; tatakatL«Qii««ii'icMtU*,lE«. . 6$ 
n m *■ Ackiart ucoMptncj to *olu]pt fnooai* > .66 
„ „ J. Ft*- tbn pu&iikmant of ttfphamlt, and tk nlkf of 

Uwpoir 67 

■8 ElU. okp. 3. For wttiiig thn pMT oa work, &<k . . • T* 

„ 7. To Uk . away Bnufit of aar^jr (rapa aarf bm^arj) . T^Hlj 

I j Klii cap. !• To rvUta itw. Quon'* lubfteU (o «l)«daaea . jJ^H 

V >• Ataint MdilioDi wodi and rvnuMMB T^ti 
*; Klit sap. I. I'ur Iha cutvly of lb* Quera'a pttoa .So 

„ ». AgHMl JgwHa, Scmaaijr FliMta, tc ... S3 

„ 13. For tb« faDowiac of Iba and Crj . ... 36 

)t ft 19 Blh. cap. 6. F<(rUiatittlar«neBtfaoaraial.j3BUi.e^i tt 

3J HJi. t»f. I. To iMaln the Qaceo*! lubjccU ta cfeadknca . 8 9 | 

a. Jkfdaat Pcfdib BattMaote .... IM^ 

3|t It 40 Slit. cap. t. AgsiiiM Ik* daesjing of towiu and hoiUM «f ^| 

kukaMirj 9) 

„ „ >. For the niaiDUaaBea of hiul«Ddtj and iQlaga ^ 

„ „ 3. Far the nlief oftba poor . . . . g$ 

., ., 4, For iJi«piuuihsM«taf rogVB, Ti^ahnnda. ftc loO 

„ „ 5. FcTlh*ig«Dl{ti$oflM>f>tlaI*a(irukliuuMi . lei 

^jA^lEIit. cap. f. F<rUiat*Uif«rUwpaaT .... 
„ K 13. Far tha baUv gor«tninent of tho Mttbcra 


„ „ 18. AatvfSabiid; (pnaidUe) .... 

//. — Partutmentary Prootedingt. 

I. Gnmu 

1. Petition of th« Cmnaoon* tar ih* Qneea'a MMirUge Bid MCBf l oa,^ 

IJA3, with i)m ()Man'* aMa«r 107 

t. Pt^tl»a of FariinaaM tauehlnic iS^j, Qctm alSeoU, 1586 . tog 

3. Debate en Uonopelici, aad the Qomb'« Mia— ge, 1601 tl 

n. pRinuvn or pjtKuuiBtT. 

1. ftutoinaiy dfand br ^Tfflatw II 

t. Fifanant tninimUfa top«tvfleg« il 

8. Fnadaaof ifdvahi 

(*) IMata on ilia Qa«an'* aanria^* an-l •aoonboa, 1 j<t6 1 1 

(b) Spacekoftbe Lent Keeper, t$7l II 

(0) Debal* en Mr SoMlMd'e lnUUlIc% 1371 . . . tt 

(1^ MeaMga froa Hid Qvaifi. i$;i II 

(«1 Spatdi of Sir VViiiiwntih, I <;* ... . , 1 10 

(f) Spaoeli ot Sir W. MlUinar, If ;6 iji 

(11) BpeadlofMr Wcntwanb, IJS7 ijj 

(ii] iHiiiM^i riiiiii iiiii niiiiii, i,ij ij 

Contents. ix 

;i) Speedi of tlia Lord Kaepar, 1593 114 

(k) MMMgefrotn the Quesn, 1593 115 

4- FrsnocD ntm ursst ; 

(a) BouMof Lorda: LordCromweU'icMo,]S7i . .116 

(b) Hotueof ConUDoiu: 

(1) Hartio'i OM, 15S7 117 

(1) Neale'a CMS, 1593 IJ7 

(3) Fitiheibert'i esM, 1593 117 

le) H«inben' wrruiti : 

(I) Hoote of Lord* : Di^w' caw, 1384 .... liS 

(3) Hooas of Commotu : SmBll«j'a aw, 1 5 76 . 1 18 

S. n«edoni bmn aubpogna and from MrviDg on janes : 

(a) Cook'scaae, 1585 119 

(b) SlspDsth'i o«M, 1 585 199 

(e) nacta'a caw, 1597 139 

t. Right of maininipg retonu, and detaimning qaalifieatiomi : 

(a) NoifoUc elecUon, 1586 130 

(b) Snijth'a caw (oatlawry), 1559 131 

(c) Lord Buaell'i caw (peen' Koni), 1576 . .131 
7. Kgbt of pnniihment and eipoliiaa of ntemberi : 

Hall'acaw, ijSi 13I 

i. Jsriadiction over pnaona not being memben: 

(a) Corpcoation of Westbury, 1571 131 

(b) Willimma' ca«e, 1576 133 

». Privacy of Debate : 

Clariie'a caw, IJ71 133 

///. — Unfmiiamentary Taxation. 

1. DirtnimtofEjughthood i.33 

(a) Circular letter to Lorda-Lieatenant for a loon ■ '34 

(b) Priry SmI for a Inan* 136 

3. Benevolencea : 

(■) BeaeTideDDS of the clergy 137 

(b) The Queen's acceptance of the benevDleiice I3B 

/ V. — Judicature. 

1. Tria]oftheDakeofNorrulk,i£7a 138 

■2. Trial of Mary, Queen of Scoti, 1586: 

(a) CtuniuiiiiDD for the trial 140 

(b) Sentenoe on the Qneen of 9oota 143 

3. Giantsf ofBoelsa Jodga, IJS4* '43 

X Conlenls. 


4. JiutioMofUx Vnm: 

(■) 1^ Oainnii«i«n bafora ij^a 144 

(b) TIm OoMnlaloa >fUr 15^ 147 

(«) OMll«f k JuMicaafthc P«ea I49 

ft. Will br Iha Court ul Cutlo Lliunbcr b IralMid* . . . Ijo 

r.~MiUlary Syttem. 

1. CominMon of LiouUmuicj* 154 

3. C-imuiiaiionofkm;* 156 

8> <'<>inniiMtun uf Diusin* ........ I98 

1. (IreuUrlMtor (urligblhona 159 

B. L«4l«r %o B RiKhn]) for light hnrae* 1<>0 

5. Writ fur ilrw of aniiH bi )>• prurrilvd bj^ Cbn Clergy , , ifil 

7. CtreuUr leltir fcmii Itir Ai«)ililalin|i (ur tli* vlaw of anpt . 161 

8. WriloppoiotingkoAdiuiral, 1^99 163 

VI. — MitcelloTi towt. 

1, 0«th of • Privy Counsillor* i6« 

1 Puti(«ot>SMnitaryofKUt«t 160 

3. C«nwr«h>p ti( tliv I'm: 

(%') H(w't')iiuii1>i>r iinlliiaiicr, i£66 .•,.<• l(S 

(bl Stor-ClminbcninHniiniiii. 1(86+ . . . . ■ . l6ft 

I. CMmaWoa for tbo cnuBcipaUoi] of rJllAin* 173 

V/I.—Rxtraets from Political Writtrt. 

I. SUunford ; rn«nigBtiva Bt^fit 174 

3. Willinm Cuiicirn : 

(■) Tlio SUr-rli«nlwir ....,.,, tJS 

(b> FIfUanth* and TodUm, and 8uMilIw ..... 175 

(«) Martial Lav 176 

8. Hir Thoina* Smith : 

(1) Clawwinf lh«]vi>pl 176 

(3) ParllauiDnt ami llin Siiv*r<l|pi 17S 

(3) JuMloci of ihr Vctre 179 

(4) Trial by Jurjr 180 

(}) Tbo SloT-rhatiiliDr . iSo 

I. Vfllllam Laiiibard : Tlia Staf^CIiambtr . 1 .... 181 

S. ICidiard OximptoD : Tlio Star-Chambar 181 

t. DociTMCS-ra, Ac. 

1. Tbc Qiism't ProolamatioD, if j8 ....... iSjt 

2. Tlia QuMo't I^junt'ttiinR, 1551J .,..■.. 184 
8. Smnmon* to Cnnrscatiiiii, ij6l •.>.<•• 190 

Conltnls. ^^^H xl 

(. Puritnn ikmftDilii In Canrorktlon, t j&3 ..... 191 

8, Pwk«r'i iid«Trti«ein™w, is<Si I91 

0. BtgCnnfn^ of Piii'iiuii'iBin, ijGS (CuaiUii) 194 

1. Ball of Mociiniiiiiiiiintivn, 157a ....... 19J 

e. PuriUuiductrliiKi: 

{»] CWtwrijfht'i pTop«ltioTii, ij;o 19IS 

(bj CliMk'f prajKxitiniu, 1571 ....... 197 

(«) D*rini['* iim|™dliinn, IJ7J I9; 

(d) Sftin|i>iiu'ii |in>)HultiiinK. Ig74 ...... 197 

9. KttrM^tn frnni the Fint Adiaoaition. Ij;! ... . 198 

10. Thti t'mi-ma ot IJ71 MO 

11. Rurciw: 

(b1 Kegnlntioniin thedlocaHofPotcrbOToiigli, 1571 . . Ml 

III) Bup|ir««doa of Eieivisas, 1574 ...... 104 

(«) GriQ>UI'» IUt.niliitii'iii>, 1J76 104 

(il) TbaQiiMn'* leitor aii^iiiit Pr»|ihM;!aitii. ij;; . . . Mf 

(•) RcguUlioiu Id ibe dloccnc of Chc*ter, 1 jS$ .... ao$ 

(0 UkniaiHi on PropbMfiagi 107 

{g) Bunn on IVophuyiDgB 907 

12. Thn Qiiwn'* FrM<l>niiilion H^unit NonooufonnU*. I JTJ • zott 
U. HqQuhd'cMvm^:* It) l>ul<&iiiBiii. 1376 109 

14. The QuotD** Hawag* to the Commiini. ijXt .... 110 

15. Wticgift uid the NotimnilVimltta. 158} (CundtB) . . . 110 
1(1. Wliit^ft't ArtiolM, ijSj Ill 

17. Irf-tUruTljinl Hurtitiley l<> Whitgia. 1584 . . . . )»J 

18. Whltgih'* r^ly ti> Ior.1 It^Tshlnr. 15144 114 

1)1. Pptltion of tlio TIouw of Comtnoni foe ccelMloatloiI if&nn, 1584 lij 

W. PiiriUn I'etHion to the QuBpo, ijgj II9 

31. Ttis QuMn* tjiwch in Parliaiiimt, i|Sj , .... til 

3!. The Otnou of 1585 ii> 

55. Ind<^pI■ld«ll DootrinH ........ 1*3 

24. Mutin MHrprvIiivlilieli, 1588 (Canidan) . , . . . )>4 

56. AlMckaid) IhaHlj^Comniianiiiii. Iftgl (0>ind«i1 . .115 

Stt. The Lwnbcth Article, 139$ 136 

117- He OiQont of ijy; ai6 

28. Thv Court iif High ConimMon : 

(■} Ftnl Cuiiiniixum, I5f;qt ....... 117 

(b) TheConuuMoDof 1561* 131 

(e) Th* CommiHion of tf7i> . . • ■ ^ . • 135 
(d) Thx (:<iiiiii>iK>i<iii <if 1576} Ijj 

(f) The CoiumiMbii u( 1601 S4O 

(0 BoFlMkido*! Commianon for Wal«i, IS79* . 141 

89. Plvam<llD|{ii in oonlmiini witli the »ppinntiunit of k Bialmp: 

(I ) II1U oonicd il'fliro 141 

(1) LatUr efKCOiiunetiilatbn 14* 



(4) CraniDAnil to oouecnto • Bitkei|i 143 

(5) BMttMtunaf teroinnlltiM ...... 144 

n. ExnjicTS raoM Eocusulbtkai. Wairua. 

Tb* Anglloui kwl PmbrUcua pnitiuiui 

(1) RielMd Uadkm ...... 

{>) Anhbuhop Banonit ...... 



ijae. l.op. t. ftMaginlieiinfib«KinK'* titU . ■ *90~ 

„ „ 1, For CmiBlMloaen to tml of l^ Uotoii . i)l 
» n 4- For tha eioculion «(StotaUa if^an JeiuiU, ^| 

^ *54 

H ,. 7. Per Uw mhUdiuac* of titet. 39 Etii. wp. 4 ^ 

(ni|[iiw aad rafiaLtoid*) .... IJS 
>, „ S. ToUk«*w«; Dtocfliof ClMX7(iiuB*lut|h4«r) tj4 
•■ >i 1 3- Vat IWIT utoutuBi in cura ij friTflqca^ fte. IJ4 
■ II «}. For tb* ottttinwoM «f ocrUia StaMM H 

(iiuwriaga oTahigj) .... ^uS 
J 1 4 Jae^ I. ea|i. 4. For tb« dtecmwj uiJ rt|dawng of Papbb 

RaeuMita ■]& 

.< ,1 5. To pr«T«U dHi(H« from P<(ibh RtcnuDta . 161 

4ft t Ja^ Leap. I. F(« thaabdilkdd liaMililjtbetu-tvnKiit^nil 

uid .'isiUuid >6S 

7ft 8 Jae. 1. otp. I. For UiebMUTMOcotkai otJiuUo* In tb* north 1 

!*«• nafl 

n 4. V«t tha aiecutian of U»i i^aiBn rvpi«*, H 

vafabooibifto. '7*1 

„ 6. FaraJMlalilMtnf tbaaatbsfaIIai^aM«,*o- *r3^ 
ilftll Ja«Ll-eap. 3. Cot>Mr«lng mwoipollo, Ac . . - *TJ 

» I, 10. Bcp«) of pan of iHM. 34 ft 35 Ilaa. VH 

nf>. ifi (Wain) .... 
., „ *>. BifMal of ufMaJn Sutata (aumaaij) . 
33- At«ofSnWdj 



//. — Parliamentary Proeeedingt. 

I. ProeUmmtion ooncnning electiooB to Pulikment, 1604* 
1 Tbe Kin^s ipe«ch t,t the opening of Pftrltftment, 1604 
t. Article* of oonference between the Hoiuea, 1604 
4. Apulogj of the Home of CommoQi, 1604 . 
G. The EJng'i ^wech before Pu-lUmeTit, 1610 

II. Hemorikl concerniog the Greit Contract, 1610 . 
T. Fstition of the Hooae of Cmuaoiu, M>;, 1610 . 

8. pRi|Maitioni touching Pnrveyuice, 1610 

9. Memorial ocmaenung tenures, 1610 

10. Rnt petition of the Houae of Commonii, Jnlj, 1610 

11. Second petition of tbe Home of Commoni, July, 1610 

12. Fint petitioD of the Home of Commona, Dec, l6]I 

13. Tbe King'a letter to the Hoiue of Commoni, 1611 

14. Second petition of the Hoaie of Commoni, Dec., l6)l 

15. The King'* vuwer lo the above petition, 1611 . 

16. ProteaUtioD of the Houae of Commona, 1611 

17. The King'i Proclamation on dinolviog Parlinment, 1611 

18. Fltit Addreaa of both Honaee to the King, March, 1614 

19. Second Addten of both Housea to the King, Hatch, 1614 
30. Addnn of both Hooiea lo the King, April, 1614 





n. FBrni.uiis ahd Judicatdbb. 

1. Privilege of freedom from airest (Shirlej'a caae, 1604) ; 

(■) Debatee in the Honw of Commoni, ^ 310 

Cb) Shiriey'aAot* 3'4 

S. Bight of examining rttami : 

(a) Bncliingbanuhire Election, 1604 315 

(b) Caidigan and Sbrawibary, 1604 33' 

(c) CaMbridge, i6ai ... . . . • 333 

3. Right of eipuLdon (Sir R. Floyde, 1631) 333 

4. Jodicatora of Parliament : 

(a) Impeauhment of Lord Bacon, l6i[ 334 

(b) Flojrde'icaw, iGii 337 

///. — UnparliametUary Taxation. 

1. BaWcHe: 

fa) Aignmentiof the Judges, 1606 34° 

(b) Hr Hakewill's argwneat, 161O 34> 

(«) Mr Whitekicke'* argnment, 1610 3Si 

xiv Contents. 

i. Communoii to levy impoNUoni, i6oS* 353 

S. I^vy of n taodal kid, 1609, 161 1 : 

(ft) Onler to the CbuiaeUor l« tune cammlvioni . . 35J 

(b) Appointment of commudoDen to oollect the ftid . . . 356 

(c) Appointmnit o^ commiuioiien to compoand for the aid 358 
4. Cironlar Letter* for > BenoTolaDce, i6)i 359 

/ r. — Judieature. 

1. Commiuion of Oyer uid Tenuiiuir, 1607* 5^1 

3. Canuninioi) of Gul-Delivery, 1607* 363 

3. Iiutructioiu for the Pretident ftnd Council of the Korth, 1603* 363 

4. Initructiona for the Preaident and Council of Wiiln, 1617 . . 378 
G. JarisdiotioDofthe AdiDinat7,i6l8 3S8 

V. — JiiaotUanMua. 

1. The Eing;'B Coioiution Oath* 391 

2. I'raolomalioa uf the Union, 1 604 391 

3. Cenionhlp of Uie Prew : 

1. ProclanuitiaD, l6ia 394 

1. ProcUmfttiou, 1614 395 

4. Militarj Syatem ; 

I. Appointment of > Cooncil of War, 1614 .... 396 

3. Imprenment and Martial Law, 1611 397 

3. Couiminioa to eiecote Martial Lav, 1634* .... 398 

VI.~ExtracU from Political WriUrs. 
i. Jamee I : 

I. Prerogative and the Joilgea 399 

3. Pmn^atife and Parliament 400 

2. Sir Edward Coke : 

I. The Star-chamber 401 

9. The High Commiuion 404 

3. Lord Bacou : 

I. The SUr-Cluunber 40S 

]. The Judicature 408 

4. Sir Walter Raleigfa ; 

The PreragatiTO 409 

5. DrCowell'. 

King, Parliament, Prerogative, Subaidj .... 409 

6. John Selden ; 

ConTocalion, King, Prerogative 411 

Contents. xv 

I. Tin UiUenuy PetiUoD, 1603 413 

1. Tbc Hampton Coart Conlerence, 1 604 . . . < . . 416 

S. H« King*! UecDca to ConiootioD, 1604* 417 

^. A ProeUmation enjoining lUDfomiitjr, 1604 410 

i, Lrtten from Arcbbiahop Wbilgift and tba Caandl touching Non- 

eoDformiaUi, 1604 411 

<I. Letter from the Lord Keeper for indulgence to Papiata, 161J , 413 

7. He King'a directioni aboat preaching, iGi) .... 41a 

g. High CommiMion, i6lt*; with addiCioDi made in 1613* and 1635 414 


1. Arcbbiahop Laud 435 

2. DrSibthorpe 437 

3. Dt Maynwaring 438 


Stai. 5 Elii. cap. iS. An Act declaring tfae aathorit; of the Lord 

Keeper, Ac 44I 

Letter bom the Privj Coundl to Aichbiibop Parker and Lord 

Cobham, 1570 441 

Cdall'icaae: interpratation of Rtat. 13 Eliz. c^. 1, I590 . 44a 

Baoon'i ipeecb on taxation b; the Commons, 1593 .... 443 

Proclamation of Martial Law, 1 595 443 

Tbe Eocleciaatical Canoni of 1604 444 

Jodgment of Lord EUcamere in Catvin'a ciue, 1608 .... 446 

Juriadiction of the Houae of Lords, 1634 446 

JniEX xvD Globbart 447 


Page III, dele note. The ipeaker wu Peter Weatwortli, 
,1 I >7, Neals'i case : for 6 March reai 6 April 
„ 143, tioe 15 frem UKA,foT vftda read vadia 
„ ^al, lino 18, /or Whitgift, read Bancroft 


Page' 160, Letter to a BUhop, Sea. : thii letter u, in the CUetidar of 
State Fapen, canjecturall/ dated Maroh, 1573. 


iexERAi. SnmtY : tiii: MoxAiiaiT akd Tnt Natiox. 

Tbc Tudor raoiutrchy ntUSiKol Hk zonith in th<i mien of 
Qaeen EUubctlL Hunry VIII was nioi-ii iyr&iini<^ than 
his youBf^i' dau)tht»r, but it duea uot follow that he was 
mori! firmly s'?at«d od the throne. Under him, the fthtisett 
of arbilrary pw«-(-r were douhtleM luoro tlngrunt, niid thu 
direct influeneu of tfa« royal will more obvious, while hia 
statutory powers were in some respects larger and hb 
financial ronourcee, at least after the submission of the clerg)' 
and tlio disMoIution of tlie niana8t«ri«i^ mom abiinditnt. 
But the Tiidor uiouarchy, uiiliku niottt othi^r di»poti»ma, 
did not depend on fcold or force, on th« pDafteesion of 
vast estates, unlimited taxation or a standing army. It 
rutted on thn willing support of tbv nation at Int^% a 
aupport duo to thit dmtply-rootod conviction tliat a atrotif; 
ex(.*cutive was necessary to tliu national unity, and that, 
in the face of the dangers which threatened the country 
both at hom« and ahrond, the sovereign must bo allowod 
a free luind. It was tJii>i coiiriclion, inatinctivuly fell rathor 
than definitely realized, which enabled Henry VIII not 
only to cruoh open rebellion but to punish tho slightest 
atgna of opiNwition to hia will, to n-gtilato thu consciences 
of hii* Hubjecta, and to vxtmid Uio li^gal ooncuption of troason 
limits hitherto unluiown. It was thlH which r«ndorod 





it possible for tho iiuiust«t8 of Edward VI to inipoM 
■ Prot4)Ktjknt r^gi(ii» u|)on « Ronuuiist niniority, uid kllowed 
Uary U> tmtvir upon % liuteful marriage and to drag the 
country into a disastrous war. It was tliU, finally, which 
enabled Elizabotli to choow her own lino in dooK^xtic and 
fomgn jioUcy, to dofer for tliirty yoani the war witb Spain, 
and to resiat, almost single-handod, tbe pressure for furtlnr 
ecclesiastical changei. ^^ 

~ The Tudor monarchy was essentially a national monarch; 
It wax pojMilar wttb Ihv luullitudu, and it waa avtirel: 
6upport«d by tke ioBwntial claaa«e, the nobility, the gentry, 
tbe lawyers, the merchant)), (vho »at as members of parlia- 
ment at Westminster, mustcroil th« foT««i of the ahin- 
LonUfLwu tenant, or bora tliu burden of local gov 
as borougiHXUgistnta and JusUcee of the Peace. Hi 
these classes been roealcitinnt, bad they oven b«en luk 
wiirm in thvir support, tho cniwti wuuld havo b<-cn pmcti- 
cally imwwrkiM. If proof of this were required, it would 
be found in the fact that, while the Tudors, in spjte of 
counttcM difficultieM, retained their ascrmlency for upwards 
uf a c4Mitury, thai Sti-warto, who had in tbt-tr lianiU all tba 
despotic agenctea and twice tJie wealtli of tlieir predecesaort^ 
lost it in one generation. 

I Now if tbis fundamental popularity may be predicated 
of tbii Tudors in gonend, it bdonjiiit in an f!<)WM.'ud & 
to the last of the race. A strong monarchy was bvuefici 
in tlie days of Uenry VIII, but it was indispensable 
tbow of Klixnlxith. Hwiry VII had proHfierwl, (hi"fly 
cauao bin mairiuge put an end lo tbf uviLi of a <li»]>ulir 
aucc<»sion. Had Elizabeth died before 1387, the dlnst 
of tbe fiftoenth century would inevitably have recti 
Tfao dangcnt of political ilidordor could not in tho ra. 
of the chiMlees i^ueen be long absent from tbe minds 
thinking men. No previous reign, for a century and a h 
before hirr aecc-uion, had bt«n fmu from plot and relwttion. 
and ten years after she camo to tfau throno tlw oulbnsk 
the nMthem earls showed that baxooial anarchy mig! 



yot a^n raise iU h^id. During EtixAhoth's rt>ign, this 
(Inngor was ii»in(»L''tini1)ly (tnliiincvtl by mligiotiK <lifr<-ronon«. 
If lutjonal luitty aiii] tliL- iDAuitcnaiK^e uf law and order 
depead«d ou the §trength of the government iu 1530. how 
much moro vrns thix the case a geoernticti lat«r, when 
AogUcaiis and Rumunbdn civarly bidaiicod each other, in 
w«igbt if not in numbers, and when th« extreme Protestant 
secta wei-e introducing an element of discord unknown 
bfrfvn) (hv Refornintion ? Tlte roligioiiK wan luid ma»acr«s 
in Fniiice and the N»tht!rland^ thf hontilu IcoguM of 
Germany, the religious auimoeitiea which distracted Scotland 
and Ireland— all these were warnings which no one who 
whu vraa not a fjinutit: could diftrttgunl. Mon^ovi'j', in tho 
time of Henry VllI, tlie Pujuiuy waa diseouragwl and di»- 1 
organized : iu that of Elizabeth it had not only rallied but 
was beginning to recover its earlier position. How sliould 
tbft PtotmtMita of Engtitnd hopo to muko hoad nguinst thu 
nturniiig tidu »x(M.-pt I>y .lubinitting theniMvlvvs, liku an 
army in the field, to the stern disci pitite of undivided 
c(>ntn>l ? What hud th«y to »xpoi;t if Mary of Scotland 
•hotUd become, by the d«ath uf her ciMinin, nut merely th« 
h«r but the rightful claimant of the Engtieh crown ? It 
is difBctilt to over-ostimato the strength conferred upon a 
aovOToign by the consciousness that hor lifu alonn atandn 
between her itubjeetM and aiiarohy. 

To these considerations was added a new fear, the fear of 
foreign invasion and conquest. For centuries this danger 
bad boon unknown. English artni<M had repeatedly iuMtdod 
. France^ atid the fDi-eigner had been unable to retaliato except 
by occii^oual raids upon our coasts. New, for the lirBt tintu 
for nutny generations England was upoeed to great and 
immiitent dan^r from abroad. No pownr coinpnrabte with 
tba n«w uicinarchiea of Franee and Spain hud exlnlod u 
Century before. Either of them, taken singly, was more 
than a match for this country : had they combined their 
forc«w, nothing ctiold havo «avod English indopeodenco. In 
tbe days uf Eliutboth'a fathur thu chunvv of such a combtna* 





tion vrm hnnlly ap]irm-iabl« : In the days of ElUabetli il wis 
not mciraly a ch«ncn but ii pn>hiil>ility. Ami h*ir« attain U»» 
political HaiigiT wait dimlili-*! l>y rvliguxui liuniiUty. SfiMU 
wita netivc-ly [iro|>«([ai)difit : France migbt beoome so at any 
moEDent. Engluid had already learnt to her cost, in tJ: 
pl«c^ing reign, wli*t wai niftanl by Spaniiih dumiiuttioi 
anil what 8pain had oncv obtained by utari'ia^' fAve w*a 
only too liki^y to attuuipt by conquest. In tbe face of sue. 
ft danger aa this, it is not to bo wondered at if tbo repi 
s^ntativca of the nation rot"! withowt rchictanfo wliutuV' 
toxuH were ntquirvd, and abtilaincd from ciitioisniB or 
manda which nxight have hampered aome delicate conibina- 
tioD or eneouraged the enemy by the semblanoo of di 

It is nrwHili-iu Ui gii Wyond thL* 1o account for tlie 
with which Eliubtrth bauilltH) the difficult mactuDO 
parliaDientary goverament Boyal influence was; no doubt, 
applied to guide parlismontary election*, and to deflect the 
tidir of dobattt from inconrontoitt oI>aiUi«la ; but thoro nt n» 
r«4SDn to auppoae that this inAuetieo wss excesaiTe or un- 
popular. The parliaments of Elizabeth were neither packed 
nor servile. They had a mind of their own, and oould on 
ocouion nhow it. But tlicy knew what the niilional int^n 
detnanded. and in supporUiig tliu crown ihi^y iwltsd 
accordancie witli that interest. This attitude was 
as timn went on. by tbe axccea w ie of a long and 
rrign, by a growing vonlidoncv in th« wisdom of Iho gav»m< 
ment. and by that chivalrous form of loyalty which unein^l'?' 
s woman on the throne. Elizabeth, on her aide, full 
nodoratood both th» Murcm and the limitations of 
powvr. for. extenaiv« a* it waa, it had itt limilationx. She 
Wfts aware of the ralue act upon livr tifi\ but tihi- wiw not 
misled by this knowledge into a folae estimatA of 
pcwiUon. She knew that she oould not sacrifice orendan 
the national lntor««ta without loaJng the goodwill of 
people^ on which alone her Ubtriy of action d«p«nd«d. Ilf^f 
differences with her p.iiiinment8 wore nover sunoua, ani 




The Monarthy and the Nation. 


c«n only partially be attributoil to her conceesione. 
That she made some concesaiooa oinnot be denied, but tho 
occtwiotix on which she yielded are as nothing compared 
with tlioso on which she stood lirm. On tht< whole it is 
clear tliat slie nihil aiitocriitic«Ily ov^r Btutii and Church, 
over imiiiHt<irei and parltai»»tit^ and lAw could only have 
nccomptiehed this by identifying her policy witli the int«reBts 
of tho nation. Though occAsionally the«(i might appear to 
dirergo, tho conTiction grtiw strongwr ywir by ynur (iiat, 
in tbo muln, they vrero onv. Hvnc«> a pumouul nfli.'ctiun 
which Elizabeth wa« at pains to cullivate. by f«iminiue arts 
as well as by imperial policy, and which was none the less 
goniiino bocnuse it w>h oft^in nccompimind, according to tJio 
foshion of tho dny, by uxtraviifi;»iit llattc-ry, Tlio deptli of 
feeling which underlay thin dt«corative exterior finds eloquent 
expression in the preamble (jx to6) to the last grant of taxes 
Toted by parUament to the aged queen. 

To pum up. theefBcJent cauaes which tondwl to strengthen 
tho Tudor mnnnrchy were «ep«ii»lly potent during tho latter 
half of tlio nixti^'nth c^mturj-. If it is Inif liiat the Tudora 
w«re strong because they were popular, we shall pixtbably 
be correct in saying that Elizabeth was strongor than any of 
hor predmwwors. It seems likely that lh« vnry vioh'nco 
whjdi markod th» reign of Henry VIII waa, in tilts n^apect, 
rather a sign of weokneas than of strength. If Kliz^wth's 
I yoke was lighter than that of her father, and her judgements 
pin general loss severe, it is because ahe could mly mora 
confidently i>n tlm unconMralniM) Mujiport of her peoplob 

Theae amicablu relutious between aovereign and subject, 
confirmed by the traditions of nearly half a century, woro 
not likely to disappear immediately upon tho aoi-ts^ion of a 
now <lynnxly. In thit hintory of thv constitution no hard 
Una can be drawn Ix^twiii-n tho reigns of the last Tudor and 
the first Stewart. The claim of James I, based as it waa on 
no title save that of descent, illustrated, by tho forcxi of a 
striking example, tho gfri(>nil acceptanoo Of the theory of 
horixlilar)' Sivinu Ri^ht. Purliaui&nt hastened to leoognize 



tlio claim (p. 350) and tnanireated towards th* bpw kiog 
tho signs of lojrxlty wliii-h it had shown towards hi* i>fvd«- 
evMO]'. Kron when ropunlctl att«c)ui upon Uinir privil 
foroed tlio Conimous to roRtotiKtnit«. tlie tnanifostu (p. a86) 
in which they sei forth their grieranws is couched in a 
ton« of respectful npologjr of which Kliuibnth h<T«r'If could 
MiarNil]' hava complained. Though iiicapnlilia of iriKjiirin. 
Uitt devo4ioD or attratfliiix Lh« admlratiou felt fur bis pred< 
oeaaor, Junes was ui.'ver positively unfiopular. Too wise 
too timid to commit himself to di»iiuctly illcgsl course* 
flagrant dl^]>nrtu^» from prooodcnt, h« priw«rvc»l for Ihi 
must part a fairly i^ood und«ntaudin>; witli lua sub} 
Ite pompous loijuacity with which he lectur^ the rei 
MDt«Uvc« of the nation contrasts unfarourably with th<' curt 
and pointed tittcnincM of Eliialit'lb, but do«9 not apjiniir 
haT«'b«cu offemsivo to contemi>onui«s. It is true tliat 
'uotiooB of the prerogative set forth in his speeches an 
wrilinga tranMond uiything claimed by tho Tudor^ and had 
to lio largely rvditcinl in practiM!, while tlio dat»-craft 
wliich he prided himself met wiUi Mirere r«bull» both 
home ai>d abroad. IfenertbelmB his intentions wen 
and, though ho cannot he credited nnth much political i: 
Kight, ho wiw capabin of rMognizing the impomlilo. 
some important queationa, for instance those of rdigi 
toleration and the union with Scotland, he merits the p 
— if prniiMi it is- -of Wing in advance of his time. It is to 
hiK CTvtIit OS a nili^r Hint, whnn ho diitcovi-ntd the unripeoi 
of public o]>inion, be refrHiUfd from |Hiidunf[ liis policy to 
dangoTUUB point Although he parted from some of 
parliaments in anger, tho irritation was not wide-spread, ao 
tfao iMt parliAinont of hix roign-to which indetil bp made 
tmpuriaul <uRcc«!iiouM~wualM> prolialdy the moHt eonton 
In short, during the reign of James I tJie old aystou mw 
be aaid, on the whole, to have held its ground. It was 
r(wrv«I U'T hiK son to make the irroparablp breach. 
But thou^ih this outward luirmoiiy was wo 1< 
ftarred, cbang«e were taking plaee wtii«h year 



nade n 


The Monarchy and the Nation. 



roiidt-rod it maro inMictirc. Tim cimumHtancnM of th« »nr«n- 
tcwnth cenliii-y wen? verj' difforeiit froin thoao of thu 
nixteeiith. The t.rAclitiona of ai'iiitocrntic turbuleuce were 
falling into iw rrinolo n pAst a§ to be practicnilj: forgotten. 
Politicul_{>i)wor Iiiul ti> n liirgc oxlciit piuwod fn>m,tl)o nobles 
to Ui6 gently and ilie mi-rwinini! claHStM*. ~ Tin- Huoi!<i»iM>ii 
lo the crown wbs no loii};er doubtful or dppendeiit on 
a single )!f(^. In I^ngland the adherents of Kome had 
coomnJ to bo furinidiildo : thojf worn n smnll nnd opp«»s«id 
minority. The dauber of u i*onflict lintw<«'ti En^liKhimtii 
ofdifT^rent religions liad for the prfseut paused away; the 
Papists might plot, but thoy couM hardly rebel. There 
was no longer luiy imrioiis diinger of invasinn from nbroad. 
Th« Miiion with Si^otliind nnd tim supprtission of ri)l>olliiiii(* 
diieftains in Ireland bad deprived the foreigner of the 
power to raise up enemies at our gates. France, tolerant 
of dissent at borne, was inclined, from cloar reasons of 
fx^cy. to befriend Prot«»tnnfs abroad. Spain, whila still 
a ffntxi powtT, vitm no longnr a Mourot! of ti^rror, though 
she i«tuiiinud an object of hatred, to Englishmen. The 
porta of Holland, whence in the e«rly days of £luabeth 
a hostile armament might at any moment havo (loMnndod 
on our coa«t«, wt^rc now in tlio hands of n people not yet 
Hligngud in seriuuH couiinerc^ial rivalry willi Kngland, and 
allied to this country by the bond of reltgiuuH aOinity. 
In a word, the national indopon deuce, so long in danger, 
was now secure. The chief motive fur aenuieseence in 
autocracy bad therefore disappeared. An absolute mon- 
archy waa no longer indispensable, and the nation could 
safely take it« fate into its own hands. 

Mt^nwhiht, ojmrt from thrMi chnngcf in extfriial <'on- 
ditionn, the national dfvelopnient was making uuUienttic 
Itorernment more tllflicult. It was the misfortune of tho 
Stewart kings that they inherited a system well enough 
adaptixl to a previouM age, but too inKlnHtic for tJieir own. 
Tho very triunipliH of th(^ Tudon vri^rn fatal to thuir too- 
OM»ora. Tu begin witli, they bud niiacd up in lliu nntional 



parliameDt a forc^ which during thrir i\mv ww R 
agent of tJie nxituirchy, )nit which might etaaly 
its rival. The impoituncie of the aixteejith centuiy in 
development of [>arlumeQtary iriftliUitions h&s gi^n«i 
been und«r-rHt«d. Th« influence exerciHod hy purluuiienl 
over th« affure of the iwlion during thnt r|ioch i» liable 
ba obsvurod bj tbo vigour of thi; monAnhy, but waa DeT< 
tbuIeiBi^ u-ithin its spbore. noi only potent but inevital 
It is tme that th« gn«t ststultK of the Reform 
penal gtntutee, tfa<> poor \ttvn nnd othnr gnat I 
chaii)iix wore initut«d by tliu fcoTunuiHMit, but this fihuutil 
not blind us (o tlio equally imporiant tnitb, that in all 
theee proceedings the aoveri-ign was foroed to rely upon 

~ the national council to give offcct to his policy. A 
of iirtcodoDU coti&rniud the control of parliamvut 
taxation, si«u»d its ri^l to acc«pt and consequently 
reject legislative proposals, and established most of 
special privilt^os. Although the anntial eee«i<>ns, which 
had bueu customary undor the Iianca»trian kings, had long 
b<«n ffiven ui>, the additions to thu statuto-book wi^m more 
copious and not less weighty than in any previous sgc^ 
pBrtiunoot had. in fact, confirmed its position as an im 

^ panaab)* dvtnvnt in the Slate Without the training, 
pTMti^ and the aiinae of s^f-importanco conferred u; 
it by a eentury of Tudor legislation, it could never htc 
been styled by Pym the soul of the body politic 

In this powerful institution, fostered and developed by 
the Tudor* for thwr own ends, the llouw of 
came more and more to be the dominant factor. 
soTereigus of the sixteenth century bad dooe their b«it 
elevate the gentry and the commercial ulinMw as a 
poise to the nobility. It was tJictts ehasM which p: 
most by the dissolutioa of the moaaMeriM and the pi 
of eneksufse, by the espanaioo of trade and tho du 
war with Spain. They had good cause to support 
nili-n under whom they had made this advance, but th 
had DO siK-cial rvason to bu gntuful to the Stewarts. More-. 





of illV 
age. ,., 


Tht Monarthy and the Nation. 


«nr U)«y h^J now for th» first time become oonaeiouii of 
ih «ir impoTtAUcv. Thuy «cra iMming to act ia coor«rt, 
■Dd ^■eov«rin(c tlkeir ability (o stMid without oxtemol aid. 
Tke great couocil of the nation, ia wkivb all tluit vtim most 
ffvatitMot Mid energetic Among th»ro was eouc«Qtratod. 
was piujng out of tut«>Ijiga and approaching it« m^ority. 
Ii tm^ no looger 1m: liaiidlod a* oven EliuiU^h lind 
handlad it. The w6spdQ which the Tudora hud uiu-d with 
■aeb eonsitmiiute d«zteHty was ready to turn in the hands 

of Ul«r WC CM BDtB. 

Nor w«f« cMiaeis wanting to induce Parliuncnt tn tako 
1^ an independpRl attitude. The t^oliwiAiitiuil policy of 
Ifaa ^docB ouutaiiHxl williin it a gvnu of ilajiK<v tu the 
■DOfUKliy. To rid themMira of the yoke of Home, they 
bad tolaraled or eneouraged the spread of Protectant doc- 
Ui aa a . Tbe religious movement thus indueed they had 
iMed eo fiu- aa aerved thoir ptirpoM«, not formeeing that 
It might become aa dangnrous tu the crown as it bad been 
lo the Papacy. The eceleaiaatical cyolem eetabliahed by 
EUxabeth waa supported by a large body of her subjects 
aa a poltin: and acceptable mean between tii<> c-xlryrnies 
ef Borae and Guneva, but by uthvn — and th«6« funuvd 
a npidly increaaing party— it waa regarded as an obatacle 
to truth, aa an attempt to oht<ck the Keformation half-way. 
fa their riaw, the Anglican e}-8tem coDt4uniid so much that 
objectionable m ritual and govuniinoiit, if nut in 
rine, an tu bo litlla prefenblo to that of Rome. Hence 
9 Ttttiarian conlrovertiy. followed by attacks upon the 
thair courts and their officials, and l>y the Ac- 
of Pr«»byt«rian and Ind»p<'ndont oiiiniuiix 
had aomn difficulty in at^imtniiiK tlie tide, and 
I IbCBe grew Ian[<^ly after hi-r death. Against these attacks 
the Church, alarmed for its existence, adoptcl severer 
maaaurts of repmseioa, aitd drew upon iU-olf political 
hoattlily by rxaltiog the prerogative beliind which it hoped 
to Biul alM^toc. The apUt grew daily wider, the non-con- 
(arty more clamorous. The mal-contente obtaim-d 



a migority in the House of Common^ snd took 
opportunity of pieMing tlivir dvmiuida upon th« crawB. 
Thus t)i« dawn of G«lf-«oDsciousneea in I'arlLunent and 
tb« ^rawing C'ApAoity for iniiintit-e (M>iDcide<l with the a[K 
peanrnw of a [lotntit n-iwon for wlf-w«>'rtion. 

Thp qiuuTf'I al>ou( vCTttiiioniiM and ehtirch^vemmenl 
was cluttvly connected with llie still more roomeotous 
question of unparliam^Dtai^ taxation. Sooner or later, no 
dotiht. this qumrtion would hare come to th« ttvnX, \<n\ 
undor othor conditions it might lon^ hav« KlunilMnid. The 
national wiwlth ivm gi«iviiig faxt, and ao long as tbofR yn» 
no grave disput« kctwoon king and people, Parliament 
was unlikely to grudge some additional revenue to thn 
crovm. Tho method of collecting it 1>y iniltrr<ct taiuttion 
vraa MuictJone<l by Tudur pTWcadi>nt«, and wan ou« for which 
from a legal, as well oa an ecouomiad point of riew, much 
was to be said. But should any dispute arise, the latitude 
hitherto allowed to the erown was mire to Im.' callvd in_ 
t)uo«tion, for, apart from tho impoachment uf roinbtMra- 
an expedient which dbuae hft«l midvrcd wcU>iiigh oheole 
—a refusal of supplies waa the only lever by which pr 
could he broii(;ht to bvar upon thn govvmni(.'nL It was 
thereforo a heary blow whvn. juat as Parliament was \>v 
ginning to need this weapon, it was stnick from its hands 
by tho action of the Uw-oourto. If the law wax what the 
judg«i« d«clnn>d it to bo, there was nil Ihi-- mora reason for 
Parliami'nt to bofttir itavlf. Onco raiaod, the question of 
indirect taxation could not be left unsettled, and the wlinig 
forc« of religious feeling came into the held to supper 
the ronlention of the popular party. UnfoitnDati>ly. this 
Tory fom% by combining religious and |)olitlQa] dcniandi 
rendiirvd an agrMunont alniottt tmpoanhht. 

The decision of the judgMt in Batca' eaae (jil 340) did 
affect indirect taxation alone, but raised Cir wider isK 
Fi.>«ling thoir l<«a] position insectire. the judges were driven 
to invt'iit or lo xupport n thnory of the prerogative which 
Ibrealened to subonliuulf law and Poriinmont to the crown. 

The MoHanhy and the Nation. 


I In dftttTOT th<r «nricnt luxu of hikrmoDioiiB ooHtperatioii. 
fBT-nttchintt cun!«Hjmnco* of this theory were soon 
pMmiwd. wid pTitnoHl upim thn notice of FaHJAment ((v 350). 
Looif befont HuUx^ luiil fi>ni)iil«l»l hui dtif^rKH? of ah^o- 
lotfann, the philosophical notiou of indivinibta sorrrfTifcnty 
mutt^iA, if at first but dimly, into the fteld of prMticnl 
F^litK* ^I<> %?,^\ and was interprt^od hy Utvyora and poli- 
tirfaiH in oppotttii^ winMX. A ijiiiMdion vriut in this way 
tnted which wetnl to tb« mots of govemiuont and wmt 
■at Mittled tilt the Revolntion. Thus, during tlie rarly 
y«u« of Jami-s I'k reign, the religious and p»liti<-jil i]it<Htinn« 
bM»m> iBAxtricahly ihvoIvmI. imd ctvcli, wliilu it vrabittored 
the eoaUUct, hampered (he »i-itk'intat of the other. 

At thi» juncture, events of first-rate importance took plMe 
on lb«> coDtlnont, whtdi incroased the diffiCTilly, alroady very 
Itnat, uf ooming tn mx\ undt^nlanding. Tlio fimra mid aua- 
pidoos of «U earned Prutf-itauLH were ■ggm^'*'*^ tonfoM by 
tbe outbnalc of the Thirty Yisus' War. A coalition, not 
JnAtmA fo dangeroiiH to England as a league between IiVance 
Sfoin mnild have bpon in the prdrious rMiturT,-, but 
illy dangerous to Eun>pcaa Protottaatiun. j<]>mnK into 
With France in difflcultii» at home, an ofTendvd 
ace between the two brsnchea of the house of UabsbuT^ 
thnwtMMd to undo all the work of the Reformation in Oor- 
Thn rii-miait Pru(<«tanlB once subdual, and the 
r's oulfauril}' re-establiiibed, an attai^k on Holland 
: Uw Dortliem powers must have followed. In the face 
r«neh a risk, the nnulrality of Kngland ^>peared not only 
liut impulttio in th« liif^lieM dofcrco. And ye4 
I pmremnieat. Ear from throwing itix-ir eiior^ticslly into 
eooSict. wasted time in fruitlciw diplomacy, and evon 
MitM«d Dpoa ncgotialioaa for a matrimonial altianoo with 
IIm areb^nMny, S]iain. Tb<- puqwrt of tli<^- intrigues wwi 
hit dimly known, but enough l<!akw) out to inspire the 
gn«lMt anxiety. The ceUgio>H feelings aroused by tbesa 
vtHilA indBeed Parliament to take another step in ad- 



The InvOT of finonL'tul control, already «pf li<wl to tmforc*' 
occlmUiitial refonu ut homo, ww now i,-mfi1<iy(Hl to pr 
upon tlto government a definite policy abroad. Partlj 
through a natural r<>)uctnnc« to incur pecuniary responin-' 
bllity, portly from a aeiuw of ita own nnfitneas to deal with _ 
the complexitiee of foreign affairs. Parliament had hith« 
abetoined irvtn intvKM<etice in the* relations of tho 
with foreign powun. Along with tlii) control of ttiwmilit 
and imx'al fun'^ tliu conduct of the«i' relations was r<?vsrdMi 
as witliin tho special province of the crown. But the 
dangers to which Protestantism was now espoaed, couplod 
no doubt wilb tbo prvspwt of comnirrrUl and oolonial gain 
al tilt- iripviiiH.' of tlicir unctunt viii-iiiy, liil the mprveentatives 
of the nation to depart once for all troia this attitude 
reeerre. They now demanded nothing lees than a d«d«iv< 
Toice in tho conduct of foreign sETairs. Tho step thos takiua 
invnivisl the RouMO of Commons in the moai serious quarrel 
witli iHl- monarchy that bad yet occurred. The 'fluy and 
popular ^irits * (p. 3 1 o), who ventured to discus matters of 
8ttt«, religion and foreign policy, applied their privilogti 
fr<M speech to uses hitherto unknown, and ri-fii]u-<l to 
aik-uced at thu bidding of tlio crown. Wlitm Saxata tore 
their protofit bom the journals of the House {\i. 313)^ be 
called in question the most essential Ubettiee of Parliament 
nnil thrt«too«d itsTwy existenoe as a free assembly. Cir- 
vuuutaneee, luywevor, wore too strong for him, and the 
bilure of bis foreign diplomacy oumpollud liim to yield. Tli« 
control thus gained, if it was to become effective, involved 
of necessity a voice in the application of public funds. The 
nKsattve right of rcfuiung taxes was a very inadequate 
mi'thod of giving a jMMiltvn dirrdion to foreign polity. 
Hence the adoption of the syatvm afterwards ktwwn as 
appropriation of supply (p, 378). This momentous d 
hail banlly taken place when James I died. Its importan< 
WAS reeognized by bis son, but CfaarlM, failing to perccivi 
that it was inevitable, set himself to recall his fulh»r'i 
concoHdons and to drive Parliament from the position ii 


.d ' 
of ' 


Th* Monarchy and the Nation. xxix 

Th« cObii prored bUl to iiim and to his 

Bnth Ui«n is tfan connnxion botwMn the Tudor luid the 
StMrwt p«io(la, and cspMtallf Ixitwwn th« roigiu of Fliea- 
bsHi and James L We shall hardly understand thi! Tudor 
S]prt«m if w« confine our iospectioa (o th« days of its 
•plimdoDr. It is only hy studying ite finto under the 
SittwartH that we van fully grasp it« chief pceuliarity, the 
Moentially popular basis on which it stood. On the otlivr 
hand. Ihn policy of the Stevrarts will be unfairly estimated, 
aod tbu dmpcr reaaons of their failiuo will bo miwed, unless 
m fixmnaaei Uieir «>ndu«t by tho light of Tudor hisitory. 
To tba Toidor deepoitiBro the nation, as a whole, visa a con- 
■Miting party, because the sovereigns of that line protected 
fta hil^er interoHta and in th« long nm gavn <dfo(:t to its 
wiabcft. It nsabted and fiiuilly ovvrthruw tlie de«p<itism of 
tha Btuatta, not because it believed an autocratic ^etem to 
Im iairinacally bad, but because under the new ri^^me it 
ma iaiaa{rpltL-d. In any cnso th« Tudor methodit of govom- 
nwttt muat ercntually havu been n-Unquialied. for the nation 
bad ootsTOvrn the tutelary aUge. But ^reat political changes 
an nrely. if erear, demanded by large massm of men as 
•ods in tbomscIvM. Power lh only coveted by a class or 
a nation, an a mcun-t for securing ita interwrfa, be they 
Bpinlnal or material. Had tbe Stewarts been fur-aoeint; 
ititiiiliii II. ill! [iiilili 111 change nught have been long deferred, 
and despotism might have bom almost insensibly mota- 
tBurpboaod into cunittitutional monarchy. Unfortimat4<ly 
lb* ntl«fs were blind to the naiioaal developntcnt and itti 
Inmtable nsolts, while they were led hy ciratmstanccs and 
tbair pMsonal prtidihtctions into a position of hostility to 
Um nftt^""* wtlL They can hardly bu blamed fur standing 
on tbair rights, for so far as their main contention was 
eaneecnad^ Law vn a in a manner on their side, llieir 
bolt lay in abusing tlirsa.- rigliLi, in suppiirtini; tlin abuse by 
atniaiR); thv law and pttrvertiiig custom, and in ignoring 
lb> fact I hat righta, so abused and so defended, cannot be 


nuJiitaiutil. Tbus, instead «r l««(liug a gradual and 
«voluiit)ii, (lit-y buri'i«d on a violent cotltsion, which, from 
the verjr lutttiro of tlioir powor aa axpIaioM) aI(ov«i could 
not but bv folid tu thi-ni in Iku find. 


Chpbcr and State. 

Ox a supodicial view of coii^Ututiooal affairs during the 
reigna of Klizahelh and James I, w« are at on«o struck by 
tlH> great political importance of religious and oeclcMUiatical' 
quctliona. A fuller oxauiiiiatiMi only cunfircua this im- 
presaiuii. Iii Hii;;luid, aa wtU as on the continent, relijpou 
wafi the chief motive power of the ago. If we wmild under- 
stand tbo gononil progress of the nation, the di-velopmcnt 
of political idva^, thu limitations ptaci-d upon public and 
privates liberty. th» mutual attitude of crown and Parliament, 
we must enquire eomewbat minutely into the relations of 
Church and State, the laws and institutioas by which th«e« 
nibttious wuru govcmod and dofiond, and tba opinions h«ld 
at difiWeut timcA by tbtt dilTereDl religious pnrtiva. 

Thu ecclesiastical system as settled by EliEal>otb and 
maintained by James I vras based upon the Atts of Su- 
premacy and Uniformity (t Elix. i and x). All that followod, 
for more tban a ctaitury, n-a.-! built on this fMuidatioo, for, 
setting aside the revolutionary epoch of the I»ng I'arlia- 
muiit uud the Commonwealth, th<irw was no deparluro from 
the liivee which Klizabeth bad laid down ontil they wc«» 
moditied by the Act of Toleration (1689). 

The Act of Siipn-niacy regards th« cccIosiARticad chajiga* 
of Uvnry VIII ua i.'ff'i'ClinK not no much a rwolulioa as 
a rcfl tqtjttitjn. The atatutus of the period 1319-1536 had 
* restored ' to the crown ' the ancient jurisdictions ' which of 
right bclongitd lo it, and had ruliovcd Ih" nation frwni an 
'iisurpuil furt'igu authority' (§ i)l TIiu rights so rvcorered 
had been roeignvd by Uary. The Act of Supremacy Uiere- 


Church and Stale. 


-l^lba cran-D 1(4 (wio»-lrMt authority, and fiM« 
I'sMuiil tiro« froiii Um 'bon<lag«' into wfaieh it 
ki«i CiUsa. It repeals the reactionary legislation of Uary 
and twvires thv anti-tiapul »titut«« of fl«nry V\\l. It 
■ir«tp> aiwr aU fontigi) autlionty, spiriUuil and It'mpond. 
anO it Teatu in the cnwn for ev«r th« sujir&mo \KrK&e owr 
the national cbareh. But it is car«ful to An\i the limiu of 
ll»M pow«r thus givnn. "^t do«s not nvtoru the title of 
'Mi{ir«ine b«Mi] ' coiirt-rroa] upon Hiwry VIII, nor <Ioov it 
reriva those atatutt^ (e.g. 31 Henry VIII. 16; 34 & 35 
y VHI. t) which may almost i»e said to have endowed 
Um iritb tb«> authority of Pop« and Council corabined. 
The mprviuacy vialixl in thu vrowu Ja such aa 'hf tay 
nfmlbnX or «tfcl«aiastii»l power Oir authority hath heretofore 
bean or may lavrfoUy be execcised.' The large and rarioua 
lnorp^ww for which it may be uaed am definud in $ t!. 

FurtlMv, whQo coufcrrinfc iiiion lht< crown th« right (o 
AU'gati. ita authority to cuiumiaaionera, it limits tbejr 
Matrol met ratigion, for it tays down (j lo) tliat thef afaaU 
not lunrv jMiwcr to coiuhmin a* horeay anything not a* 
dsdand by wai{iturc^ gcm^rul cuuucila. or Act of PailtaaMt 
piM«i with ihi- consent of Convocation. The suprema^ m 
dwlainl by Elizabeth herself (p. 1D9) not to inni** A* 
right of oureiMng ilrictly spiritual functtam^ aal ■ ^^ 
pbiBcrf as limply euufi-rring 'the soverttigai^ 

tpeTBODc' lay and clerical, born nrithin h«r tmlim. It 
atill mora dt»rly defined by Art. 37 of tbv 
Tbe aatboriqr utf the aovereign thus 1 
an tmks) to rMder it secure. Tbe Act ta 
oath, kiwwa as Ibo 'oath of auptamacy' 
mliaiiiKu and all ixmona holding 
andftinflicta if 141 u{>on all who may; 
*tfc« aotbority of any forvign prioo* or 
ralmtnating in ferfoiturc and daBifa. 

While thus thiowing off tlw y>ofea tf i 
bad no notiott of introdndng 



blic . 



respect it onl^ Hhnrml the cnmmon opinion of tho timo. 
was not bolivr^l, in Eng)«n<l or oliK^'honi, that froodom of 
roli^on eould be allowed williout iin|)«rilltnK tlie UDity of 
the SUt« aod tuideniuniiig political authority, llw next 
step therofore was to AUtliorize a certain fonn of public 
worship and to proliihit nil others. Tbe Act of I'nifonnt 
after rvpoaliiiK ($ ■) thu stAtuto of Hary which cancvIlM) 
Becood prayer-book of Edward VI, rerivaa that book, with 
certftin modificDtionB. and ($ s) «njoin« its u» throughout 
tho kingdom- Any miniKt«r doclining to u«o in his ehureh 
thn furm prescribed, or udng any other. Is to be BBVetel; 
punished, and for his third ofleoee to suffar deprivatioo ani 
iuipriaoo merit for life. 

80 far. the act only concerns th« minMt«r« of thn Church. 
but its provisions are not confinod to the ministry. H 
penattjafl aru threatened (} 3) agaimt any uno 'dopmTing 
tho book of common prayer or liinderins ita use, while 
l^neral confurmity is enfoieed by the infliction of a fine 01 
all who rtifuiso to go to church. Tho duty of «zocn 
th«M^ I'rovinions is Rppcimlly laid upon tho biithopii and thi 
suliui-diiiaUHt ({4 4, f>. > i), but is also ontrustnd to tho jn 
and other lay officials (§§ 5, 10). 

The scope of these two fundamental stabites wiM, then, 
both potittiud and roligiouo, but th«tr primary aim was 
politic. Thoy wero inttiudvd to abotfafa tho imperwnt in 
imperio which the chui«h had fonnoriy enjoyed, aod lo 
make the crown supreme witliin its own dominions. The 
enemy agniiMt whom thny wmv originally directod was 
Romi\ but Protostants tiltiiiintely felt their foreu almotrt ai 
much aa papists The AnglicAn establish miiit cveatiially 
stood between two fires : it had to face the Ijomanista on 
one ade, the Puritans on the other, and hotli parttee. in 
attacking tho Church, cnmo into collision with tlio xoelen- 
astii-al Hupmniuey. But Qm forcM iiith whiuh thtMu two 
attacks woro combated were eeaentially dissimilar. Pwiia- 
ment was eager to support the crown in its straggle wit 
Rome, and nvithor Elizabeth DOT Jaoiaa I found any diffirrult; 

Tkf Et(Usias£ieal Supremacy. xxxiii 

' ]iBSisding tlut body to pan acts of fxcoaajro si>v«rily 
Jtwuita Mill poi>j»h rocuaanta. Tke penalti(« and 
i H w Ji ilitScai imptMMl uputi ItoinanictJi wnro therefore, in th« 
khv direct result of pari tamvn tan- It^vilatidii. itnil had 
tba •Utnt*-Uw been etrictly exmutt^, a PapUt could liAixlly 
vrr- rrniaitii'd in th" couiitiy. 
But the crowu could uot ploov vijua] relLOnco on Parlijuu»nC 
in its ctniggU witli Puntanbm. As tfa» princJpltM cif Uin 
Brfwuialion gsinvd ground, its more advanced and activd 
aJbMUita nnltirally niodi' lli«ir infliii.-nro fv>tt in Ihf r«pi«- 
■entatiTc aavinUy. Befura Iour it Ixwiimn not only ini> 
poanbI« to le^lat« against PuritanUui, but difficult to 
|fftT«nt l^ignbtion in its favour. Tho attitude of PaTUain«nt 
Rtftdad tliiv gptMiral fi^vlin;! of Ihn country. Justices <iS the 
! aixl other lay oSieialis whtlo rr«dy ctnough to p<inocut« 
Pipisb rwnuant. w«r« iliuncltu«d to put forth th« vigour of 
I law. oT<tn wher« it couM be applied, ajinuust Proteetantft. 
Som, howitvrr niix^^iilL-d and ronlontiouiL th«7 werv 
botmd, DB ihf wholi*. to rAganl an friondek OinmtqiK^titly 
Um campaign against the Pn>t(«tant non-conformists waa Ivfl 
to be Arricd on by the bishops, the ecclMtastkal oourte, and 
) dw fa al alEciaU 
t TUa dnubis cunflict is the central fiiet of thn period under 
tiut before we are in a poaltion to Imou ilit history, 
mosl coniiidpr. tint, what powers were involved in the 
wl aaia»li '3al aiipn-niai^y now recoguizod by statute as be- 
lotqiti^ lu the crown ; secondly, what oti^im wnrr tjiken to 
gTMter detiimt«iieas to ttte general regulutionii laid down 
Um Act of Uniformity concerning the doctrine and 
it of tJM Church : and lastly, what special 
tx waa cr«al«d to cany thtto Delation* into efff«t. 

(a) The EcAsia^kal Svpremaey. 

•edtfalaatlcal supnmiacy of tlio crown implied the 
' wiafiatfon and the correction of abiui's, with a control 
eeclaaiastical logialatioo and taxation which waa In 



som^ oxtcnt shiuvd with I'arliftment, and a control O' 
appoititoK-nU tn hi^li oflirns in th« Church uid war 
cburch-GOurU which wiut not dmilnrly limitcxl. 

Th« K«neral rixht of PariiaiHcnt to legislate f«r tfac Ch 
SQbjwt, as in other departments of legislation, to Uie 
avwnt, tvas no ntnr nialtcr. Tlio right wu rvpMttedlv 
i>xor>;iMod bolJi bi-font and during lh« Tudor period. Wi 
regard to Churcli Rovemnient. the povrers of Parlijune 
were, a(t«r the Reformation, limited only Uy thooriM 
eoniing th« rvIation« of Chnrcli and Stjitu, l>ut in 
dirfinilion of doctrino th« Act of Suptvniacy itself 
a limitation, and ($ 20) expressly ras^ved the right of thi 
clergy' to aaseut. Thi« right vnu upheld by t^linibelfa on 
mom than ono cwciwion, though prcil«t>ly only with n vii 
to tho niiuntoiuuico of h<-r oivn influi-ncv. In isjz 
ifvi'n DXtvndud it M far aa to prohibit tb? introduction 
eccleaiaetical bilU iinloes thn ■anetion of thf bi^ope h 
been proviousiy obtained ip. \io). Apart from this xtatuto' 
limitation, thu power of Parliament to iaitiatv t>cc|p.->iiisli< 
logi'dalion was closely re«lrict«<I by the royal will. Elitab 
li^;arded any unniithoriiud nttemptn in this direction as 
inTaaiona of tht^ i-foli-AiuMtii-'ul mpn.'nincy, and on mnrv than 
ona occasion, notably in i.'iQ} (p. 11$), nippidd thi-ni in t 
bud. She was not unwilling to ivoeive petitions on 
Bubject. but plutnly infurniod Parliament (pp. 309, aio) 
it« int<-rfiii'<!nw. unless rM|ui--Ht<Hl, wah Rn|i«rfluou«. 
polic)' was maintained by Jamea to the best of liu pownr. 

Convocation, the li^tiKlatiTo assembly of the Church, lat 
two divis)ODf^ in tlio provincoa of Canterliury and Yorl. 
met on n'ontrinif a auimnona from thu cn>wn, drawn np in 
ancionl form (p. iq«), and its attio^ were i-oinciih-nt with 
thoae of Parliament. In accordance with fhe siihmission 
tj» clergy (15.^*) ""1 ••"> Act of 1534 (23 Uen. VUL 19 
nirivcd by the Act of Supremacy, ito canonx wore onl; 
valid on receiving thn mrni assent. This right of veto 
distinctly nmirvvd in the royal liconce to meet and confer 
(pw 41}). £veD the subjects of dlscuaaion wsn indicatod by 

m ~ 


The Ectlesiasiical Supremacy. 



tW cTQwn (^ 419V Uanf of Ui« canons fMisftcd by Convo- 
tatioa in KJiabaitli'A reign w<'re lion«st att^mpU to remMlr 
•IwMN in UiH Church : nthcrx .tiiiKsI nt thn mHinU'nanr^ of 
UufonuUy amuii;; miuialfra. Bucb iit« th« cununii of 1571, 
1595, *fui ISC); (pp^ 200, i32, >j6), but of Utt«« only tbn 
btt R«MTed tbf- full nanction of the crown. So long aa th« 
dK^ c<infim-i1 their h-^fi'lulion to thcmwlvns, I'ni'linmi>nt 
4a«N nvt AfifMtirlu barv niiule any t'lTart tudaitn (■onltol. and 
ncli a cUim would probably have b^>n disregarded in thv 
days of Klitttielb. But when, in i6o(. Convocation drew up 
acmi« of acclwittrtical law Ip, 444) which roroived the mysl 
iatiri;t)Dn, and whidi auionf^ othttr .'iwecjiiuK cnactmunlH, 
uniier tli« ban of «xconuiiiuiicattoo all peraoos, 
er by or spiritual, who should quration th« orthodoxy 
Pmyrr Book nnd (he Thiriy-nini' ArticliB*, it MMood 
> lime tu intcrft're. In tliv stwiiun of 1606 a bill WW 
infa^ocMl to inralidatv all canons affeding the Uf«, liberty. 
or property of laymen, which had not received tlk« assent of 
ParliaiDMit. Tba Hll wa*, howovor, lost in th« Upp^r 
Hoav. aii'l Convocation reiuaiiied legally aubji-cl to royal 
anlliiirity alouA. Tbe temporal judgt« have, nevertlielraa, ^ 
dwvya r«fUG«d tn recognite canons affecting Ujrmen, unlem [ 
IkfyliAT^ ncdvtd pnrltnnicnlary nnctton. 

Tbe rn^Iar Mchvinnticikl ri'Vcnuv of tlio crown wax do- 
rin*! from the finrtrfruita and tenths, which bad Ixi-n tran»- 
ferred to it in 1534 (36 lien. VUl. 3). and, having be«n 
■tnsndered by Uaiy, w«r« nstofed to Elizabeth in i.^^sv 
i\ Thi« fwviMiiH', mnninting nf the first yo(ir'« 
' nn pruinotion ti> a iM-ueficc, uiil a tt-'utli of the yearly 
of all i>eu«firMi abuvtt a certain vuluo. was calculated, 
the r«gn of Jamm t. as amounting to about £15,000 
£)ctRK>rdinnry lax««. mllod subsidioi!, were voted 
Conviicntion whi-n rc<)iiirifl. In miikin;; this grant, 
iQ followed thv lead of ParliaWejit (bx.- bolow, 
bxxii\ that is, when the laity voImI onoormoio aubftidloK, 
Dsaally fb«it not alwaj'a) voted a similar nutubor. 
^raricd tioia 4^ to Aj. in tba pound, with romiaaiao 
e a 



d as 

«n ftccouDt of tho Knnun] tenth AtxA a limit of income 
which no tax wiui «xiictoil. Tha pnyment* warn lua, 
epruvd over s tvrm of ytmra. The uvhhiahops and biBhopH, 
or, if thp see were vacaat, the deu) And chapter acted as 
collectors in their own dioc««M. Th<' grwit »o ni;tdo 
•mlxMlied in a 9«pnrnta slalut* («. g. S Fliz. 2% p. 54) w 
reco^in'O pnrliam«ntary coutrol over taxation and i-nahl 
Ui« crown to exercise legal compulsion in the coUcctiun 
the tax. Occasionally (e.^. in 1587, p, tyf) Convocation 
voted a bonevolcnoo in n<l<Iiti<in to tbi> mibMdjr. whit^h 
quM'n (p. 138) authoriic«d Uio hUliopa and otfaent to <.'oUi 
in whatever way should be determined by themselveB. 
some oocaaiooa. vrhen a benovoletico was demanded {», 
l6zi, p>p. 3S9. 360)1 UiobadiOtw fixed the proportion to 
^ven, and wnttc letters for its coUoctioo. For mili: 
puipeauH the clerical contributions wt're lixed at tlie 
proportions as (ho«e usual in the com of the laity («ee below, 
§ VI, Anny and Navy). 

TIte control which tJie Pope hnd long exercised, in apite 
of the Statutes of i^risore. over eccleeiastica) nppointmeuts. 
waa swept away by the Reformation. An Act of 153 
(as Hen. VIII. 10) made the crown virtually supn-me, 
establishing, or mlhw rtstoring. the system known aa that 
the coMjie dVIirr. Edward VI Mib«titiitrd (1 Ed. VI. >) f< 
this pmcrMt till' dirfv't a)>poiiilin<-nt by K-tti'rN piitroit, but 
the Act of Supremacy ■$ 3) revived the earlier method. Ita 
Htieo ia exemplified by the dooimieata printed on pp. 341— 
144. It msultud in the eompleta ■ubnrdiiuklion of the 
higher <^l<ii>n' to the crown, and a(tvuc,-tlii.'iit.-d th>- influvnce 
wbicb Die monarchy nat^irally exercised over the UoaM of 
Lord*. It ahould be roaienibered that in the reign of 
^ Elixabeth the spiriltial peere numboivd nearly a third of the 
upper houne- 

Thi' judicial aubordtnatioii of the clergy depends, on thi 
one band, on the d^rmw of their aubjectioo to the tempoi 
court*, and. on the other, on the control oxer eii Mwl by ll 
crown over the spiritual courts. The judicial inuQunitii« 



The Eteltsiastital Suprcnuuy. xxx\'ii 

defgj; limited by a statute of 1489 (4 [I<>n. ^HL 13), 
I farther ctirloilv)! by iwTnral Acts of Honry YIU'm n-ittn. 
DarinK tbo poriiMl uoder r«vi«w, buni-fit of clor^ w»» iakfrji 
•my from vuious cUases of offenden. e.g. by the 8Utut«« 
8 du. (. tH Elix. 7. and i Joe L S, whilo msny olhvr 
■et* conlunod clBu»m pmliibiting itji un*. But il rumauiod 
be two c«nturie« Iuukit « ivyal pl»u in casui uot B)N>ciaUy 
amfrtcd. and wbb uot liually abolished till 1817. It may 
be mMitionml in lhi» connexion that the pririlego of 
Miiilimr limilcni or rogulatvd by M^vvml ntatutwt p*Macd 
aader Uuiry VJil, vru doiw away with iu 1624 (ai ft 32 
ime. L 38\. 

Tb« jnmdiction of tho episeopal and other ordinaiy 
wrliwi—tifl coort* wan nMrvod not only by tho Act of 
Datfonuity (§S 4, tiV but also by other statutes (e.g. i.i EUz. ^ 
tt. ^ t), ThoMt court* took co^ixancn of ti'mporul lut wvll 
isafilritual cauaea and ufftucu, of maCriinooial and (estamitn- 
laCT cases, of peirjury and saicrUege, aa well as hereey and 
imDoralily. Th«tr sanctions consisted of c«Dmir9 and 
•xeemmuBieatioR. the lattir Ix-ini; f<ill{iwi'd by imprLwiti- 
BMit at the hands of thu tvinpural aiilhuntitH and by civil 
AabUitiw of a serious nature. In cases of heresy, the 
fofKhnniutiof] of the church courts might entail the penally 
rf J—th, a pL'onlty owasiunidty inflivl^rd during thin ]i4iri«d ; 
but Ibis and other <»Tporal |>imisbiiients eould only bt? 
Maeuted by the aid of the temp«nl power. The writs 
by Ihn occleMiastiva] courts did not ran in the king's 
for thtf utatute of 1547 1 1 Ed. VI. i), wliich oiiactL-d 
that they should do so, was re|)v«led by Maty aud not re- 
rirvd by P.]i»ibclh '. But from thnMi cuurt-t there lay ao 
appeal to a tnljunal ovi-r which th« Church bad no control. I 
whil(- their ordinary jurisdiction was, until iti4t, to a certain 
«gtteat Bapaned«d, or at least eoncurrently numiaMl, hy tlis 
. Conimlwloa. 

Tbv Mi|«eiue appellate jurisdiction of the crown in eccK^ 

Aa i^^Bina nimn b]r tti« JuaJSin Id i6}7 may be coiuliltTed tn 



Biastical matters was «xems«d through a coiiK contnionl] 
wIImI tlip High Cqm^ nf piilnytao. This tribunal wa 
nrijfiiiAlly <--»UblUhcHl in 1534, iind«r the statute 35 11* 
VIII. 19, to taJie orer the jurisdiction of wliicli thnt Kt 
deprived the Court of Romo. It vriw ubc-lishn! l)y 5I«rT,1 
but reviv»d by Elizabeth (i Elis. 1. f a^ uid theoceforwanl 
oontitiuM to iitt unliJ, in 1833. ita powers were transferrad 
to the*^ ixticial Committt^ of Ui« Privy CouDciL It heard 
bppinhi fniin the liiKhrr i>4:cl(!aiaattcal courts, exclusive of the 
High CommisajoQ, on application to tile king in Chanovry '. 
Ita composition and its sittings wnro ii-rugular, for 
iu('[nb<'ni w^rc <iiil}' nuiiiiiintaid fur each oecsaiun as it 
mid ■Ithtiiigh it diiwluiistN) uaeful functions during a 
of nearly tbree centuriefl, it did not pcam» much political or 
«^istitu(ional ngnificanoe. 

of the 
'or it^ 


' al or 

(b) DeftniVmn of Doctrine and lUlnaL 
Tho nationid nOigign and thn rulwi fur tho conJuet 
public wurahip were fixtn] in the Act of Uniformity, bj, 
reference to an authoritative formula, llut. to avoid du 
pul(H, more exactitude in both respwjl* wius n<«<^«ary, fi 
the PniycrltixiL Icflnut a fow points uiictrluin. Tho furthi 
definition uf doctrine was aooonipUahed in the Thirty-ot 
Articles of Religion, based on those of Edward VI, bi 
promulgated with more attention to lognlily. They 
difecuaaixl and acct*pt«d by Convocation in 1361, hut liad 
wait nine years before th«7 received pnrlianicnlary r\-uo] 
I tion. An Act of 1571 (13 Eiix. ■>) iiupiwd subacriptiun 
(tuL*h uf tliv-Hu urtich-s an ' eunvuni lh« coufcAsion uf tbv ti-uu 
Chmtiaa faith and the doctrine of the sacmmeats ' on aJl 
ministers ordained according to any ritual othor than that 
mirlionod niid«r Edward VI or EUzabnLb, and un all tl. 
before admission to a bdieAco with cure of bouU. jUI 
didatoa for holy oid«n were 'to profess the du(-trin« 
umbodiipd in LbMe aiticlea, and any beneficed clorgj- 

' Bupoit uf Uw BtcUsbstleal Coajta Otrnmlsiinp HU$i], Pmt III. 

DtfinUioH of Doctrine and Ritual. xxxJx 

Uaelxins eontmr)- doctrines might bo deprived. Tlw articles 
•D f nf*inptd hftTv orcr mw^ baoo rocognizvd nx (Containing 
'the true doctrine oi thu Cliurcli of Engluid ii^nrojiblti to 
God's won).' Th« socAllod Lambeth Arlicl<«, i<iauMl by 
iflgift And otlivn in 1395 (p. 216), however interesting 
•htfwtng tb« Iviidvney to Calvintsin tvbich at lliat timo 
even among tbo leading divines of tbv Church, 
no sathority and produced no modiliration in the 
Mtfam*! prrifntiion of b«Ii«f. 

With rvgani to public worship, thw quwn'a proclamaUoa 
■NMtl in 1558 (p^ >'ij) merely laid down certain general 
(ntrietire regulatiotu. Fuller instructions totiching rights 
cscmionicK, pivAcking. vtirfmnntit, and tlte dtiliwt of 
in gvntiral, worv fpveu in tfa» Iitjunctioos of 1559 
184). This ordinance is of a somewhat heterogouMus 
and coDbtins among other thing* a grudging 
rwoenttton of the nuuriago of tho clvrgy : but clerical 
mamatits w«r> uol IrffuliMfd by ntAtutv till 1604 (l Jao. J. 
»Sli A few yeara after the appearance of the Injunction*, 
ArcfatHabof) Parker issued his Advert iecmfinta (p. 191), 
4 MriBS of •upplvmcntary ordm inti-mtrHl to |)i-<»duc<i gn-alcr 
nniformity in doctrui<> and ciTanionud. Being set forth 
■rilh the saactlou of the biafaops wlio were on the Uigb 
CoauniKioD. they might claim to be based, if only in- 
£r«rtly, oa th« royal authority. Thi'ir pr'>%-iaiona, ao br 
at Imrt aa ttncemcd thv ordtnaiion of ministers and their 
lit«oe« tu discharge ecchsiastical fuadiona, were rendered 
stringent by Wbitgift. who ifisued bLs Articles (p. m) 
1 1583. Cnder thisedict.eTery minister was i>blig<?d not only 
Iho Prayvr-Book and to imbMcribo to tbv Thirty-uiiie 
Hm, but abo lo d«eUre hia bolivf tliat the whole of the 
Kjref-Book and all the Articles, without eiceptioiu w«re 
iKeotdance with tlio word of (Sod. Thivu' regiilatioDS 
, demand* upon the Puritan consrituico whicli «ic«ieded 
limit* fix«d by the queen or by Parliament. Whltfpll; 
mi^t have pleaded that they did not. in res)>ect 
!&• Thirty-oine Artidea, go beyond Ibo canon of i5T> 



(|i. aoi); but if thia canon, which is »oni«wh«a v«|pi«Is 
ivoHmI, ifl to bo taken as imuxting on MiNtcriplion to oil 
Article, it ilocs not «|>]>uar to have boon eirictlr «nfor 
till WhJtpflH ilav. Th« opposition proToked liy tlH> wvh- 
bUhoji's regulations and hU uncvrnpromising vtTorU to «ii^ 
force their ob»<rr%'«n<Hi brought maxrf ttouble« Upon 
Church «nd upon the oouDtr; at laigei 

(c) Tie Uigh CimmisfioH. 

The special machin«ry cmttod for tho maJntananoe of 
ecclesia« siipranavy aii'l of thr doctrintfl an^ regulatii 
dowribinl ii)>ovc, conaistod in the Court of Uigh Commtmioi 
or, 06 wa ought rather to call it. thv gn>u]> of courts k«ld 
bv virtue of roynl rpminiwiioiiii iHciued under the Act 
Supremury. It tn not tou tuuch tu aay that these OOi 
worn amon^ the most efhcient oaiiwe of the quarrel betwwn 
the monarchy and the nation, which viilminaled iu tlw 
rebellion of 1641, Tho iniditutiou wn not iuunediatdy 
f«nni'ct"l with that rebt'lUon, for it had been swept a«-« 
in the previous year, but it was one of the chii'f miupcvs ■- 
that hostility lowards tho Church which uiitlcrlay 
whole ijuarrol, iind ntad« ■ recunciliation in 164a 


Heury Vill was empowered by statute (31 Hen. VIIL 14 
and 31 Uen. VIII. 15) to nominate commiMionem to imiiuir* 
into And punish honny, Buch commlasioue were actually 
vmavA by Edward VI and Uvy, but the Court of High 
Ooramiasiou in its pernian«at form datos from the first ye«r_ 
of the r^gn of Elinbetli. The iitH^cn and hur HucevMOi 
were empower«<d by the Act of Supremacy ($ 8) to uuminal 
oomniiMiionen who Kliould exurctse ecdeaiaatical juri 
diction undiT th« erowD, with power to correct and aoii 
all errors, abuses, aod offences 'which by any manner 
spiritual or ecclesiasticiU powar may lawfully ba uo: 
at ameDded.' Eltzubeth lost no lime in availing herself 
these powen. In July, 1559, she iaeued ■ 001 


Thf High Commissiott. 


zzi\ Ut Parku-, Arclil>i«hop nominnt^ of Canterbury, 
(UmUI, Bi&bo[> Doiiiinale of Lomluu. biiiI Mtvond-^n ulhrri, 

y Uynien. aiitliorizing th^m to m\ &s a )ii)^h (i«(.>k-> 
■■iilwTil court for thv whole kingdom. Six comniiseionpra 
ought act for th« whole body, but sevon pentoDa were 
Mnidd. of whom one must always be j>roM<Dl. Tbe lint 
4oty vt thf cainmisiioiiun w«» to maintain thw Acta of 
Sapremacy aod Uniformity, iumI wiilr gi^iivrnl jwwoni 
vera girvn th(?m for tliis purpoaa. Th«y were abo to 
poaiah dinturbon of public wonliip tioA absent««8 from 
chnrdi. lu HifipruM vagrants and qnarrvlwmo ppnmns in 
or oear Londoa, to rvimtUtn miriUtcrx cluprivis] uf llioir 
IniDKB oQ accoont of religion or marriage, and to <l«tl with 
tiinDurKltly and other ecclesiastical oSidocaOt Tbey wore 
aalhorized to vnqiiim inUi thf^te matters witb or without 
tb»»d of a jur>', ur by any other miiin.t that uij{hl appvar 
aipedvent They might eompvl attendance on mere tuatr- 
pietoo, cxBitiiDe any one. whether accused or witness, on 
Mil), and puni»h ofTomlnrs or ronturaacions pereons by fimt 
■e impri&onmeut. All tho most important powcw of the 
cmrt, iocludiug ilut uf udmiitiiituriaf: the oulh ' ex officio.' 
arr)« au fnutfiil ■ sourcie of complaint, appear in this 

wtrnmiarrion. 'niii cummimions that followed were 

or Imb doscly mudclbd upon it. 
Hone* yeart later, wht-n the vacant see* had been fdlwi 
■ IMTW commiasioD (p. 133) was issued, including two 
buhop*, and raising the whol« number of com- 

iitieftto«vvn. At th>^ xamo time thii niiiiijiiuni 
wm lt CT authorizMl to act wan reduced to three, and this 
Biannmn wa« henceforward retained. The powers of the 
««niDiw(i»0iii renuiined as before^ with two iidditionB, 
A alalntv of 1359 (1 EliJ^ 13, p. 36) had om|iow(-m(I th': 
^•Mo to make slalutea for oatliedral and collegiate cburcbex 
toA ■efaooU This power was now delegated ($ ■ 5) to the 
"■wmrTiii-wtm Th^ were also authoriied (§ 16) to «d- 
Duniatar -' '■'■ of mprvmary to all «c<:l<wiastics, a a^Mcial 

: s Imjiii^ namod fortbia ptirpoao. In IS7< 



moclifiDd hum time to time, it [>toc«e(b to sum up in 
long elHitftu ($ 3) tli<! }{iMirral powon to b« itxnrciitMl lij I 
uommisaionctra, iDcludiuj;; aevund uol txprtaniy gnotMl 
not 80 cleiiiy slated b«for«. Special iii«ntioD is made 
the powni^ of the oomtuisstonc^rs to examine ncciifwd p«>mon> 
upon iMitli und to niippruut * iintnwful convrntidim.* Thcnr 
are to puuiah Uie colvbntioii of tin.- niatit aniJ uimilar 
oSeoces. as well o» abuses in ecd«siasUcat judg«« or othn- 
officers of tho ^iritiiiil courta. Thny nm? furtlinr i-mjiovri'rwl 
($$ 3i '>> 19) ^ CiuTy out tJiu provixioiiH of th" Art» of I5t>5 
And 159} (i; ElUL >; 35 EUz. a) agunat popisli pne«ta 
and rocusants, to imprison ($ ti) permos who refuse to 
aosRor upon oath, and ($ tS) to seize chitdron iH^nt nvor-MMa 
to l>o (iiluoatvd in RonuiniMii, whiln tn rariouit other direc- 
tions Uii-ir authority is developod and expanded. On 
the other hand, two Umitatioos were introduced. Wo final 
sentrnfe was to be given without the assent of Rve or mora 
<;oninii>i.tti»i']r!t |§ 13), and a clauso ($ ^^) wa» adilwl aIIow< 
iog any porson aonteneed by the court tu inipplical« th' 
king for a oonimission of review. The provision for trial 
by jury, which liad not bwn put in pra«tiue for many yuars, 
was omitted. On the whole the new commission, while 
making sonio coaeemtons, must be regarded ne exp: 
a delilwratu rcjuetiun of the pnrlianivntary dumaniU. 

On tlie model thus laid down Ihu later commisaiona of 
James' reign were moulded. That of 1613 empowered ihw 
coniniiMKioncTs (p. 418) to cany out the Star-Chamber de- 
creet (p]i^ 168, 169) touching ihv CDnaoratiip of thn prtM^ 
and added three importaut clauses (pp-43i-4.lj) authorixiUK 
Ihem to hear complaints by wive« against their husbands, 
and to assign a nuuntenance to the former :it diacrotion, 
thmt ounfinning, in Hid (colli of a parluuitvntaiy rnmoa- 
strance (p. 305), a practice alniody established by the eouit^' 
Another commiseion, issued in into, follows exactly that 
i6i,|. JuuiiHt' hbtt tomniLvdon, iwuod in 1615, is idea ti' 
with the two immediat<r]y preceding, except iu the additi 
of ■ clausv (p. 43a) pro%'iding that, during the sessions 

The Hi^i Commission. 


^ t o Ui 
^^ anlc 

the eommiiwioti uliouli) li«i nxocnted by tlie 

in Coovoc&tSon. xaA bj- Uieui only. This clauno, niiich 

in worldog) d<>priv«d laymen of all share in Uw pro- 

nf tlw! court umI vru therefore lJk«ly to be very 

wa& dropped in tfao commbmiorui of Clurl«« I, 

batUw advandgu thus g«!ii<N] n'lw bnlafivdl 1^ th^ otnisNon 

«f the cbtuw proTidiDg f«r a commi«aion of iwiuni-. In 

«t)Mr reqw«ts Cbarl««' conunissions maybe said to approach 

iy tluui hi* iathor's to tlia Kliuibrthna model. 

AUIuKiKfa tb^ Miuuuiaaiooa uf Elizabi'th d<?scnl>(>d nbovo 

spoirerHi the conimtssiooeis to act throughout all England, 

3 muld a^em that thvir jurisdiction was pntctically couiined 

to th* prvrincv of Canlurhury. There i» (nidtmco to fJiotc 

during at all cvL-nts the greatcff put of Ibo period 

S59-1640 a northern Mmminion wm otting at York, 

^l>ubun. Ripoo, or vUnwhnro, and diocburgiag fnnctiotiB 

analagoua ta thoMt dtswliarKi'd by the sotitlii-rn cninniiwion 

at lAmbath, Fulham. Craydoa. or Cauterhun,'. Tho com- 

Tif~i"nT iMiwd to the Arcbhi»bop of York and hia collfagitvM 

an in aoma mcpoctn not quilv so oxtvnsiv* as thos« iaaued 

lur tb«: ■oatherii proTiMA— for instance, the power to make 

atatittesforeatbedrakandacbooU ia omitted — but, in rcjipf'ct 

ef the gsieial powers, the Voik commiaedona are pnuiticsUy 

Ueotical with tlioH of Canterbury. Simitar commiaaiona 

vwv oMnsioually ianied by Elizabeth to thti Archbishop of 

Anoagh and others fur the kingdom of IruUuid ; Wnlio, 

iMtng tncliid*fl in the province of CaDtorbur)'. did not 

gVMrslly iwjuiru a avjiaratv commiMion. The Welsh com- 

■wriun e( IS79 (l>- ^4)) >« peculiar in form, and wau 

profiably vXM-plional. During Iho mign of Jainca I. Ireland 

and W*lw« wvrt.- exprecely includiil in llio Cantvrimry eom- 

iBJarifWiB. and separate oommissiooa for thoae eouatnes do 

BoC q)f«n)ntiy, recur. 

Aikotiitir group of commissiooa consists of those issneil 
fnr nriotw diocosiui, its oocasion reijiiired. TIiomi dioc«aan 

EntMiufui are not infrequvnt during the reigu of Elixabcth 
tlw tally yearc of James I, but they appear to bavo 



rautod ufter Uin ycftr 1606, Kod in 161 e the fcin^ prom: 
lh«t Ibey aliuuli) uot be rcnowed. WliiJu Uii^ lutod, 
discharged dutic« idmiUr to thoae ordinarily diacbarged by 
th« prorinoiiil oommissiotiB, but their ar«ia <A jurisdiction 
w&» limilnd and thoir duration t«n)pomry. 

Th« ^ciitiicy »f tbi) lutein IhuH i-stubliihiil, nni) th» 
general neults proOuced, dopendod mainly ua Ih^ viiirs amJ 
chanoters of the archbisbopa and tbeir episeoii*) colleagues^ 
on whom fell almort all the burden of evrying the oom- 
□liwioti into t^fTont. Tlii> inKtitittion donx not n])p>«r to bar* 
b(«» dixUki-d nl Anit. So lung oa tb« eliief dangvr to 
Church canLe ftoni Rome, the energies of the oonunifAionci 
were maiuly exerted in thi« direction, and they coidd be 
active witbout bfcotning iin|Mipnlar. From mii-b rrcord»i 
thftir procoi'din^ tiA aro vxtant, it may 1m gatbtiri.'d 
a large ])aK of their work eonaisted in tlw comxtloD 
immor^ty, neglect of duty and other abuses among 
clerg;}', while soino attention wim paid to flajRrant casee of 
*ico anioiiK tbu buly. Activily in tlin formi-r din>ction waa 
likely to me«t with general approval, while in the luttr.r, if 
reaentcd by individuals, it could hardly be openly oppuaed. 
But wbun ibe canfli/rt btitwMn Anglicantum and I*iirit. 
bvcanut acute, and the conimittiioners U-giui to apply 
l«tge and »>mewhat indefinite powers to enfurre rellgloaa 
eonformity. tbey md with increasing resii^tAnco. The op^ 
sition caiiie not only from individual)!, who rtrfuMd to take 
Ui<- oHtb 'ex officio' and to submit to tb» miniito i<.xanii- 
nation which it entailed, but also fron] the Uw'Oo 
which iaaued prolubitian« against the fiiribor proceedi 
of the comni{>Biionen> or rclcttacd tbuir priaonem by tniMn: 
of writs of ' Uabeas Corpus ' I p, 407), The cases of Cawdref' 
(a Puritan minister) in 15X7, and of Ladd and Fuller (both 
laymen) in 1607, may bo nuiitioncd a» nllractin^ universal 
atluntiou and provoking injurious oonim(.-nt throughout the 
country. Eien t«rd Burghley told Whitgifl that hi 
proco<^lingx 'narouroil of thu Bomon Iniuiaitiou,' and tb 
«rcbbiabop*a retort, that the metliodB of the Star- Chamber 

aa v , 

I U 

! th^ 

ee of 

I was 
Utr-r, if 
ppuaed. J 

.1 !<.!.»— -^ 



The Penal Laws. 


no bettn*, wss but a poor deffue^. Tin.' gnMt lawyer 
ta eondemnvd tho proceedings of Ui» Uigb ComnuaKion 
OB strictly logml gTXHitid^ and his arguments (p. 404) supplied 
Uw> Ltmg Pari tain Dtit with runnal nuisoiu for atiolixhing it 
ta 1641. But Oxf. KnaooA stated in th« act of uhulition 
mvsm out thtMo ivhich moved Iho nation at lar^^e. Tha ] 
iMtftuttnn <K*» )(rnarally contluinniH), not m much I>ecauso it 
wiB t)Wg«L aa beeauso it axercifti'd a tyrannical control oror j 
the freeilom at religious belief and practice. 

(d) Th< Pmal lAi«» and the Komanitts. 

Tlio conflict with Rom«. in tta origin bistoriodly prioi- 
■ that of thn conflict with PuritimiKm, in naturally the first 
I km eomudoft!*!. The Act of Supromacy, while i\-pudiatiux 
ii no iloubtful language Uie Papal authority, was not. 
mIIhv in the nature of its provisions or in rt^rd to the 
i\mr ot panann whom it dimclly afTut^t^Ml, a Hwimping or 
aical act. In the face of foreign complications ajid 
r uncertainty. Elizabeth was obliged at first to proceed 
cantioo- She hesitated to challenge the Pope and the 
Sntg of Spain !» mortal comhul until she was tare of 
nHrw' support, while Ibey on their side were not without 
imfoi of a ni«on«iliation. But within a few years of her 
■maarin the guard«>d and tentative aftitudo of the Queen 
■ w»y to a more dv.'iiktl poUey. lU-nco tho Act of 1363 
BiJL I, p. 39), by which the proviuoits of the Act of 
were extended and its penalties rendered more 
8overal claasm of persons, including ni«nib)>ni oT 
■ nf Ctimmtinit, hitherto cit-mptr-d, wure now coin- 
pdlad tm take the oath of Mipremacy, and a «econd n-fusal 
waa to be puniahed aa high treason. About the year 1569, 
tlK csooBiet eutecvd on a more acute stags. Mary. Queen of 
SmCk, nn DOW in Kiigland, and the robrllion of tho Nurth<^i 
Enla, oorolfinal with the Rtdolfl plot, brouglit to light th« 
ilMlim to which her presence gave rise. The issue of the 
Bon (p. i9S)k id which Pius V oxcommuoieated and dcpoa«d 



th« quwn, jiiMili«d strong metuuree of r«tAliation. In i^ 
^ Pkrliamoiit paaeed ivto AoU (13 F.lix- 1 and >), thip unu fog 
firnuDg th« qu^n's UU« aod lullictinf; tliv (waalty of 
treason on any onv who should fttt«[Qpt todeprive her of it, 1 
other forhidiling under simiUr penaltiM the introductioD 
hulls fniin Ruitiu or tin; a(i!totulinn of itny of tli« qurrn'i 
iiu1>joct8 from tb«ir due aUetfianoe. The eunibinMi wfTiMt > 
the Papal bull and th«ee sUtulee was to render tbe quarrd 
irrecpncilalile- It was hencnforward impo^ble for nn] 
vno to hvi at oiu-t' a K<»h1 Roman Cnlltolic and a §io(id .tiib^ 
Next year tlie tfiol (pl 138) and oxet-uliun of the Dukv 
Noffolk and the Earl of Northumberlaad showed tltat 
government intended to keep Its word, and forasbado 
tlic fni<! in Ktore for thoir royal confixK-mte. Korfnlk liad 
hardly Imwu dead Ivro months wlii-n thu nia-isarrv ■>£ 
&t Butholoioew filled tlie Protestaot world with mingle 
fury and terror. The Parliament of 1573 followed up th 
blows dealt by it* prodeoeivwii^ with two Acts (I4 Rlil 
I and i\ fXli-ndiiiK the ]>i'nalti<93 of treason (o any onv wli^ 
should conspire to seize any of the queen's ahipe or for 
or to set at liberty political prisoners— a provision clearlj 
aimed at Vary and h«r nocompliceit. Op«<n war woh nc 
nginfc butwiHUi thti two rclJKiontf tn France and in 
Ketheriaods : the conflagration might at any time spread ' 
this country. 

Tlin vigilaiiMi of tha Kof^nimcnt wa» more eevorcly trie 
than uvlt before, when, about Ihc Y(«r I57>;, llii: Jintuit 
entered actively into the fray, llieir nmchinatioaa runultv^ 
in the temporary predominuice of the Bonumist and Uj 
party in SootJsnd, anil in Uin gr<'at reb<'lli'>n of Desmooc 
Ireland. Tho miftsiun of Campiau and PunMinit to tl 
oounliy was Ixtlieved to be coiuiectMl wUh a series 
plots, the object of which was to giv« practical effect to tbj 
Papal bull at the expRtMO of the qi)ni.>n's lifch To m««t thia 
nvw atlark. Parliaitii-nt adeptul fmh mtiosuraa of defenc 
By an Act of 1581 (13 Eliz. ■) the mera attxintpt to eonrt 
any of the queens subj«cts to Kommnism Wis m«de a ' 

The Penal Laws. 


tb« ujnng or h«iiring of maas was foH>i()d«>n 

j)«iuULi(it, «ni) u fino of £10 a montli was 

im pOMiJ on ncuiuint*. Tills statute naa su)«u|tK'ntl)' 

MMnded by an Act of 1387 (>8 & 39 £liz. 6X wlitdi 

tb« crown, in debult of tlie fiov. to toko two-thirds 

Um ivroporty of the ofF«nd«r. By another Act of tb« year 

]L\iz. t), tbii utt<iran<-r> of iwditious words was to W 

by inatilaliun aiiO Iiikv wliilo any ono pubtialiing 

t wdttiaQ» book, pruphfuyiiig tfaa qaiMn*a death, or for^ 

rwting tbo luunc of hor succi^Hnor, wiu to Miffer d«ath as 

• filiaa'. Th« murder of Williaoi thu Silent in 1384, und 

tWdiacovor^' of PiirryX plot in Febnisn-, 15S5. iuti-ivifiiNJ 

t^ Ceflliiif which had almady found oxpreceion in tbv 

Bkdooal aasociattou for Urn protoction of thr qu«on. The 

P>rliuB«nt of ifiS.-; legaliMd (>; EIue. i) tliiit association. 

praridaij for a Council of Kegeory in the case of thv tiui-vd'a 

BBinW. «iul itichidnl from th<> socceaeion any one in whose 

ialBTMt the tli-Hl mi^ht bv dona. By another Act (17 P^liz, >) 

all JoGuits and siiinin&ry priests wuru hHnishod from the 

CoVBtry on jmin of dvath. The mainti^uance of wiy wieh 

fiou WAH inadn ftJony, and any English subji'cl th^a 

b«Hf cdtMislcd ahroad at a Jesuit school, who should not 

retam and take the oath of Ktiprcmaoy within « ^leoified 

to lie held (cutlty of high trvaMun. 

It isiglit have W-u vxpt-cted that moasurvs so Hvrfoping 

^jpA pwultin so tr«meodoufl as these woidd hav« rendered 

^^B* <]oiMi and Mw Rofomiation settlement secure. Dut 

^HpiUngtaa'a plul tdiowi^I lluil no long im Mary livoil, niL-n 

^Broold be found r«ady lo risk Ihi/ir own lives in the attempt 

ta daa tr o y the heretic who barred the way to the sucocwion 

of tike Fapnt quc«n and th« doniinaiico of Rome. Tbo 

•foaet)* adviwru wore uiun titan ever convinced that in 

ttte dMiU) of Maij- lay their only hope of safety, asd yet 

'% ilMth meant open war with Spuin. In tiia faoa 

kt InrilfU a ri»k~a ritk whifh Eliubvtfa eYer stiicw 

_' hr tb (BHVjiMtatioa put opoji this Aot. •» Uil>U*a trial (p. 443;. 




boTMOMtiott luul luwn schilling to Kvoid — It wkk no woiidd 
that 8h« hesitated long. At l«»Klb, however, abe gai 
warto the |>re«sui«of th« CouDci). the ParliuDPDt ip. loyl 
uid tli« bulk of th<> tuitioQ. and Mvy w«» tri<-d and 
eiitiKl iitulcr thu Act of 1585 (p> 141). A y<«r •ftt-'f 
eieeution ouuo the greul vriHU ol the reigri. Tbo Spaoiah 
invsaioD was successfully withstood, but Parliament did 
not relax ita efforts. Th^ danger from abroad ha<] for lh» 
pn^'nt {MMmd away, bnt tho enttn)' within tbi> liuid, thoiixh 
gmtl; weakoned, waa still formiilalilv. jVu Act of the 
JMT 1593 coiDplet«« Iba tale of EUzalieth*8 peoal iawa. 
Tlw fitst statute of the year {35 Kliz. 1) was primarily 
aimad agaiost Prot«etAnt F^rtarins. bnt the sooond {35 
Elia. a) waa oxpr^^wly dirvetod ngainxt Popish rvcu«anlji. 
Suvh pontona worti lirnoi-fonirard forbtddtm to traT«l mar* 
than fire miles from their homes, and the poorer cliaa«a 
of <^fend«n wero banished from the raalm, while any ma 
BUsp»et«d of bring a Jc«uit or wminary prinsit, and 
to answ«^ to the cliargn, could be imprisoned till h« wc 
Bubout to examination. 

The gradually increasing s«T«rity of th«aa law« aeoms 
ahow that during Etizabdirit lifrtiniM lh>- fvura uf tl; 
Protctitanl majority gr*>w with tlio diniimshing uuml 
of their oppon«nta. Nor is there anything unreosoc 
in this, for as the chances of a general rising dwindle 
the fnniitical minority were drivon into yot mor« d«tp 
counua, and ^vru led to altvmpt by murder what th< 
could not hope to gain by open rebellion. The aafel 
of the country hung upon a single life, and any m« 
tending to the jirolongation of that life accmi-d juMifiuI>l| 
But when by Uio i?xocution of Mary tht- safity of It 
Protealant sneeusaion WM aucttrcd, when the defeat of 
Armada had relieved the country from the fear of Spanis 
invasioa, and slill more when the crown hod peacofully 
daaetindod to th« Protnrtant hrar, thn continuance of aucb 
•ererity may wi-ll liavo ap|M-and uuncmvHary anil tbertJo 
impolitic King James began hia reign with a genti 

The Penal Laws. 


to nlicT* his RonMuist 8u1>3i-ct» of nt lo»i some 
of the intolerable uf>]>rtisftioo fmni whicb tliojr 
(.asfftmL In his first spe««-h tu ParliomeDt <p. ]8j) li» 
oul bopnt of a comproniiMi, and, so hr as in him lay, 
kmI tiiD atrvttrity uf Uiu Uwa. ParluuuMit, it in tru«^ 
by bo nitiaua willing to see iU legUlativ^ work undonn 
by the dt«p«[uing pow«<r. and pamed an Act (■ Jm, I. 4) 
nfinnin); lhi> potiJil ihti>tiit«« of tb» previous ragn. Still 
rzacuUon of thii luw-t d«peiidMl on tlio crown, and 
would probably have received unpt««udciiitMd ox- 
bad not the Gunpowder I'lot rudoly stattlfd thv 
tiaf from hia nttittidn of tolomnt corapo«un> and driven 
tW PuiiatDeiit to lalu) lUoiuumK 111 some re«p«!«b( more 
Ttalrtit Utto any UiaI bad hitherto bora adopted. Tbti 
ItWB of Eloaheth excluded the con^-ientious Romnnist from 
and llie l'iiivondtio», an well as I'mm tli>< cxiii- 
liooal and hiKal profvsdiuns ; tlivy forbade Uie exurcian 
hia rvlipoQ and bani^ed his mioistera from the realm. 
> lam of Jamos w«nt further .- they not only beiglilene«i 
&« penalties and mtdtiplied the public iIiKiii>ilili«>i under 
wlddi Popish recusants lay, but tliuy iii(crt'i:md with the 
r«latioB« of dommtio and privat« lifo. 

An Act uf tlte year 1606 (364 •'ac. L 4) obliged th« 
pofiiih ren»ant, under heavy penalties, not merely to 
•Uvnd rhmrli, but to rcAiive the aacnuiient yuiu'ly nocordiiig 
In Ibv Anglican ritv. It enabled the king to seizv two- 
liurdA of the ofTvnder's Uuids. not only (as uiidur iht^ Act 
itf •S*'?) >n dirfiiult of tba pecuiiiar>' fine, but whenever 
b* anr 6t to do so. It impoaed a new oath, more sliingruit 
tlian thai «f Sapvemacy. known m thft Mtb-o f tUfyia nce, 
amJ it r«adered liable to th« iwnaltuw of praemunire, that 
■L to outlawry and furfeitutv, any recusaut who should 
twiiw Twfuae thia oath. It extended tbi' iitmijdimont of 
4nTh for ctmvefsion to Ilonunixm, already iiupuued on 
d» •X'tct, to tbo convert himaelf. Anotlier Act of the 
eion (i & 4 Jac. I. 5I, intended to facilitate the 
^Ikia of those Lawa, offered a Urge bribe to any who 



sots of L 



should disclose Uii; uanim of recusants or otliM- offendvi 
It banished recusaota bom court, nnd, exr«pt under b\ 
conditions from the city of LondoD. It i)«l'iiiT(<d tl 
fruni tho Irpil luid inp«lic4il jiroftwtuoiu, from |k>sLi in I 
anny and thi< niivy. and fn>m tlie lower publiu otfieeo. 
inflicc«d severe |>enaliies on the Konkanist wile of bl Pro- 
testant husband, and punished marriage. Wplisni. or burial 
iwrformod by other rites than tho«>> of \hi-- Y.agWA ehurth. 
It bAuded oror tbo inhoritanoo of rccuxanlA ei)uuat«d abroad 
to the Proti-fcljint next of kin. It deprived recusants of 
their ecclesiastical patronage, it debarred them from 
m tniktrvK or guardianis it riolntcl tho very priracy 
their dwelling by aulboriung the justices of thu 
to wftavh tbent fur Popish books and relics, and it took 
away from tliem all amis beyond the minimum reajaiai' 
for self-defence. Finally, lUi Act of i6io {; A 8 Jac 1. 1)' 
extended thu pravisioRS of tliv Act of )6oA. The oath 
allegiance was now made incumWnt not only upon rec 
anti) but upon all perwns of whatsoever nuik or deAcnptioii. 
undttr llid penally of oicluNinn from pWuii t>f Iniat and 
from all the Ubvisl profuHsJona, wlule the hustiaud uf a rv 
cusant was subjected to the alternative of paying a heavy 
Ann or of seeing hi* wife torn from him and imprisoned 
till alio xhdiitd cunform. 

However «0){er in the cause of peraeciilion the ({ovi 
ment might have been, the inherent difficulty of put 
into action a ooorcivn and inqtiiiiitoriul *ysl«-in of mi 
uiiiiiiteni'!!!! nud univcmalit^' would havo rendi-rfd it p. 
tically impossible t<^ cany out the law. No doubt th 
merely physical obstacles had much to do with the slackness 
pf the administration, but its cncrxtoa wore Ixtnumhed by 
moral njluctance, uriMiig fn>ui various ototivtis of forriifta 
and doiiKwlic policy, ainl from the personal disincliiiHtioi 
of the king. Hence a constant Miurre of friction whie. 
hompeivd the relations of mown and Purlianient through 
the n-iKii- Thi* f«'nr of i'»«'saive ifiiily, amuimling t' 
a practical oui^-udioa uf the laws, called forth thv at 

The Church and the Puritans. 


expraaaion of o]>im«n (p. 190) touching t]i« UmitAltAii 
of royal power which is to be iom\A iu that remarkahle 
dociim^'Dt. th<L> Apology of 1 604. The laxity of govemnient 
ia this rwipoet'Tiomls (ho lint of roligioiin gripvancc* in the 
petition of 1610 (p. 300), ati<l it is <lwclt upon ut h>iij(th 
in tho first petition of itiai (p. 307), The complkjitionB 
of Jnme^' diplomacy in the latter year neceasilated a policy 
of tol<>niti'>n which roiiwxl tUl tlio old nnxi«tiw< of I'arliA- 
ment, and llio purhintdico of Uint hody in ita demands 
(p. 311) led to au open breach with the king. That tber© 
was good ground for Protestant fonra is clear from the 
inxtruction.i iNtiiocI to thf jiidg(« in 1621 (|x 411). Evon 
without aa overt a dt^lurution of indulgence aa thi^ it 
was obviously *iaay for the government to mitigate the 
rigour of the law. Parliament might tcgii^lAt" s» it plfasod, 
but petitions and remon«trmiccs werv fur from bving ado* 
quato to «iiforco 8triclnr«» or hinder ovanion, and Lhu lot 
of Ronianiatii was no doubt loiu intolerable than a mere 
survey of the law wuuM lead us to suppose. It ia pro- 
bable that the ivligious tests were seldom exacted and that 
thw 4!i»nbiliti(« wore i>fton forgotten in comon wharro thw 
oathft had Ixn-n taken and pulitical eiubmiaaion niadu. 
Nevertheless, with all deductions, the peual code imposed 
limitations upon the righta and liberties of tlie subject, . 
both public and privjito. which the deepest conviction of 
dangnr to tho Slatn ciiii hardly ju-itify. 

{») the Church, Hie PuritOM, and the sects. 

Tho condition of th« Protectant nonconformista, though 
exposed to serious inconveniences, was a long way from 
being ho pikinfu) a» that of tlio Rotnjinistek Th<! penalties 
and dinbilitiea iniponed upon th<i funnor wun: far luns sovero, 
they were not being constantly increased by legislation, and 
they woro less dependent on circumstances beyond their own 
control. The troublvn of tlm Engliid) RonintiiNt-i were to 
a gKAt extent due to tlie action of tfav Pgpo, thv Jwuihs and 



the King of Spain : thoau of th« Purtiana wore lar){«Jy 
tieir own nicking, and were due to divergences of 
or opinion less significant in thenMolvos than Iboeo wfaidi, 
dividiyl R<iinaiiL>it» and Pnit<?>(lnntH. Bill lu-ru a^n wo ar* 
Btnick by thf fusion uf ri.'li|{i<Mi8 auil puliU^'al i)UHliuo& 
a fuMon whiob do(« not app««u- so earlj* as in tbe atniggl« 
with ilome, but wbicb, in the results which it eraitdBlij 
[>rodiicnd, In-camc i-von more im]>0Ttant> 

At lh« outset of RiixaV-th'fi n>if:u ibo Act of Suprfcinacy 
was welcomed by all Protestants alilc«, and Ibe Prayer«Bool 
was rt^arded with favour on mbetituting a pvrvr fonn 
ivundiip fur thit brL-viary ami tlie nuua. But illiMitiiifm liml 
aooii W-xau to atiow itself among that advanced aeviiuu uf 
Prot«8tant8 which was most strongly imbuod with forei; 
idens. A« early OM i3l>.), objoctionit wnro nt-wiA to certaii 
ooremonial ohiwrvancea and reatrainta nsed in tho Cb 
wlitcli w.-emi'd to savour of popery, and a pr^Maal to gi' 
effect to these objections was rejected in tbe lower hooae 
Convocation by a barx minority of oiw {jf> 191). Seldom Ims 
a ainglo votv bM>n more important. Beaton in tb« aaMOibly, 
the malcontents took tbe law into their own hands, and 
their parocbini niintKtralions omitted to observe the ni 
or to 11*0 thn forms of prayt-r which tbey dialikod. Tocbedt 
■ Uieau irrefciilariliua, Parker and hb collaigwMiwiwd the body 
of directions known as the Advertiiiements(p. 191). Ilin 
attemi>t to enforcat tlio)M> rulxs led to the resignation ofaoinu 
thirty per n'lit. of the London d«rgy and of many otliers 
elMtwbvre. Dut the tide of Protestant fvrvour, natunlly 
ninning in tbe direction of riolont antagonism to Ruimi, wn^ 
too strong for tbo binhops. Th- t<-n«t« of the Puritana, as 
lh« refonmnH we«t now called {\\ 195), spniod brand widi 
The laity, unable to find oonteottnant in tfa« auth' 
s«rvtcs8 of tbe (?hurch. began to me«t in 'couvcnticl 
their own. tbiis coming into cullision with Die spirit, if uut 
thi- b'llvr, of tbo Uw. 

Tliua artute th^/x-vstiarlan controvannr,* a di«)>i>le which 
raged apparently round outward qrmbolo, but whkh rail; 

«i' o^^ 

The Church and the Purilatts. 


Bad on gntve diffarencce of opinioD (p. 199). For some 
y*mx9 afi«r ElitMboth't ■eoomon, thin tnovemeat weat oa 
wiUun tbe bountb of the ChurclL Then wdk tiUlu rign of 
% tcDdencjr to schisnL. or of a ilmire to overthrow the exist 
ing iwelMiiutu-al »y«t«in. But aboat the Tear 1570. just 
tttiofl th« p«itilii->tiun of th(> Piip«l bull render(<d the n^nlUct 
vitk Romu inticunoUjddd, thai duiputv with lliu «i]vmncod 
wing of Protestantism entered upon a u«w aod more acuta 
itaa&i Tfa« principles of church- gOTemment sdvocatod byij 
Calvin wnm not thn wopssnry (Hitcoino <ifhi» mligious t«ttcll-|l 
tnjC but tbendopliou ofono lulf oflb« inaster'a riowsiiatui^l> 
•Dj Itsi his iliaciplHt to support the other. Horeovwr it was 
cbnr th«l thc^ chief obstacle to tfa« spread of Cal\'iiii8ti<: doe- 
trioflS in IfaU country was theejust«ac«> of a hiiaificlix hostile ^ 
tu tlw •cbmil of Gc-novm. T1iu» rcMpoct for a grout taitticher 
OQfDbtoni with the ezigtoeies of the situation to foater 
Pli-ibyteoan views, and led a Iai);« section of the Puritan 
pvty to attack the bishops. Th«> now doctrines were openly 
pnadivH by Cartwright nnd olhnn (p. 19A), at Cambridgo 
aad nlwmhiiru, and vrerw urged in able but ejctmvajiptnt 
pUupUelA aich as the two Admonitions to Parliament 
(p. 19S). Alioal the same time great encouragement was 
ii giTMi tu thu Calvinist* by the triumph uf thrir ur(puuzaiioa 
B&i Smthuid. and thn 5rwt Book c»f Discipltiitt (pp. 347. 348), 
Hm wfaicb that system had bwn set forth some t«n yeara 
^^ttMm. waa adopted by Cartwright as the mjiiiif<«to of bis 
|Mity. Thi» waa a Mti'p fraught with grave ]>ulitinil conne- 
qacneea, aud brotifthl Cartwright and liia folloMvrs into 
diraet ndlision with the crown. The resiatanoe of tlw 
ISrit^l" to the qiK'on'is Injunctions was an act of lusubop- 
n AoBlioa which cxiuld tianily U> puHnn) over, but the antj* 
Hsftnoopal ductrinefi of Proabyteriaiiiun involved an orett 
H«Uwk on the eetflesiasticaJ sopremacy, while ila d«mocrat)c 
f t«adeiKH» Uiraatttnod the stsbitity of the State. 

Itisthewfoieni* BurpriMUB tluitat thisjuncturo the quiwn 
EattrfowL She allowed an Act (.13 Kli>u ") to be paased 
MMtiMUDg the Thtrty-uine Artlelca and Mnpowmng tha 




I>i!'li<>p3 to iiupnmi a ri'cugnittun of thcni on all cninr*ti'; 
Slio UsumI a proclauiatiou (|v 308), etrailly char^ioi; 
««cle«ustical authorities to enforce Uieproriaioos of the Act 
l/niformjty. She endesToui^d to nip[ir«m the 'fXordsM' 
(]k 104), or luiM^nibliMiforlhoiiiirpaMaiof n4igiuiui(liM:u!«ioi 
vhicb had como into ijiahioii in many diooee«a. Thcee 
ings (pp. loi-ioD), in which originally tbe clergy alone tool 
purt., but to wliii-h the laity vrerr' mibw^iicqiUy iulmitto<l. tir>t 
as iii'Aix'rK only, aflvrwnnbt u njwinki'nt, afTordis] rxi-flUi 
oppoiiuuitivs for the spreatl of Puritanical and Fi-eab>'t«; 
doclriiiee, and for calling attention to abiiM« in tho Ch' 
Thjit Mich oWiirs osistnd, tJinrc ik only lou much ovi ' 
prove. ConipluiiitH of a n-aut of luiruinK in tb« m. 
pluralitiee and iiG>n-r«8idonc«> ar« Crequent throngh^ui t 
period (pp. 21-;. i\9, 301. 414). Tho reguUrily with vrtii 
they rociir, in parliuiiciitary and other iM-Hliunii. iipoins 
•how that tlio romodial meuaumi of Convocnliun (p)i. iv>. 
*0>, 132, 3l6), while recognizing tlie«e evils, met with but 
little sueoeeB. Parliament attempted to logtslste on the 
mibject, and tho qnocn only uniili'd tho iuvsmuiv hy pitiniiit- 
ing (pi>. lOi). no) to take the bunlMi of reform upon her 
own shoulders. 

About tho yMr 1583 came another ehangek It was tbe 
jpoar in which ^Vhitgift Hieceoded to tho arehbixhoftric 
(p. III). This ereni nearly coinciOt'd with the fini 
attempts to establish tlie IVesbyterian organization in 
country, and with the appnanuico of Indettendency. During 
the rule of Grindal, iumaelf mure llian half a Puritan, 
ad^'anced doctrines had gained ground apam^ Thu Privy 
Cotkncil and the Boum of Commons sympathized with and 
flooouMged the wtereiaas (pp. to«, iiK). I'he arvb 
gBve them bix WKtion awl regulated tlioir pmceedi: 
(p^ 104\ The qoeea onlered him to supprwB tbou ({>. 10/ 
but apparently ber onleni we(« disreguded. and the 
biabop'e nluctarwu tu ob«y wasooeof ibe fVwi rauwa u( 
saqtenMon. Puritantara easily led to Prtolrttwiantsm. 
the year 136a a synod of CalThurtie minaten adot>t< 


Church and the Puntans. 

^^^^B «nil tnUitr II«Qk of Disciplinp. piihli^ixt in iST^. nnd 

^V^SbuuL cBTTTtng iU (innciple* iolo pnctivoL Scatlotwd 

p>ujhyt«jMa had for ftome luno bwn in existenoe. These 

DOW. in Tsrioua parts of tb« country, combined in tho 

orguuzstioii called a ' clag^ig ' (p. 24^). Hnd Ihia 

boon allnwod to iq>r(iiid n litlln mom widely, it would 

gooe hard n-ith Uiv Cburoli of Eaftland. About tho 

tiiiM!, iIoctriD«3 ifvaa Dior« sultreniive oC the Church. 

ccvlpsiMtical supremary begui to be proiiiiittc>l«d 

nw, Barrow nnd others, whoso diwipluit. aflmvords 

as Indc[i«aili-nls, werv at finit cillwd after tbo namra 

«■ tfactr leadore. If the ostaUishmt<Dt of pt«sb}-teri«8. clnwrn, 

whI aynods threatened the episcop«liaa system, ibo Ihnory 

tint avtry ooogngation of Chriatinn men foniifd a atfiarato 

L^faoTtlt and lUiould bo fn>e to fnuvnni itaolf as it ploasod 

^^Bk, ><3), l(A uo place at all for the bishops or for tho exerciso 

^^mF royal authority in matters e<icl««iastiEal. 

^V Id aelccting Whilgift ait tiriDdal'it mcco-isor. the queeii 

had dioaen a man of undmintod coutn^ and rifpd ortliodoxy. 

If the naeoanfonDists wure to bo suppnasML alio could 

hardly have f«uodan instiumeDtbettersuit^d to her purpose. 

Bat, thnugh be was strongij eupport^td by tho qa««D, and 

WW a BMrnber of thn IMvy Council. th« tii*k bfforo him w» 

BO ea«y uDo. Th<i articltv (p. 11 1) iasued immediately after 

hta MMmauon. iuAistiiiK on anbsrriplion to the I'myi-r-Uook 

all the Thirty-nine Articles, were regarded by many 

9)fng beyond the law. TliequesUona which ho drew up, 

erdn to pcvront waaion and diacover the leaat deviation 

ortiwdaxy, weM condemned evon by Burghley (p. itji. 

'otue of Commons took up the eau«e of tho dnprivod 

and. while calling att<-ntion to abuws in the 

diarefa, rr«amnii4tded grMtrr Uiiir-ncy 111 dealing; with tho 

PnritaD ti*!flSi'- The ewvprity of tht> bisho[>a and the Hij;h 

CsQUiiHieueia, aiKl the insolence of minor otiicials. gave 

(o cmll in <|W<«tion the legality of their |>rocuuding*. 

of i^c«)mniunicntion, and the nath ' ex officio ' (pji. 

18). Tho huuM! uveu went 0O faraato advocate a plan 




under which th« Authority of tli« bishops in ordinal 
shoulil not ix> pxi'trin^l without t3ia i>o-o|i«tiition of a 
iiunthcr uf tlw infvrior d«rgy (p. 116). The PnaLytiiriui 
t<!nilt-nry uf this re«ommendatioD appe*n more plajoly in 
a petition prceeutt'd about tlie same time to the quMD 
(p. 219). lliis p<-tifion. which o[Kin]y proponed to Mlfaattl 
thn authority of Kyiiu<Is or (liooutuiti oiMociataa for tliat of 
biaho|M, went furtlier tliau the Commona were at that time 
inclined to go, but it can hardly be doubted that, if 
inoitsiires advocated by the lower houM had licnn nuppurt 
by llu; Lords, thu opiitcopal aywt«m mijicht have botm 
fouitdly nuKlifitid. Tliu Prii,')' Council M^aa itself divided. 
Some of ita membov, like Knollya and Uildmay, were 
I*uritana by conviction ; others, tike Loicester, appear to 
have advocated a new rcfonnation with a view to furthur 
pliiiidor. Tim quotii, howuvtir, atood firm. The auprtmuwy 
oviir Ihii Chun.'h woa her own and abe refused to ohare 
(p. lit). In all her long and trying rvign, «he prulndil 
never »hi>w«d u cooler courage and mtm niaiKiilina 
rvUaiicv than in tlib criiiiH, wlien, hemmed to by daugen 
home and abroad, with a war for very existeoee in p: 
and thieatened with daily plota apun^l her lifr, aha 
almo«t unaid<N), tlii> pr««»tir«< of PHrliiuin'iit and eounefl,' 
backvii by a growing [lorty in the Slate, and defended the 
Churvli from a aeoniid revolution. 

During Ui« last yeara of Uizabetb*8 reign there were aomo 
ngna of rvActioa. The attacks on the biiihi>{>M i.i>nlin»od, am) 
sven become more violent, cnhninating in the Uarpreb' 
VSoiAa (p. ai5) about the year 1588. But the vinjlenca 
t£e eectotiee ovwabot the morit. The danger of di 
in the bee of ftxeiga invaoioD forced ttaolf upon Uiinkini 
man. Parliaim^it, Diou^ itilt onxioua for eeeleaioBtivB] 
kfjililinn. aiul with difficulty mtiained by the penooal 
inllnefwe of Ibe queen (j>p. 1 ;o, 1 15. 1 16>, empbatictUy die- 
MTiatnl itnRif trcoM tlw aduunatfea in the Act of 1593 
U2 Elix. iV nuaAdtOlprao^afaMdat 'MdkkMUMoetarim 
■ltd disJoyal pennis* i), pnnisbeO with bonishmeiil and 

Tht Chunk and the Purilans. 


!d«tt(h 4$ 1) tbe fineqaenteis of eon\-«nticIee >nd other 
lote of tlio ecdoiiiirtical sapr«ma«y. It Be«iu» to hare 
l ec M rfa l for tho ttmf. Manir s[«tari«8 fl«d th« 
•NBferv ; ■ few Buffered daith ; and for th« rent of tfa« 
ntgn the Chiinrh wae^ comparatively apeakins. Ivft in pvaceu 
It is potvribln that thitt lut] was p«rtui}ly duo to th« inlluvti«e 
id Huokur. thu first four Ixtokit of whwof nrvai work sppvurad 
■>■ 'S91 ^P- >45)- It b difficult to helievtf tbal no effect waa 
pradneed by bia learned and judicious advocitcy of the 
tiHtfirM aystvm, and still more )>y hm t'levntml and 
UBpcmtoal Imok of oontrowny, ao far uuiMnior to that of 
tk* aajfunly, at Itttst, of liis contemporari«& 

Ob Ibe MCteaion of Jamea I the conBict hroke out anew. 
^^m hopm which the I'urilsn« hnd nourisliod wvn' doaniod 
PB Jbappotntnir-nL What thiiw hopot won may Ik- (pith«red 
from tfa« Millt-nary Petition (p. 413). This petition, it 
Aoold be rememlHivd. did not emanato from the IVes- 
byt«riaB& the Independents, or any of the more srhihrnntical 
aactfc It was sign<Kl by persona who repudiatttl all nj-nipathy 
wttli fiKlioua and achiMnatica] partitw and were anxious 
ts tcmaia mcmb«tts of tho Chiireli of EiiKhuid. Their 
f M ei| Ml deouDda tnay b« Kf^upcd under three or four 
baada. Thmf aaked. Brat , for a purilication of ritual, and 
for the onuasiOD of practices wluch they rognrdoil ait relic* 
■f pw pwy ; next, for the withdrawal of tliosc HtriiiKnnt 
rv^latiaoa toueliing miliscription lo tho urticKvi which 
!tid many eonacii-ntioiis minia4«rs from the Church ; 
;m.«i^. for the abolition of various abuses, such as plu- 
raEttea and 'oommendams:' and lastly, for a rrform of 
the MclMiaatieal courts, with nwlrirtionK on uxcummuui- 
and th* '«i officio' oatlL The Hampton Coiu-t Con- 
b^l shortly after the pfwseotatioD of this petition, 
at MLftain conclusions (p. 4i'>) which rrcognixcd the 
Jly of n>fomi. but produced no practiriil rtmiltA. 
*im~ while pfvndinic at tbu ronfinrvncf, mudir no lunntt 
af hia otm bia^ In liiA vpi-vch at the upeniiig of his first 
nsllBBeill, hr clubbul all Prot4:stant nonconfonnists U>- 


fgrAhuT ns. 'Puritans and Novdist«' (p. 383), and told 
pUinly they must expect no t*>lorjilk>n. It ■»■* in 
that Parliament (p. 385) supportml tho pvUltoning miDittt«f&] 
Jamn npliod )>y n proclunition (p. 410). in wlucb hia ' 
resolalion (o enforce ■ stmt conformity ns cxprMsed in 
no doubtful terms. The Puritans wvtv «Ilow«d a UriMfl 
pnriod nf gnuH', iind nix mnnllui Inter BanCToft, tha iwwl 
archbinhop, u-lio trud iit Wh)tt,'>ft'tt swpa, ordwed the decne 
of deprivation to be carried into effect. 

llenrefotw&rd the conflict, thus begun, continued witboutj 
any nid paiiSR, until it cndod, for n ttme^ in tli« 
of lh«! Church. The old dumanda, so olten ruiterated. appeaf 
again in the parliamentary petitions of 1610 <pp. 300. .^oit- 
llie king, con\'inc«<d that conceasioD would only oxpoM 
the htsholM to furtlinr attack, and that the vi'tv wxiiitimrc 
of the inunuivby tva.t bound up with tlie cpiitcopal «yst«in. 1 
tum(.>d a dt«f ear to all tiuck prayora. Uia obstinacy vruj 
portly intitrumiiiiliil in bruiKuig tu an untimely eud tfa« ' 
financial ti'eaty known as the Qreat Contract ', an airange- 
ment which would have been as beneficial to him as to . 
tho country at largv. It is here that the mligiona iinratioa] 
)i)H;oinK-i fitacd with tlio political. Tho refuniU of tho kinj 
to grunt redrau for ecoleeiastioal grievance was aoaworedl 
by Parliament with a refusal or at least a stinting of supply.,, 
The <iue»tM>n of church rofonn was pnctically insepanhU ' 
from twri other qumtioni^ Lhiit of the exueotion of th*^ pi'iud 
laws and Uiat of the puUu^'al power uf tbc hi^hojM. The 
former has already been discuaaed : of the temper of tb« 
Commons rega/ding the latter, tbeir angry Kmonstnmces 
against Bishop TIu)rnlK>mngh in 1604, and [tisliop Nnil<> 
in 1614, arn striking illuiitnitiima. On H-vvtal oouutiouH 
the bishopa ahowed thenisdvM warm ami indiscreut oup- 
porters of the prerogative. In iAo4. it can hardly bo^ 
doubtod Uint their infloeoco had much to do with th«| 
failura of th« bill to limit th« pon-<T of Coiivncatioa (ahnve, 
fk zxxv|. Again, in 1614, th«y wera mainly i 
> Gardiner, Blrt. of En^kiul. IL S4. 107. 



procuring the rejection by Uio Lords of a propoul fraai 
Uw Ixiwer UouM for a confei^Doe on th« bumiog qu^ation 
oC iB<lir«ct texation. The bishops were strictly within 
tkeir Ic^bI riahla. but their conduct on thiit nccJuiion wns 
natal B J by the Conttnons aa ui uiiwarnuitablv iiiU.'rfci-(<ti*:ii 
Id k poidy poUtica] diqxite. The idea involved in this 
ttjii tiiiii ie hardly compatible with tho )>olilicaI control 
^Mii».l uul eleewhero eserciwd. by Fi«sbTi«rian iliviiieA. 

Tims r«ligioue nrid political motives combined to ui^ 
opm the rwpnsM-nUtivui of tho nation thu n<«MHity of 
mliiwl ««ctau»»li(!a] change. At one end of the nralu aland 
iW reliipoua demanda of conscienliuus Puritans ; at the 
etlur the technical ebjectiona of the lawyers and the de- 
ctmctire aims of partinne who had purdy politieal olijccte 
is view. Bill between thcae piirlivei there is no cWr line 
lu be dtswu : many men were at once Puritans and poli- 
tiana ; tlic different sectionn of the attacking force helped 
•od «ti«a^henMi each other, and the atornt tltcy rmiiH^ l>c«t 
wgaa thn Chareh till (t felL When in 1641 Archbinliop 
I and bis more moderate oolleaguee tried to appease 
I by ptupoaing reforms which would have been 
thirty yean before, it was too bile. The iinti' 
perty had a m^ority, tliuugh not a larKC majority, 
.in tlw Look Parliameut. Tlus pari-y carried the Act (16 
r. I. 17) which deprived the bishops of thvir pohlical 
lita, and in th» effort to prevent Itwir ' nmt and branch' 
, Charlw and hi* Parltamviit came to blowii. 



legnlative importance of Parliament duriog thu 
nth c^jntury wai>. as has bet-n alrtudy said, verj- great, 
it W^ oertAinly not len uoder Elizabeth than nnder 
W pmli I rnitrrr But in the sphere of thu uxocntivn that 
liMm> eannot be said to Itavv gonu far, and it was by 




no m^ans continiiouslv exercised. ElinlmUi, dario^ 
long reign of fnrty-fiv« ywin, aunuuotx^ ten ParHamwi 
which h^ld in all IhirUwn MonoDS. Parliament m^ Un 
fore, on th« avent^^. about va<x in ererv ihree snil a 
yeiirs. The longest interval vm that bvtwn'n t.|)«i seoond 
an<l tliird mswqim of her fourth Parliatnunt, wh«n nnrlr 
Ata y«aru elapstMl (Ifanih 15, 1576-Jan. 16, 1581). Laag«r 
intervals had however occurred in the rei^ of ber btbec, 
und wor« (o occur again in thuM of b<>r two succewoi 
In llio iiggnigiitu tho siawtoiis of her Pailianients (iodudii^f' 
short ii(^uumiii«»tiiX laat^d nearly three ynra, giving ao 
Hveiage of rather more than three weeks per annrim. II 
«vwr nec«Mary an element of tho consiitation PatlinDu 
nay have boon, it would ha a atratoh of lan^^a^ tu 
snch a Byntvin iiarltaiiiMitary goraminent. 

James I, in tila r^ign of twenty-two years, sanun«ned 
four Parliamenls, which held, in all, eight aoHicnii^ In 
tho n^{n>gat« thgy covot naarly a» long a time aa the 
parliamentary aeaaiona of £liiab«>th'a reign, and give ■■ 
average of more than six weeks per aiinum. But they 
nv less 4A:only di»tribute3~tban thoso of Elixabvth. During 
tlio lin>t t^ight yoare of JumcM' raign, Parltamt^nt met no 
Ivaa than fivo timee, but between i6to and 1611 it met 
only onoe. and the Pariiament of 1614 was barr«D of l«gi»- 
lation. It might bo gathi-rnd from this «rtiiiiniit«nc«», «v«in 
if wv hud not more cuncliLiivu evident^ uL^ewbRtv, that 
Janus' relations with his Parliaments ware lees hannonioiB 
after t6io than before that date. 

The Ivgislatiro work of tho two ruigm is not in propof^ 
lion to tlio duration of thoir jxarliuiiieutary aeeciiona. Tbi 
alalulea of ElizaWth are not only considerable in balk, but 
in many cases are of great political, ecclesiastical, and soeial 
importitnco, ntrikiiig out fi«w l!n«a of [lolicy whi^b wora 
to be follownl fur uiiH-raliona. The legislation of Jainot I 
did little mon\ except in regard to the Union, than follow 
out the lines laid down by his predecessor, liis Parlia- 
ments apant mncb more timu in tho dofpnou of 


Composition of Parliainent. 


xaA in dUcusaionjt wluRb led to do irorunltulo 
teMiIts. It does Dot follow from thia that tli«<ir 
iad from the coDstitutinnnl point of xHcw. is 
of all««ti«D. In til" lini« uf JnnioK I it 
Dtial to u&Mrt cunstitutional priDciploa and 
itsin pvti&meDtauy rights, than to {Mas n«w Un-s 
I en«t« oew iovtitutiona. 

(a) Oamfmitum of J'atiiamettl : tledioH of the Speaker. 

Tbo coatrol of tfa« crown over Pai-liament depended. In 
I Int place, on its right to siunoiou, prorogue, and di» 
tba national amembly at p)«iasure. Thi« riglil waa 
b«fom tho niga of ChaiioH I, aitd was expressly 
hy Elixobetb vrilli tier usual vigour I p. tt^). Its 
is too obvious to inquire pointing out. In the 
tlio comiw)«li'>n of farliaiiipnt wiw lar^ly 
at cm Utu will uf Ike win-rvign. ' Thin v-tn c«pe- 
tlie <*8e in the Upper House. The bishops were 
oamilMes of the crown, and compoood nearly a third 
body. TIm temporal puitnt wnro fow in niinilxir — 
Elitabcili tbey npptwr never to havt! i-xcnHli-d Htsty 
LtlMy ware mostly new creations, owing their position 
•onraign and a larg« part of thoir powwMnonn 
nation. Allhougli, when onw »uninio[ii:H), th<i 
rr nature of tlii-tr privilege might tend to makti 
indepeodent, new peers «ould at any time be created, 
a body so composed, not much opposition vraa to be 
Jamas 1 waa Iom chary l)inn Flliinboth in creating 
but durtni: bin reJKU. at all events, the Upper Houea 
jmI towards the sovcr«ign a complaisant, if not 
ibactTiffDt attitude. 

it yrtm tlir riyht of the crown to call new merabera 
^tba IIo<u« of Lords, so it was also in its power to enlarite 
Bomlivrfe of the House of Commons, The Tudors made 
aa» of this pn>rogBtive. During their tim<i the 
at ibv I»w«r Houm were n<«rly doublvd, £lizu> 



bfttli lifRH-lf adding do l«ea Uian sixty-two new memberai. 
Junes did not go so far in this direatioD a« bis pi«doreMcHr, 
t>i)t lie did his slwro, with tho result that, if im ciciwk 
th« Scotch nnd Iri.-di tuoinlicra, tho Huuhu of CuuiiU' 
I at tlw end of \m rc-ign, was nearly as large as It is no' 
Th« itciw members, with the excoplioD of those froni 
Welsh rountios wldinl by Hitnry VIII, rjunu Milirvly frii 
tho lioroiigliK. Many of theu rtipn-iictiliil »niull toivn\i 
n-liiich wuiild more properly be styled villagee. id remote 
parts of the country, such as Corovrall. wh«r« ro]r«I 
Quince might bo «xert*>il vrithout much foar of d«t«otioi 
Tbiit Hiirh pnwturi? was brouglit to htai Ht«nia prtivm) Itv 
HulIii^it'Ut oviileiioe. but there is no reason to believe that 
«]ectioua in general took place tinder conditions like thoa* 
which prevailed in ihu ciglitevntli ciiilury. It is tnin that 
general Hirwtiona were occasionally issuwl to aherifiii oml 
itlliKtM res|>t4;ting the clnas of persons to be □cduinated 
(p]x 180,441), but it must bo rvmembored that tb« infli 
exercised by local magnatea oo pariiaiucnUi; eloctioi 
both iu town and country. Iiad always liL-ei) coriMidocal 
and so long as the influential classes were uu the siile 
the governnionl, it it uiiiK-coJMary to go further to 
an explanation of the fact that the Tudor Parltamunts 
goDoiul mipported the crown. That the Stewarto, with 
jiiiit tlie eamo power and opportiinilies, failed to attain 
similar re«ullit, may hu held to imply Ihat the KovemiDMit 
exercised Uttle direct control over tha dectiousu Coses 
of fraud and bribery occasionally occur, as for inatatio*^ 
at W(«ttiury in 1571 (jt. i.]i), and at Cardigan and Shrew» 
bury in 1604 (p. 331^ but so far us the rocordit go^ these 
alFairs appear to hare originat«d in oottiing more important 
than pivsona] ambition and local intrigue. Tht mai 
niaiHin for the large incrcniw in th« number of bnrouch-eva 
i& probably to bu fuuitd ill the (pYrwtng proB{wHty nf 
country and in the reliance which the TuiIok placed 
tli« commercial and industrial cIshmm. That lliea 
mart have largely profited by the change la obrlou^ bi 

Pariiamcnl: ike Spfoker, 



thifl giuii WHS efaared with othere. It vas probubly owiuf; 
to thp jlifBculty of finding infm of mifBci«nt sUnding and 
tsdiiculiDn to ri'pn\wnt tlm Mnnllt^r |iIam«;, that th« »tntuti> 
of M13, which conRiK-d the [>^itiy6 fraiicliistt to twidi^ita, 
tucTEwn allowed to become olieolete. The result was that 
• UT]g» nambor of lawyers found their way into the Lower 
Hotuwi and formed an infliurntiul M>«tion of thv Rlimbothan 
Mid .Tnoobtian ParlJuiiiiifitii. Tliu inlori*»in of tliivn Iv^l 
CQemherH, like those of the merchants and tradoK, were 
bound up with tlie maintt'iuinoo of law and order. So long; 
tli<<n-fun'. UH lh(- crown nnnuim^l tho iiufogimn) of th<MM 
iiit«n«la, tliey were firm 111 ita au|>)>ort. But when th» 
sovereign dtnerted their cause, and by stmining or overriding 
the law uiid«miinr<d th« foundations of public order, tht> 
lawyers in [mrtioulur tiirnod a^iiinst tiini. In thnir runlet 
W(tn> to b<i fotiiid during lliu first half of th« twvoiittkVintU 
OMitur\- ninny of tliv boldest and moat el<iqii(>nt <ii)ix>nuntH 
of arbilrary jirerogative. 

When Pat'linniont met it was at a givat disadvantage a» 
against tho government, owing to Its want of ot^nlEation. 
Thd coinpumtivii nirlty of iti< ra«otJii)rs prevented IIm nnnn- 
bera from knowing f.'ach other, and liiiidt'i*d the funnutiun 
of the habit of united action under recognized lendora. In 
ao ago whi^n daily piipors, puhliu mooting*, and tho caucufc 
w«ro unknown, it was imposslblo to coDonrt moosurcs 
befordiand. TI10 election of a Sjicoker wa^ thi? lint ntop 
wa the opening of PaiU^ment, and the puwitrti of th« 
Speaker (p. 114) were such as to make the choice a matter 
of grmt imiwrtanco. But it wn.i pmpticully out of thv 
contiol of thn HoiiMj. Th(! rcturtis wun- In thu hands of 
the Privy Council loni; hi-foro the members could know 
who were toXe iHeir colleagues. The government (herefore 
had plonty of timo to chooxo itn man oinl to tako prupur 
mcftsurea for ancurlng bin i-luction. Although the theory 
wafl that the House appointed the Speaker and presented 
him for the acceptance of the crown, thu common practice 

<luBcril>od (p. i^ttj as being oxnctly tho roruno. 



(b) Legidation, 

Wbon it canio to d«b«te and lefpidatton, the crown luul 
all thiv wlvaiiliiii*' of tlin initintivn. Itn niintHli-rn luul {>rt- 
|wre«) their Bills uiid di-ctdi^ un tlifir policy, while uttuIEuiAl 
members were unaware what would be submitted to them 
and could only iwwrtain tho truth nboat itiiinv important 
fiutta by applyinx to Hm' fcovvrnnienL Party-orxo'ii'atMa 
was unknown ; ' Her U^t^ety'a Oppoaition ' had not oocn* 
into existence ; and a§ there was no alternation of mioisti 
in power, oflkiol experience was confined to thom ai 
in rtKxei^ Undvr ttuob oimditioDa, it la not wondi-rful 
n]ini)it«n luul it lor^^ly their own way. and tliot gownimv 
measuree passed as a matter of oourse. On the other huid, 
it was generally not difficult to atop obnoxiouv lefp»l 
in its ]in-hininary atufc^ without lia\'inK recouno to 
veto of liie crown. That the mere intimation of 
queen's diitpUiucure was often siifticiont s««ins clear 
Uie couiplaiiita of Polcr Went worth (p. iioy If tliie 
not enough, stronger nioaourea wtire resorted to. A rvcal- 
eilrant member was occasionally inhibited ^m attendance 
or committed to prwun, ok wnn the nute with Mr Strickland 
u> '57' (P- "9)> ttud MrCopv and othcn in \r,ii (p. u^ 
Sometimes tiie obnououa bill would be sent for bjr 
queen (p. t3o\ or legislation would be stEDply forbi> 
(ppL 113, tis, 116). In 1)10 loot rcKOit the xeUt 
olwayB be used, and the right to use it was (imnkly onerted 

(pp. "6. 4>iN 

However much these Tartous melhoda may hare detracted 
from the free action of Parliament. tJiey must be rr^anji 
on the other hand as so many rerognitions of the 001 
atitutionid principle, that ih» fOtr«r to make laws finally 
binding on the eummunity rtiuded aululy in thai Iwdy. The 
legJslatiTo fiupifmacy of Parliament, by which of cxirse ia ' 
meaDt tlw crown nnd lli« throe isrtatnt in I'arlioiueat, 
emphatically set fortli by Sir Thomas Smith, himaelf a to 
official (p. i78>. It is amerted, without contradiction, by 

it eooM , 
ful tkB 

- huid. 

to t^H 

>r tiS 

r froi^ 

ie WM 







' jiyj 

Parliament: Lrgis/ation. 


of PariUment, u by Yelverton in 1571 fp. ii«>\ 
in a moiv technical fonn, by ^V'hit<>lncJcp in i6to 
3Sz^. But tlie practical efFect of this supremscy was 
kfaty reduced by the exardse of certain powers, one 
the otliBr negative, also rocogniimJ m boJanging 
I tl>* crown. It waa g»ne»Uy nrnintxined, at least in (ha 
|t«rnth r*nliin'. that the soveivign could, either alone 
* with iba advica of the Council, issue proclamations con* 
the liU-rtT of the subject, «o long ax *iich cHct* 
a*>t nin counter to riatubo or common-law, anil that 
oMild diapcnae with the action of the law in individual 
^■ML Th« constitutional importance of these powore, 
Uautwl only by custom or good sense, dopundod on thn 
otcot to which tliey wen> BXcrriMMl in practifM^. The Act 
*f '539 '3' Hiin, \Tn. 8). whi«h gavo the king's procla- 
. the fon:<e of law. had been repealed in 1547 (1 £d. 
iz), but this did not provrnt the crown from crnforcing 
by pmallii* infli«t«l thruugli tlie Prtvy Coundl. Such 
■tkiiia were frequent both under Kliukbeth and 
L The area covered by statute was companitivvly 
and lelt a large licld oiran to Ixi dnalt with by this 
qoMrlagislative authonty. Some of the luont muuirkablo 
siaaqJca of it& u^e are to be found in connexion with tlte 
lip of the prenn. The ordinance of t^eb ip. i6S\ 
bipod by that uf 13^6 (p- >''<l). plnccd the frvwlom of 
lion ntudor very severe rMlnctioiia. By Ihu M-cvnd 
rtbaw edhte th« aapreine control was placed in the hands 
if th« Arcfabishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, 
tlw two Chief JusLic«)s and (hu Chief Rnran. ElinibL-ili'a 
tVfvlatiooa WMn oonfinned, with alight modifications, by 
Janv* I ' J95'- It may be doubted whether that 

kioK aat. , ™>.tico further than his prf<!™<-j«or, but, 

M thw tim0!> tiad chaiip-d. hv nivt witli mora reiaistaiMv. 
Tb vi|ti>ma« Ungua^fe in which th« Conuuona protested 
>.• ni«galitiM of the system (p. 305 , combined with 
■ vpimDorftk»j«Klg^(Coke'*Rfi>nrtj>, part xiL p. 11)7, ed, 
I Uurt nw effsncts oiuld not b<.- crfdlcd by proclamation. 
e 3 




l>roduc«d a wlutary effect, and fox some time at lewt 
power was reduc^ n-ithin (ol^rnMo limits. 

Tho othi^r power, Uinl of ilUpcnniiig witb thit laws in 
[ttittculur rasea, was abiiridautly i^xerciiwd iu EUzfilteth'a 
n-ign, espc-cially in I'egard to Komaoists, and also ia respect 
of comiu«rrial re^Utions. It is not only oxprMsly nrng- 
niicd )>y 8ir T. 8niitli (p. 179) and Sir F. Bacon lp.tii| 
who iniglil pL-riiapa in this |Miiiit hti rvgardod *a pt^ud 
wit&eesee^ but by ordinary memWrs of Parliameat. lilie Sir 
Q. Hon (p. 113)1 nn<t n-b^n utwd in moderalion it 
MMDJt iii liAVo l>uf<u disputMl. JamM howArcr carried 
puwcn- to uiihcartl of lenf^llia. It was by ntcaoa of it tha 
b« n6utndi»Hl the action of the penal statutes, and 
declaration of indulgence in t6>3 (p, 433) amounted to] 
comploto KUKpennoD of Ibn law. Thu gnvo politirjil 
to wliit'li this abum gave nsm liave bveit already alluded 
It was not checked until (he Bill of Kigbts. and oven tfai 
the vague language of that document leaves its Ic^ 

The opposition to James' exercise of theisp jwvrem 
inereased by the extravagant language in which the 
and his aupportere magnifiixl the prerogatiTA. Elizab 
with her statonnanliko in)itinct«>. ahrank from pumpod 
dfRniliuna and Rwe^piiig gettMuUtiee, but for Jaitius tlu^ 
pomeasad an irreustible fascination. The political 
with which bis wntings and speechee abound, would, 
logically carried into practice, have extingnisltr*! pailia- 
mentarA- IcgiiiLLtion or n-duccd it to en «in]>ty fiimi. 
hia snid)-»Li (if a 'free monarchy,' by wliich be nif 
a monarcliy free to do wlial it pleased, be used esi>reaaioits 
which can only be interpreted as implying absolute 
lative powers in the crown (p. 400);. Dr Cowell 
scarcely improve upon hi« Miveri-tftn. uvon whim h" rouiidlr 
awwrtnd that tbn participation of the e.ttal^-s in the makit 
of laws was a matter of grace and policy, and that 
execution of statutes was entirely at the king*s dis 
(pp. 409, 410}. The Commons could not openly 



Pariiament: Taxation. 


pvblicftUoD of Juii«a* abtKilutut IhooriM, but tbey 
their abhorren«e of the same riewa wlieu utUirMi 
by ft Babjcct by onl^ring Co«oeU'£_bMk t o bo burnt by tlio 
huipaan. At » timo whi'n politirjil qiiPstlons were being 
aotivdy (tebtttiM], au<l vrli>;n [inti-'ticii] i]it)iciilti<Ni wrrn foreing 
BMi ta Qnd eitber a legal or philoaopbical bosiK for Lhoir 
nqm^ire poaitions, those theories aasumed great unpor- 
tmoK It wg« «a«wntinl for llio iJorence of tho parliamentary 
« 5 t« «n that tbft logical cuiuequonaes of «onouwioDs to tha 
liy Aould b« clearly peneived. 

(c) Taxation. 

tlHorviiea] control of Parliament ftror tho nnl4onjil 
wa» ■• diwrly rccogniiml a» itn cuiiLrol »v«r th4> law. 
But ben mtain the crown posaeased certain indefinite 
which enabled it to evade the nuthority of Pailia- 
at, and nhirb werv mmtiuUly *von to be capable of 
daogMOUfl extunitioti. T\\v crown poMnituHHl (i) i^^r^ 
more or leas regular, derived from crown-lands, 
rigfata, acel«ttaatMal firstfruil« and tenths, 8tar- 
dMnibor and n-cniuuicy finvsi, and iwnin ottiiT >i(>urci?9>i. In 
of this t^veuuu it waa complvlcly indcpt-ndcnU 
imtiTBct taaea ( a) levied on Uuporta and exporta, in- 
sg nistom»dati«« and limnage and poundage, were 
nunn—" aubjiict to «>nln>l, for thoy r(-Ht<>d on a parlia- 
ry volA paaaed, during tbia pviiod, at tlie uut«iut of 
<acb raign. The rights of purveyance and pre-emption are 
liiiluif^lly connoctM with tli<> ctistoms. and should be 
Bwntiaaod hnrv, though t)i»y wt-ru at tliiii time rrKnntnl 
aooMUung quite separatu. TIk' common phrase, 'The 
obould live of his own,* applied to tho ordinary 
nidi falb undtr Iho above- mcntiont^ li(ra<ltL It 
that this inoome «hould suffice for tho 
HT^StUfy buaiaiaE of the state. But it bad never been fully 
■da^oate for this purpose, and it becamv less and less 
wBritTrt duiiog the Tudor tiuies. It waa eupplt^utoolvd 

Ixx In/nxiacHoH. 

i3)hythf cxtfmordinary taxea cttUad aubaHliee. andflflMiiit 
and UiilH wkidi could only be Wvi«d by vote of 1*j 
taeat, «nd (4> by the additionAl dalim on imporU, known 
M in^ i ftmi f ionn- which, thi>u)ih U> ■ ccrtiUD «xtvot l>aaed ou 
atstuto (mvu U'Iuw, )>. Ixxiii), can hardly be c«II«d parlu- 
meotary. Au irregular income Wm also d«riT(<d (5) fruai 
the sale of monojwliwt and paUmts, Iho right to gnutl 
lieonsM to iU«-botiM«, and othar muans of extoition. Laady. 
(6) tlie Tudora and thi-ir imuK-dUte succeaaota w«re in tbo 
habit of oocasionally incr«<n«ng ihcir income by coll 
what were fictitiously (-Jillod botwyoleneca, or of |>nividii 
tbemselvos with muly inunoy by mouia of looufk. Th 
couflicta whioh no f{iieroitaIy disturbed the relatiotn 
twM'n crown and Parliamc-nt in the fint half of the sov' 
t««nth century were mainly dun to the iinci't-taJnty whic 
pr«vaikd regarding thu accond, fmirth, and luxth of 
hoada, but feudal dut^ and monoi>oUe8 also came iot 
question, and erentuolly, in llamiHlea's cae«, the right of 
the crown to take direct tax«e without «onsMit of Parlia- 
meut ^^ 

(1) Faidai iHcidtHU and Purrvyanfe, ^^ 

Tho feudal dues, consisting of the sums payable by wa; 
of rvliob, the profita of wardshtiw. maniagoa^ and oacl 
with otliur valuablti righta (p. 195), war*, after tho 
lunda. the oldc^ exiting souree of n3yal income, uni 
indeed pui^'eyance may be regarded aa older still. Tlie 
ordinary feudal duos w<-rc rockonod in 1610 aa being woi 
X4,<;,oooa y<iur(p. 34SS But, banidca thia income, liu> f>u< 
aovonugu could ou three special oocasious, viz. tUi- knlKhti 
of his eldeet son, the marriage of hia eldest daugliter, 
for hia own ransom, levy au exlmordinary aid, The sub- 
jecta of King Jaraea wom not likrly to bo called on to m< 
tlw EBst>named emargancy, but they ha<) to pay for both 
two fonner. Prince lleury was knighted in ^1609. 
Princaaa Klixabcth was mju-ried in i6ij. The method 
collectijig the aid on Uwia occaoioiu ia daacribM) in tha 


PaHiameni: Taxa/ion. 


(•rinti'd on pp. ^55-358- It amounted to a tax 
EfM-T c>-nL on tint yi^rly vuluo of all lund held of the 
whcthvr by luUiUry Mnure or by noui^ It vrns 
in Ui« case of the enudler t«naiits. by th« ahoriflT nnd 
lAbitr royal official's wb)l« tho chancellor and th« otbcr 
wmnitniciliani wi-rn appuintod to runiiMHtnd witli tfao larga 
. and vanuua corporatu boditai. Thv rtrcurtvnco of 
uniiftiial demand in 1609, after tbe lapM of mora than 
iiry — for Henry VII Itad lipen the la*t soveroign la 
iiition to Iptj- tbwn aidn - with iU nmi-omitiiiit «n(|iiiri«« 
and wppurt unities for uxlurtJon aud jubbcry, waa likoly to 
give riae to vride-epread irritation. The question of feudal 
dam ID gemral had almady b«on brought fortrard in tJi« 
of 1604 ({>. 391), whi-n it wiu iirKi*<l Ibnt Ibo union 
iBcotlaud bad ranoved tbi^ir origiuid juslilicalion. It 
prah»bly due in groat nmanro to the aid of 1609 that 
tba demaad for their abolition came op again in the Parlia- 

Baf the foUowiiig yiar. A negotiation began, which. 
nucfa liaKgliiiK. n-Aulttd in a pn>p(j«al that th« king 
sam'Ddtir his feudal rights. togetJier with pur\'eyaucu 
— a right much more annoying to the subject than bene- 
ficial to the cranm— and should rucnire as oompensation 
« MiBi of -iioOtOoo a year (pp. 39$, 19S, 199). The ooca- 
aimal fcadal aids were still to be taken tp. 296) wbeu 
■coBon arose, but to be UmitMl in amount The arrange- 
Bcot was on thv point of being conchiiUxl, when it broke 
down, to gT««l lUi'asunt owinx to roli;;iiiuii dliputcA (cf. 
abore. p. \x). The rupture of the negotiatioiut k'fl matters 
to rvftuin aa tbey were till the Ci%'il War. At the Keetora- 
tioa Uie fvadal duei^ alroady abolisbod by ]>arliani>-nt«ry 
onfiaaaea to 1643, were finally dooo away with by Ktatutx, 
tha ennra ne^riog a highly advaulageous compensation In 

Tbe fWKtko of lavying Anea by way of distraint of 
fcnigfalhmM) ho'l ill oriitin in mililnry nvomuttM^ but as 
k waa ela«4y ounnwled witli 1)10 fi-udal «^t«m and had 
Wum» a way of obtaining money, it may be mcnltonvd 



hfln-. Vndor this syrti-in nil portotu poraoming land worth 
X40 a ye«r— it hai) wko het'u j;*o— witn- obliged to tok« 
upon tfa«oiselv«s tho licuour of kui^htbiiod, with tt« 
ntimdAot hurdons, military &nd otber. ur to pay ■ fin* kt 
Iho (lisK'n-lion of mniRilvionors nominated for the purpoHi 
Elizabetb put Lli« systom in pmoticu kt tho coitinipnrvniaDt 
of b«r rvign (p. 133). and her uxaniplc was followml h; 
Jftmes I and ChariM I. 

()) Customs, TuHtxyc and Pmndagf . ImposUuma : 

TIh! origin and antii]uity of the eustouts^nUta Si 
mattM- of disputes A diacusaioD of their earlier 
would be out of place h«r» : it mtut suffice to remind th« 
reader tbat, although tbv 'anoiont cnatonu* aro raoognixcd 
in Hflgnn Carta, lh« '^"'r'n A" *^. htj^fi ""'* 'lit*"' "■ 
th«ir iMirliameatary form, date from the reign of IMivan] L 
while tunnago an<l poundugn, tho duties mi other kinds of 
laerrliAnditMx. ilat« fram tbat of Edv/ard III. Tho |iractic<* 
of grnnting these latter duties for life, initiated in Uio 
Parliament of Richard TI, hod boen continued under 
Lancastrian kinxa. Froni the time uf Edward IV it had 
beconi<! Iiabitual to make such tifA-gnmla at tha 
«ach reign. Thus it is not mrpriaing to find 
twgarding thooo indirect tax«e ait 'on ancient rereniie an- 
nexed and uiiiteU to the crown' (pp. 15, 16', and 
the eam« grant to James I as a niatter of eourso. 
the Hoit^ of Commons in Uiv Rnt Parliament of Cliarlsv 
/^di'paned from the practice of nearly iwo I'uitiiries 

altempt«<d to restrict their gnnt to one ye*r, Ibey took an 
important at^p towards a rtivulutioii. The aniotmtn to 
levied on the various commodities are m>< forth m 
statutiT uf 1559 (1 Eliz. 20, p. i6\ and these continiied 
Iw the ordiiiaiy nitt* le^-iwl under Art of Parlioni" 
throughout (he reigns of Kli<nl<vth and ber sucvoMor. Tbs 



v> mitaet olfl 



ParOametil: Taxaltott. 


■tirs iitcr««s«d tmt olowiy in ontount during tlio 
of KlizftbeUi. In 1585 they vere still fanuetl tit * jreftr, bat this ms coii«d«T«b]y b«low Uieir value. 
ty yean UU'r t)it>y had itKin^aMrd to £160.000, 

Mm pMrliaiui-iibtry <lutt(-a do not ux)i«uh| tliu liitt of 
indinot tmx«a. They were supplemented by ioipo^tiona, 
k luuDc ehren to eatfaUB tulditioDal duti«fl laid upon various 
Mtid^M of import. 

Th<? importAnm aaMime<l by llie question of im{ioiitti<in)i 
in the rnxmi of the first two Stewarts oeeeaaitAt^is a sfaoK 
acnooDt of tbeir origin and history. Th« first addition 
Bwd« in the Tudor tim«> to the old nXt» was made in 1491, 
wtwD an Act (; Ilfn. ^TT. S) mw pMwod, which Ur^wly 
tnenmal the duty on n-rot wiiioa iiiiportwt from th« 
Levant. This was done by way of retaliation on th« 
VMMtian& and was not primarily int«4ided to b« pro6tAbl« 
to tho crown- In n tiitiiiUr Kpiril th<< importation of French 
wine* w*a fiirbiildim witJiiii c<.Tt«iu tiiucti uf tlin yi^r by Ihn 
■tatat« 33 Q«n. VIIL 7. Butit wa» ngrnat iulvanee'>n the«e( 
IwrliaiiMntary rvKulntiona wliea in 1534 Henry VTIT wasN 
(i6 Hen. \1II. lO) to^rejtulate by proelamiition | 
Iflv of trade, even to the extent of repeaiinff statHlea ' "*-*•" 

I or r»t-iving such as might bo obsolete, touching th« 
or dxport of any morchandisn. Now the natural w«y 
~«f iUaeoutasiit£a trade was lu impose a heavy duty, and IIhih 
ana* the royal right of levying impoaitionB. OriKioulIy 
contend upon tho crown for c<Nnfn«reiB] purposes, and 
witli what wa >ho4ihI now call protect ivo or fair-lriulv 
«ii3«eta, it was only lat«r that it camo to hv uiced aa a 
■■fin of Aubancii));; the royal revenue. It was by rirtu*^ 
of Ihii |>ower tliAt Xlenrr VIU, without any inti^<;n-nct^ 
fma Parliament, modified the duty on KW«vt winu^ and 
anpasBd what wiw catlixl a 'wavt cwttom.' Hary forbade. 
thu penalty of « prohibitive duty, the impnriJition 
Frvnch wine at a time when a 6trong anti>Onlliunn policy 
being pursued, and still further inercAiuMl thv duty on 
int wioeK. tUiznboth, by adding a mark to the duty un 



— — 

t'pe'Dch wines, merely equklized it wiUi the duty 
iwynblu on th« other sort. Sulise<|uent Acta of Eli 
reigii (13 EUx. 7 ; 39 Eltx. 10) show ttiat thi« relaliatv: 
l>oIivy was atill in fsahioii, and liy impUcatioa leftw it 
tho iianda of the crown to carry it out *. 

It is clear then that when, in the fourth yesr of J: 
roijnii tho question of impositions cam« lirfore th« Im 
Courts in Uif f&ntoua ctMt of Batca, Uia crown couM ijuoi 
taw and prt<etident in its favour. But in Ihia particular 
nintter—the duty lt.-vic<l upon ciimnts — special argument* 
niigbt he usw) in belialf of the crowu. Tlie gOTcmmi 
waa vinptiwcrM], )inrtly by cttstoin, portly by statute, 
regulate trade. Such r«-fnJl*tiou niiKht take the form 
of repression or «nc«umgemenl. Itt^roasion, w shown 
I above, implied the right of le%'yiDg impositions: ancoi 
I moot might be giv«i by tho grant of monopoUcA In 
eufA! of foreign tnidfl, which often involvvd |{r»t risks, 
i^ncuuragurai-nt was, in tbo infancy of coouneire, 
indispensable. Ilenoe the monopolies granted to the graat 
trailing companies towards the close of tho wxtvunth maA 
tliu bvi^inniiig of tlio soVfiiUvnUi conturies. Nutunlly, 
however, buch Miono[KjIiM ntre nut granted for nothing: 
the crown looked to niake its prolit. directly, by ■ cbargv 
upon tho company, and indirectly, by the goDeral growth of 
v' tnuhi and ctiittoins. On nuch a \mm ojt this, tho Low 
^"TfBT *""' '"^^ii eslahlitJii-al towards the end of ElixalMtJi' 
reign. After passing Ihrougti various vicisaitudea, it 
ormngod with the crown to keep its monopoly on paymei 
of J,'4,ooo a yeAT. But ]iartly in dvfnreiiCB tu Ui<i outci 
against uionopulioa. i>artly owing to Uxaei in Inidii^ 
compauy in ifroj withdrew from the bargain, surrcm 
its charter and CMsed to poy tho yearly rent. To 
tliu crown for th» loea thus incurred, the duty on currvnls 
a duty previously levied by the company itself on marduin' 

■ Cf. H4II, Ciulimt Rmnitt, L itt K, convclinc ILLtUm,*naut. 
I- *43> ti*- 

Parliament: Taxaiion. 


IK la it— wa» |iut on. It nil] he allovr^ that, 
oXhit gruuuila, Uiwo w*iw much to bo skid for 
th* poToratDent '. 

Bat t]»a quartinn c oold not aoT loBger he fCWtn ii-J ^Ii'ly 
from Om kfl imint of yjaw. Tbeee tnde-iiionopoli<^ aiwl 
■itditioOAl duties, ori^sully juiitifitM] in the efM of coo* 
ipnivnes bjr auppos«<d conimurciiil iifCA«iitr. had bocomo 
■uurcn nf profit to the crowu and tliii'retori-- a iiioiuiM uf 
Jing p*rUani<iitary control. It was only natural ttiat 
fnll importaiM-'c of th*' qn'istiaa from th« poh'tica] poiut 
Ti«w was not Immediately iXfrcdwd. How it wa» 
in court \(j Bates* counsel w« do not know, tmt 
t)|»ituons of the jadg«« (|>j>. ;i.|0-34i> are babied iiuiinly 
Ml kgal icroundK. It cntmot be miiinluinod that in giving 
joAgftD^aX they wcru Mrvilv, intiinidali.-d or comiptt and 
had thvT Doofiiied their oLsc^vaUoDs (o jmraly Xo^ to|iic«, 
it wottU have tj^a difficult to tind valid obJMtioua to thvir 
dKKkoi. Bui unfortunnUily thiy wwit fnrtlwr. Although 
mefa eoDsidentiunii wvni not vital to tlicir emim, they intnv 
dneni political thvuries ca(<able of wido nod dans><roiii( 
afvpbatica. Baron Clarke maiutained that qtetu tw wurc 
wnly binding on the kmg wbq_g adg tht-iu, and Chi<.-f Baruii 
t'lecoinx Aukk a diMinciMa iMtwiwn tho or^liiittry and the 
ahaoiutis powBC uf Ihv erown. It ia ditBcull not to porveive 
ia this dOitincUon the efiWt of James' unforiimatc pondiunl 
for philtMophical gene nil izat ion, but no doubt it was alao 
dwt to tb« diMuaaions aliout sovoroignty to which |toliticHl 
dUBCTvempnt wa^ int-vitalily jiving riMi. 

It ib miiaikable tliat the Par)iau)«xil of 1608 avquteeced 
ia the decisioo of the Kichequer, but the advantage l«k<-ti 
hy C«cil of that dudiuoti. and the inue of a n»w Book of 
btaa in whiuh it waa apfdicd, brought tha political coQ- 
a^OMxra ditarly Wfore (be eyw of a later aasembly. The 
itimmiiiiin by which Jaiiies enipoweivd hia TrnkMuvr to 
kvy UDpositiorw frankly claima for the cniwn (p. 354) a fre« 

•UoM. Bul.^ El^taMi; U. t~to; aad OaH, Oufrau-Jtfwnutt, 



hnn<l in tliU bnincli of tucktioii, and states f.\|>r««Blr 
It revonu* may sad ouf^t to be raised by this methud. 
Pftrliament of 1610. engaged in a conflict willi the king 
ivIigiouH nnd othor i(nnMtioiu!, conld not KfTorcl, by 
nixinic IbU claiia. to relinquitilt M impurtanl ft muatis 
brinifini; pressure to boar upon the crown. The debates of 
that year show that the represeDtatirea of tho nation 
fully alive to lh» danger. Mr Hafcowill arguod th« 
qutatiou ut \i,T*nA loiiKtb (p- 34 *\ On technical points 
ciuiDot be s^d to have bad the better of hi>i opponent 
and it IE unfortunate thaty in the endeavour to ii^iiin a victor 
on this doubtful ground. h« laid hinux-If opnn to the cli 
of b«tiiig diiiiiigvnuouji. But, aft»r all. thiH was not in 
main a t«vhnical que^ion. An intportant political princtpli 
waa at issue, and here the speaker could bring strati 
arguments (o boar. He endeavoured to provo that indoiii 
taxns, likii inili^fiiiilo penaltiu, warn ali^i ia tho spirit 
EiikU-Ji hkw ; that such sourees of revi-nue, if not fixed bj 
statute, were not left to be settled by the caprice of the 
Movorvign ; that pruvioiia kingM had rocogiiixrd tho right 
Parliament to fix the dut« in qu«stioii ; tliat tha lunji 
right to close th« ports to persona and (^ods. if 
for tho national safety, did not imply tho right of 
what prioe h« phvutod upon their «iitry : end that if 
king might raise impu^ilJoua at discretion, he ui^tbt 
the same argument raise any other tax. Hr \Vhit«l»cli 
(P- 3.'>')- while by no means ignoring legal argai 
pUcod tltn iiuu« on atill higher grotindn. H« Nhuwod 
(hu power now claimed waa of an VHtK-ulially rovolutiot; 
nature ; that sovereignty reeided, not (as Baron Hfe 
«aid) in the king alone, but in the king-in-parliament ; 
tliat if the king a claim wer<» aOowod. fheni wotild aoon b* 
an end of jiarliamrntury government. LookfMl at in tha 
light of later evonta, th«ru is aomt^hing prophetic a1>out 
th<> utterances of these t^o t^peakers. They might almost IM 
Uiotigbt lu haw pointed out the way to Ihe dwipotii 
advisers of Charles L Both vAia could qnotw law uvA 

Parftament: Taxation. 


' "fRMdent in tb^ own favour, utd make pUusible de()u<>- 
ttMM fn>m «irt a 1> li>Jn-d piwniiifo*, l>iit Uii-y wlto uijuiUlr 
nnuc thai tb« ([utstiou wu at bottom polilicaL If vro 
R^uni tlw diacusNon ms a 1^^ on^ only. \m sball be 
wanwd by iU anti<iuarisnt8in and it« technical itios ; but 
lo^wd at from uiothor point of view, it bmointut oiui of tbo 
UgliiMt mt«K«t. It U not too uucb to say tliat iL containaj 
tke Kttm of all tbe §iibsequeDt quanvl. anticipates the cases 1 
of Ouiwl and Hampden, and fomhndows not obsctuvly tbs 
(ndaittAnlal question at t:!Biii> in 1640. 

Tlie rival eUijuB uf Kiu^ and Parliament wer« unfortu- 

nitolj oot settled on tbis oocaaion. A Bill for r^medyinK 

lbs vtQ waa pnrpaFed. and th^ Icing at onv time pnnniM^ to 

pv* his a»ml. But tbo Bill wnnt ttm way of tbu Gmat 

Cbolnrt, and the dissolution of Pariiament abelved tliu 

qnastioa for sevviaJ yaara. In 1614 it came up again. 

Inpusttiona w«ro now diotini-tly coiipl<>d with monopoliM, 

with whidi, aa ban Ix-tn Hhnw ti u1x>V4\ tboy wvru binturieally 

oMuieeted. A coDuuitt^e had biwn appointed to report on 

tlM grievance of monopolies in 1597. The great debato in 

liat (pp. 111-117) bad not b««n barrvn of rmult*. and 

monopolie* bad iMt-n aholi-iliMl. But tbii prsctico 

too convenient a way of rewarding clamorvua au[>- 

portew and of bringing a little money into an empty 

ssdicqacr to b» v-nlirvly r><linq<ii>biHl. During tbo lirit ten 

ymn of JaOMs' reign. Uil- evil Itad ntitadily grown, but the 

tiste was not yet ripe for checking it. Tbe Addled Par^ 

liuMat s»p«nt«d without making any way either with this 

^iwrtiwi or with that of inipnnitions. It« sucooasor* were 

fDon fnrtuiiale. Br the year i6ji lhi> evil of munojiolim 

^had gniwu to an unprecedented height. Not only wewr 

^^Mf so numerous as to encroach in all diroctiooa upon the 

^Bvedom of trad*- and numuliictun!. but tbo patontv granted 

^{irafw gnMaly abuwd. The Parliament of lAii mad* «x- 

•iBple* of tbe meet notorious offenders, such aa Utcholl 

and Mompnwon. but it was dissolved before it could deal 

wiHi tb* quMtlun as a wholv. It was rcwn-od for the 



PurliuDPnt of 1614 to pa^ ftn Act (31 ft ii Jac T. 
whicli, wliilt! n<co)j[ni7ing thfl nweo#dty of nneuutngiii; 
)nv«ntiumi, |>ul a stop U> all arliitnuy and nnjuatifiabto 
restrictions. But tliis Parliament refrained from attarkii^; 
impo«itions, nlthougfa their taIu« hsd largely iacrt«Md 
dtiriiig JumcM* ri<4gn. Th« imiMwitMiis. inoludiiig tb« Ux«t 
ou n-iue& ]>rodu<:<Ml in 1633 upwarda of £100,000, trliile 
various speciol duties brought in some £60.000 more^ 
making with tho ordinary customs (Bbov«>. p^ txxiii\ a total 
vf £313,000 di-riv<H] from indirect taxation'. 

{3) Btnftetencts and Loom. 

Th« practicA of domimding ben«<voIeneua, in its later 
■aems to have b«£un at least as far back as the reign af 
Edvard IV. Tliough they wre Dominally free gifts, 
suasion wa^ from the first, only too lijilil« to 
into cmnpdUion. AWiidiod in 1483 (i Ric. til. 1), 
vrvre auUtorized, at l«aat by implicalion, uodor Uenry 
(j Uen. Vll. 10). and were occasionally taken down to 
time of Charles 1. Etiuheth seJtloni had rrmunw In 
mvthod. Ind4'vd the only known occaaion auuua to be 
. of 1587, and as the contribution w«s in this case voted by 
Convocation (p. 137 ') it was at all events not a bene%-nl«nc4| 
of the ordinary kind. James wrs Ims acnipuloua tlum 
pmkc«4Mar. HaTiug i|uarTel]M) wiUi hid Parttamonh^ 
b«-4ng anxious to avoid having recourse to pariiamen' 
methods, he took beneToleocee on three occasions, id i6t 
1610. and i<ij3. In the cireulac iaaned in 1621 [p. i.^^^ 
the contribution is aa usual stated to be voluntary, but 
threat of sumnious before the Council, in eaw of 'obstinacy 
diaaffedioD.* sfaows tliat pressure was to be used to stim 
defimnt loyally. Charles I attempted once or twicv tu takv 
boneToleikces, but with little suc m aa. Thu Isal ocoaaiun uo 

> Cf. Oanlilii'r, Hit. i^Ka^jiul. x. i»- 

' Halka ttioiat. B^-, L 14^1 «ciim to be in ttnt Iwfa. 

PaHiamenl: Taxaitoit. 


Ib thn contribution appears was In 1661. but then it 
rated by Ad of PnrliunKint, Thi> nii>thod wan naturally 
MBIMUmlar vritb all [lartius. It was of «>unKi olijt.'vtiH] to 
bf oppuQMitB of Uie monarchy as an illegal tax aiid as an 
WMfin of parliARietitai^- control, while it was disliked by 
■opfMwtwni of the gDri>nitn«-iit Iwcaasu it wax sura, in tliv 
tad, to fiall moat hvavUy on tlKMe wltutw prinoiplM made 
»ttnaa mtKt willing to pay. 
^H In onlvr to meet temporary deficieocien. the Tndor and 
^Btowvi aoTvrogna wcra in the habit of hormwing mon«y 
^pn s larye wale from tltvir subj^^tn. Thia pravtiou h-»s liulu 
Bor* Meoslble, on constitutional Rrountbt, than that of 
Mrting bMWTolpRoee. In the earlier Middl<> Ag«8 the 
QvnnunMit hod Imnn ncnustomod to borrow from thi> Jowk, 
wba eoold not rofuw a royal demand, or from foreign 
iBarchMttB, who were tempted by a hi^ rate of interest. 
Atkr tbr Jxw^« were expelled and foraigners ali<^nHted by 
polilir«l cireumstaneui or ntpeatrrd iMMna, t]io luwitioe of 
eiking loans from Kubjceta )ie)(nn. Tliis practico boeamo 
batitual under Kdward TV. and bis sucoeseura fullowcd his 
SHDplit The [*arltamenta of Henry VllI more than onee 
•UMticmed tbv proeun by mroitting his loans (a i Hen. VIII. 
»4; 35 Hen. VIIl. 11). Elixaboth frcqii<-nt!y tooli loans, 
o^ccuUt towania the end of her tvi^, for instance, in 
15*9. 158', 1589. 1590, 1596, and I5<i9. and probably on 
«tb«r oecadotts. She sometimes borrowed conatderable 
■tna from indiTidoab, notably the wealthy merchants of 
London: on t)Ui«r occnaiomt a !i>an wm levied generally 
tlmvfboat the country. In is^'t nim? rich m<>rchanl« 
adranmd a collective sum of fi^.ooo ; othora mntributMl 
in isSg. Tlie general loan of t^f>^ produttHl ovt-r 
tliat of 15^9 nearly fso.coo. In such cases the 
aivtbod Mvcnia to hnvu tiM>n tm follow* (p. 134). 
were written by the Privj' Council lo the Lorr)»- 
ilenant, bidding them draw up a liat of w»ll-ta^ 
in their eounticci, adding mich liinip^^iiins as in 
pfixdon tbeae persons might fairly U- called upon 1" 



conlribtik''. Tho lists wtrn' tlipii roviK«l by Ihii C^unci 
*nA lL'tt«ra calloJ Privy &^.i wurc Bent ti> tbe iadiTiti 
in queeUon (p^ 136), ordering th«m to pay ov«r to tfa« 
«oUector named t^^ tb« IiordUeutenatit tbe sum at «rh)< 
they WM« uwHMd. Intorext was »oin«t)m«fl paid, but n 
apjuaivntly, in Ihceuioof thvgiMioral Iomli. TlutloKna«p; 
to have l>e«u, as a rule, Kpuid. but not elvraya puo^^tually. 
for in 1589 w« find one lender. Lord Mayor HartiD. sending 
in a clnlm for £ 1 6.000. much of which liad b«en for a long 
liiao diiu^ Tlutt 9omo dincontont wu roumkI, nt all btoq 
in particular gbsos, and that proaauro waa Boroctimca 
quired, there is abundant evideiHe to prova. but it a: 
that tl>e practice was genarelly aoceptod during £lizab«tb' 

Jiuncii I, wlioao expenditure always exceeded hia i 
appvunt (o have borrowed money frequently, not kowe' 
by way of g^'nt'rBl loans, l«it from indiv-iduaU. As 
only uttt^iral, li<- t-xpi^rieiK'vd more difltculty llian bi» pr» 
deoeeeor: indeed we are told that when oa one iKvasioi 
in i6io, aftt'r hin kritaeh with the Pariiament. he 
rocoumo to thu rich inerchontit, lut met with a poiiit-bi 
n-fiisaL lite cemation of general loans for alioat a 
generation made Charles I's attempt to l^se one iu ibii 
all the mora un|>o|>ular. T)ii> loan of that year ia 
monly s|>oken of as the Forced Loon, but Ibe ep 
if meant to indi<^te a di«tinrtion. ta unfurtunaU-, for t, 
loan wax hardly mom conipuWry than those of tba 
riuus century. The dtffen^noo was that, wbereaa 
both'a loans were generally collected with little d: 
and the only prtiMurp r«quir«d was noiaeleaaly applied by 
the Privy Ci>uu<ril, the luan of 1A16 was univvrutlly 
sijiti'd and an ilUtdriaed attempt wa« made to 
the reeiBtance by impnsonnteot which attracted gi 
atteatioo. The n«ult wae Dani»l's ewe and the Petil 
of Right 

was n 


It a~ 

Patitament: Taxation. 


(4) FiJUcfths and TaitJts, md Snf/sidifs. 

Tliarp rnmaiti to be consid«ivd th« extiaordiiukry [Milia- 
ncdtary I&xms Fif1<<rnlh« and Tenths, and Sut>«<li««. TaiM 
«K ipuudM, ma Ofipuaod In taxm on litml. (Ut» from the Uttor 
futoftfae twE-lflh («iitiin', Tbey wviu K'vkil iii vnryinf; 
fMoportii'im until ttif r>?ign irf Edward ILI, wh«a it became 
tBLitual tu take a fiAn'tith Mid a tonlh, or two or more 
fitlMnSfas and tvnilis, tliu umallor frnclion bgioK li<v»-(l on 
tb« cmiotieB. the larger on t]ie towna. About Ihu unii> 
tbn BBMMiDont nppenra to have become fixed. Tliv 
unounU paid l>y tiin diffi^rvnt di«trict« under tb« 
of 1334 wt-tv aflcrvrtinbi n.*iHJn(.-tl without ollei^ 
cooept that a large drawback wa&. in courH^ of tiuiv, 
in tbo otas of flecayod towns. Thus fixed, IJtc 
lb and Tenlli 1k>cuu« pfwcticjOly a tax upon bolduts 
and ti^Dvnienta, of a d«finito vnluo. amounting 
making aJI deductiona) to iittk- muro Di^n X jo,ooo. 
a while it b«<c«iii« obvious, not only that owing to 
of eircuiiLttannw thi*tAX pri>«wNl unfairly 00 certain 
fi^fa.tju, but that it did nut fully utilixv llio rcwuram of the 
itjy. It theri>for* became the prarticn to grant tuippln- 
ilary tatw ollttl Suhsidiee. The word subsidy L* ul 
tat locttrly UMid'-it is uppltcd, for itixliinro, to tunnage and 
pocmdagv (jj. 36) — but afttT tlie uirly part of Henry Vlll's 
figa H camo to CDftui a iltrcct |Mrltani«nliiry tax of 4s, in 
Ik* pound on Ibe yearly value of land and 15. 'id. in the 
oo |»or«onal property. These proportions s«m>iu (i> 
been taken in order to connect the older and newer 
for thu ratu on land is two tt'nlh^nnd that on per- 
two Sfiruntlis of a pound. In tln-firy tlte sulmldy 
fWtebJy a8»oM«d 00 each occasion, but. ss with othvr 
^ntt taxesk. tJio aaiMMnont tended to b«roni« formal, with 
lk» tDtfritable twull of a ttrvdual diminution in amount. 
ThiB « la- ~ ' >'. which at tht^ IwgiuniuR of Eliatlwths 
^t^a ki • . 'i to have amounted to about £100,000^ 

^^■a worth at tho vnd of Ihocontury little moro than JtSo,ooo. 




A olericsl suWdjr (seo nbovo, p, xxxt) producMl about Xjo,ooo 

The umial practice, not btnrever by any niMns imi-nried. 
was to ji^Dt two 6ft«eiiths ani] tontlM to «rory HubsnlT. 
Suchn normal gratit wah riuJo in I5S9<P- 'TX ^^^ spMcUl 
ndvanlit^H whiult a subsidy paeeea»edov«TtbeoIder tax wen 
(l) tliat it cov«rMl all kinds of property : (z) that tbo now 
MfloO Mnt'iit sllowml for changvf in the value of land and the 
incoini) of iiorsoiis tnxod ; <3) that alints, and Bul«vqu«nlly 
rocubant^ paid a doublo rat« : (4) that the aM^wnient ami 
collection were carried on nnd«r th« 8up«nnt>'ndpnc« i>f tin- 
eentral authority and with olnlKimto pmviiuunH againvt fnod 
or wvanion, Tlio AflMviiths and t^ntha w«re lovivd bj 
Icetora appointed by the members of Parliament Ip. >8|| 
their respective districia — probably a relic of tho tirao ' 
the members who voted a tax woro mqiuntublf for e»Dnr4itigl 
theoiMlvc*. In Ihv case uf subsidies, the chaaeeUor. 
treasurer, and other Kreat officeis of state ai^ioted 
missiooere for the larg«>r dt*ti-ict]> and borotighs I p. 30), wl 
in torn appmntm] cullii'tors uniltir llieni fur ihf purpoae 
■Bocnotng and les-j-in^ tht.- tax. The whole mai-hiuery 
collecHoQ is elaborately de«crihod in the Act. Peere were 
MseMed and tnxod dirncUy by tho ehan«elloT and 
higli olIifialA {p. 34). Exemptions w«re graiitwl tu 
northern noiintiiT-i, Iivland. thu C^n<(U(.' Porta, and tin* f.'lmnr 
I^lamlH, prvsumably on the ground of special miliUiry 
other liabilities, a« wdl a» to Unirerslties, acfaools, and h^ 
pitala fpp. 3a. i^)- In spite uf thv advantagm poew 
subaidiM i)T<tr fifte«nlfas and tenths, those two lotuls 
taxation continued to be combined in the parliamt-utary vc 
tOi 1614, after which fifWntlu and tfotha disappeared. 
•idJM survived till 1663. when they too were Onally aup 

Till* Farliamtints of Kliiabeth were oiled upon to 
tli(M>« tax«e in almost every «enion. During the &rA thii 
five ymis of the n'ign the Kmnts am fairly uniform 
ftverags between X4O,O00 and £50,000 a year. But 

Parliament: Taxation. 


ik yckr 1^93 IbL-yaru Urgrly incrMUed, Am) dtiriDg the last 
\am jni«Ts of tlie rvi^ tlie yc«rly HVungu in mont (turn 
^(>s,ooo. It waa welt for lh«ntiti(>nal[iure« that t lib w-artvitli 
6|ttiDwa«*oli>DKd«fiTrW. Theeariy Porlumentsof JainosI 
■vki very UtwnL Fur hu fint two >*4Mni Im> hai) tho benefit 
•f the laige gnnt voted in 1601 ({>. I06>, which u-a.-t to ro%-«r 
■ pmod uf four years. Tlie war with Spain tani« tu an (itiil 
is ite4. but, in iqitte of Ihis^ I'arliiiin<?ut made grants to 
Jtnw in time of pe«co idniU94 as larjce m those tbsy OUld« 
\» his pc«de«<a8or in time of war. For tho ntoct ftix years 
his pwtiaiiMotftrT income must hare aTeragcd urer £roci,oeo 
• for. But this Urge reTeniie ceased in i6ri. when tfa« 
of 1610 ran out, and during thn next ten years he 
ed Rothinjt from this soiux-e. Thn tiuthnud: »f the 
Yesre' War brought a chaug& The ffnni of 161 1 
imijp^, for the country had no confidence in JaD)e«' 
policy: that of 1614, on tho »th<tr lund, was the largest 
y^ mad* (p. 279). But it was acvomiwnicit by ronditions 
••f m noTkl kind and of great constitutional importance. Tho 
ifMen aR«rwanls called appropriation of g upply was not •^k|l 
new, for approeobce to it had boon made in the 
th century, but it was unknown duriitg the Tudor 
It was a rpmarkable advance in the dinwiion of par- 
contrvil when it was ennrtcKl tp. i;i)) tbit the 
f giwitvd nhould Ui [mid into thn hands of trMteiirvrs 
Bonniatrd by Purliameot, and «p]>ltL'd in aceonhince with 
prmooa rmolutions (p. ji8) for certain Bpedfied objeeta, 
Mid f 'lor. To eteure tfaisend, the tredsuiersand the 

jr wcTo made responsiblo to Parliament, with 
•apRM* declaration that the lioictve thcniHolviui idiould 
■ny mi^appropriatioa of the funda. The earlier 
its of Chariee 1 aoein to huvo found tlu's plan 
JMpwrtiaahte. but it was revived by the Long Parliaratmt, 
■wl ftum |648 onwards bctsme the rule. 

It eliMitkl be mentionMl In this eonnoxion that the 
UtaoMas oJrMtdy dainied, though a» yi-t but tentatively, 
V right of drttrmining the amount of taj:ation. 



In tli« year 1593, Vrhen a suMdr bill was undo- disenerii 
Ui« Lower UouBe. having votod two m]Inifli<M. m»>i 
a m«mBg« from th« Lords tfUting that Uwy would 
MMUit to lt!sn lliaii i\\r*\o, bi\A roquectting a couTtirence ■>d 
Bubjoot. After a 8{H^ecli from Bacon (p. i43)i i" which 
piiuciple in qiKstion Waa clearl)* stnted, the conference wa> 
refiiHd. It should however be [xnntril out tlul tlio bill 
eventtially ratxlifieil lu tbit Lords jirupuM-'d, aiiJ Uut 
Comnionis oh But'on'tt e[>et<ch shows, did DOt aa yet cUim thv 
sole right of ' uri)^inatiug ' money-bills, though they appear 
Ut regard <li3viiilioii!i frum this i^ustom aa exceptional. 
Throu^out tho pc-riod undor ivviiiw bolh Lords aad 
CommonM conear tri granting subeidii^ (ppL i;, ai9). 
ta nul till ibi^ tluit the Commons grant it alonck 

(d) Jtirhdktion of JPartkaitenL 

TtioTO vt no Huch thing. pT<ap«rly speaking, as Iha j 
diction of Parliament as a whole. Chief Justice Cuke says 
indeed (Institutes IV. t, p^ 13), 'It is to be known that llii< 
Lonls in tbcir houiw hnvo power of judJcaturn, and tlM 
Ctunmona in their bouM hare pow«r of judtcaturv, and 
bouses together have power of judicature' QnX the p: 
donta which he lUotxH to prove tba last statement art> taki 
frvm variy timet>, uiiJ lti(.'ir applicability may In' di-ubt< 
In an impeachment the Lords alone are judges the- Couiiuo: 
^appearing only oa aot'uw>ix An act of aUaiader la 
a jtidtciiit pruct^iiiK at all, but nithcr, as was shown 
Straffunl'a case, a substitute for iL liuth houMn hnwe 
have, and had in the sixti^ath and sereuitwath c<-Mturi< 
•epanite judicial authority, that of tlie I^ords beinR 6ir n-i 
than that of the OoiunM)in& Both bouses liaw juriwlicti' 
OT«r tfaioir own m«a)bcnt and over persona, not 
toanibon, who violata tbair priviJ«gea (below, p. » 
Bayobd this the jurisdictton of tbo Oanmofka dooa twi 
The punishroeot inflicted on tka town of W«ttbwy 
I57> (|k <3>)> tboogfa ft mmM tmw ba eoasid*»d an 

Pariiantent: Jurisdidion. 


might hav« b««n defoodod at th<i tim» on tbe 
|invi1i!K«. for brlbory in mi dnctivn in lui Attack 
Ofna lb« purity of Pttrti»m(<nt. Tim cjimi nf Floyde in i6ji 
(ft. 337) iAuM'ihI tluit lilt! House iiX Commune cumiidI punish, 
botre^fcr etrongly it may disapprovD, a mtMlL'misiiioiir wliich 
4mb not kffwl it«elf. Tbe limilaof itsjunediction drawn by 
tW i4>fU* on tlut tKCJuion (p. 338) vrraw acc«pl^ bj> the 
CvQnauna ■• oj^ruvublt.' lu tlit* law. It wiu indicntivo of 
iWir politic temper and const itutioual apjrit that tltcv recag- 
uaed ih«)r mistaken, and retired vith dignity from tli« falao 
potttioD into vrhicli ibnir rvligious ontbnsJasni bad betrayed 
theOL U t» n-tnarluiUn, boworca-, that tbr^y nhntild Knvo 
ttmlnj a OKond Iceaoji, for lu tbe caw of Mit^hvU at tbo 
^««UD^ of llie af«»on, they had theniselvee recogniaxJ that 
tkqr pMBo—td no siich *eparat« jurisdiction '. Tbo claim of 
lii* Bumwi of Comiuons to ba conuilorMl a cour t of riword 
waa iiiai«t«d un in 1604 (pj>. ;8;, 319), and though at bist 
toifed by the king wab aftervraida acknowledged by him 
(pt 330> and hy th« Lords (pL 338). 

Tbo jafudietion of the Houmu of Tj»rda ta mora Important. 
Th« iM«n> posamsed tbe peculiar rIfiUt of trying members of 
their ii«ro boiiy when charged with treason or felony. Tliia 
right tbey exvrvtnod, llMnigh n-itb certain Umilation«(bolow, 
{^, cxxrit) in avvvral caaw during; Iho vixtvcnth century, for 
fanUDdi' ID tbo trials of thi» Dnko of Kurfulk iu ■ ,^t ^ (p- > 3^> 
aad u{ the Karl of Esaex in i6or. Of their appi-IUito juri* 
Aetioo in civil cawM, and of the original jurLwIiction which 
tbqr imaainnillj daiincd both in civil and criminal caaea, 
aotliittg lM«d here he mIiI. But their jurisdiction in omm 
<rf DBpcAiJunent. tliat is toaay wbi*ii any perwn wnn clturxed 
Wbr«lliem by IheCominonaofEngUndwith public crime* 
•r rai*tiein«ttCK)Ui3^ waa of gmtt conoUtutional imporlanca. 
Aa a inaaas of ■x.-curing ih« rMponaibUity of miniattfi^ lba 
uf imp«chmeiit waa applied so far ba«k as Ih* nags 
FEdward IIL During the century that followwl tt waa 
ily uftad, hut during tbo whole of the Tudof |>«riwl 
■ GBxltBM, nM. rfStiai, It. 41- 



it 1«7 idl<>. Tho CAWis of Burkinghnm and Strmffoid 
CluirU^" I'n n>il{iLi of CbircnHoii and DiinW in thnt of hiit«ull 
uTv jMtritAps the most tiulabk- vi^mpl^u of ltd applii^aiiun 
ooiutitutional purposes. Tlie iosUncm that oocor in the 
retgn of Jfttnm 1 «ra nnt of »o higb political iniportaii 
but tixey aro of Kmnt moiiH-nt as |>nw»(IoiilH whivli 
v«tal)lbhe<l the m'steia aft^r a loan period of iln-UftudB, 
replnood in tlie hands of Farliamont a weapon of In^nionc 

Thu firat poTWoiM a}inin»t whom thi» weapon wiui a* 
diirini; Ihv ]it'rii>d uiitli-r ivriuw woro a coinparativiJy lo 
daas of offt'iMlt-n, Iho holders of p«t«Qta and moB 
The impeachment of Micholl, Hlompcoson and otbcra by i 
Parliament of 1 62 1 was McnntiKful, but it was onlyindir 
of poIiti«nl iin]K>rtnn<^!. T)i<> iKitf<nlo)>s and monopolists' 
wom chargi-d. not with [volitiuil i-rtiiKis but wiih feaud and 
ii^ualico. Nevorthelesa a» moaopolira bad luux 
a political grievance, and the abusra oonnecteil with them 1 
been toU-mtwl, if not am con raged, liy (b« wrnrt. the punia 
mi'nt of Ihnto poraona niiKbt be re||:ardi'(l ua a victory orur 
tho govenuueot. Still more damaging was the £all of fiacou 
(p> 334)^ fo^ Bacon was a great official, the head of the law, 
and a triiM<>d niini»ter of tho ciowa. Corruption tn hi 
plac«i W7L1 stniek at in hi» ponon, and lboUf;ti bit 
was not polititaL Ids comlenuutioD discreiliied the juiUtii; 
system of the day. His case is also important from the : 
that tboHouw of ComraotM, joaloos of its fn>vdoni of octioN 
^rrni.itvd ibv kinff's siifn^tioR (o clian^ the mudu of] 
Ceodiu^ (p. Hi), and maintained its rights of prosMH 
intact. The impeachment of Bacon, in respect of its 
tical aignificanrn. fiilU half*way Ix-tween the caso of Hoi 
peason in i6ai and tbut of Middlesex in ifitf, as tliat 
forma a atopping^tont.' to tlie case of Ituckinf^faiiiR. tu wli 
the full conelitulionat importance of the m^ithod was for 1 
fi»t time dl»play«d. 

Parliament: Privilege. 


(«) I^uliaJMntary Prieileyt. 
I H w«s ui Bwebtial pui of tho Tuiior policy to rult> hy 

of P*rliuiii 

iild du all 

it u-ss natural 

that WB in their puwor to rcndor tlwt body an efficient 
JMitiiiiiiiitt UcDce it ia nut mrprieinj; to find that tba 
MttHnth atnlury, the period of dMpotic govern tucmt, is 
•Ih tlM peritx) In which pnrtiiuiii'ntury privilr^'o wi>ixi for 
tfa* Sat tune clearly furniul«tvd, Hitd, witli one excoptioo, 
MOfiniMd. That «xc«|ition in noteworthy. The privilege 
vkldi W3W mil c»tabli4)ed during the |>«rio(l under rfvi«w, 
ii tkat one which an antoeralic oovuri'i^ could tiol nflurd to 
nMfnusr, DAmely. the privilegv of fretHloni of speech. 

TIm fKactiw of demMMUiig reragnition, at the opening of 
iL at thn tboM gTMt priTilr-gnt, freedom from 
fiviiJon) of sjmsch, and fniiiora of a«**a, which, 
3fr with a favourafile construction of the proceediaga 
' Botuw. form tb« sta^ of the Speokor's ro^ueat at tb* 
. dar, WW a T«ry nodem iiutiluliaa in the line «rf 
th. So Ule as lbeT<«r 151S. ihe^Malwr firihnrad 
Ike pnetk« of the pr^oeding centurr. and aikad mtnlf tar 
bmiaia of spoecfa and of acc«e« for hire— If. Vituiuia ^ 
tor nwtmben* of thn Houm: in gmsaX was bit 

by Hjvraker Hotle in I54>- Th* ink 
lOD which tlie thrm ciutMoaryi 
in 1 554. In th*! fint Parliamvai of Kfailwifc m 1 
ffagBdy Inld tliat the Speaker pottUumd Cor 'ttw 
Bfcirtii ■ ' In 1561 the rocord» gixe for fha fti* Htm ft* 
dad words in which thia petition wm w mh tJimt If, t»]% 
1W evstom WWM, however, nut i^ven y<< faOf 
nd it M not till aflor the year 1571 tfaa< it 

TVIrwqu^o'T*"**'*''*'^'' <»M«o*prmli^«iPB»< 
fnAtbly, tlw imprisonment of Cof^ Wtalwwlk ^4 
m 158;, Jed in tlio Utter part of EUnUtkia Mp * 
^^Mntin/iHt. •* t*»» opening offlKli 1 1 i"i". M 
iiiMiiill I for iiririlegw. 8««* 
-nwiiliiir in 15^9 (P- **7> ^ 



appointml at the tuning of pRr1iMii<>nt in i59j(p- 't^l 
an<) iu 1597 ^'■'I '^oi, nnd fiuni tlut tiuio onward tlii 
practice wn» r<^ilurlj' fullowuiL 

Freedom of avco^ tu tb« aovereign wke held to bn 
right of the [ie«re individually, oa h«r^Ury miinitKllura 
tlw crown. The momlKTS of tin- Ijowot Houim «iyoy«l thp 
unid [irivileR* through their Speaker. This iiuportaut 
wlBcial was the regular means of nonimiinicAtion hvtween 
tli« Queen and hor fiiilhfiil Comniowt. Both EUialMth and 
her succ^iwor constantly ntade use of bim to iiitinuil« tb' 
plMUure to the House (see indexV On IHo oth«r hnml, 
may be surmised &om iwnm rcmnrlw of tbo Ijoni Kwp^r 
1^93 (p. 115) that tlio privilexi! of acceiio on behalf of Forli 
mvnt n-iw ho fn--<|uently used aa to try the royal patiencB 
souiowhnt severely. 

Tlte privilege of frcwlom from artwit during a waatun of 
Parliamont, and for a curtain tiuio bitfort- and after, in all 
easua exce]>t treason, felony and surety for the 
bdonged equally U> both houses. In the caso of the 
if precedent wore roquirvd, tho privilege may hn nigiirded 
oMlabliihod by tho ruloiUM: of Lord Cromwoll (p. 13 
which occa^n the Upper House placed on record a formal 
btalement of their right. In the case of the Commons tb* 
privilege wns confirin<id not only by sorenil ewiy pnicc- 
di-nl-t, but by lh« xUluto of (433 (11 Itefi. VI. u). Tlw 
cawi of Speaker Thorpe in 1453 could haidly oreatv « prece- 
dent to the contmry, for on that occasion tho judges decUred 
in favour of the privilege. Krrrere case, in i,';43, is remark* 
able OS being tho lirst in which the Ilouftn of Commons took 
tliu Uw into its own liandiL Thi>y rvfu.Hud the intorvontioa 
of the chancellor, and released Uieir nienilier by nioAns 
a direct demand. Thiswaaan important step in the din-cih 
nf inih-pf'mlcnc*^ but the procodent was not immoliatel' 
folluVMx!. So latu as Uh* j-our 155A tb« lloum uppliifl to 
Chanoeiy for a writ in favour of a burgees namiid Oardi 
But lowaids the end of the century several Oiees ooeur 
which out only Uio pririlugv itsvlf, but also the ri^hi. 





. in aU 




36). oJ^ 

Partiamcni : Privilege. 


*afaig » it bjr indepeodent action msiy be regarded n* fairly 
wtoblMLwL Snth ca»m arv thoM of Uartan in 1587 und of 
tfttfaetitert aiid Knalcin 1593 ()>. la?). TIm.- two first ofch«se 
OMM ax*i fDi{>ortaiit aa fixtugt th* timo durjnc which tho privi- 
ly* eoald l»? claimed. lDspit« of tbeae precedents, theprivi- 
bs* *■" VM>kt«d in thf> first PaHiam«nt of 3un^» I, and it 
WM ooly by dint gf gn>nt pt'rwvi-ntnc* and the in«) of viTy 
ttnmg measures that tha Huumi of Coinnionn nuiintalned 
Itm piMtion. The difficulty in sjj Tl'^n't^i Shirley' s cag e 
'n*- S'^^S'j) nroM from th« fact that, if a person detained 
Sm debt wera reloawd, tbo nrodilor lost hi» cliiim, and thv 
(»ol«r (nndn' Stat. 7 Hvn. IV. 4) was liable to an action for 
twtia^ bint go. Tho Wnnkn of the Flwt pri"on, in which 
BirTbomaaBhirley waacoaBnod, otiotiiiatnly ruftiM.'d lo obey 
llw eooiDMnds of the Hous« uf Cumuiotm. und not even im- 
^UMUueot in n dungeon of the Tower could for «oni« tinii: 
^mesotc hid r<wolution. The 1 louse was on th« jioiut of 
(BOinfE the chauoL-lIor to ita wd, but this rotrnjcrude step was 
fbrtunatvlr avoided, and the case ended in a eooiplete victory 
Ear tbo CoramonML It necessitated the pa£«ing of no Ims 
llwn(hr«« Ada ufPur]inmenl,ont> general and two particular. 
Oam of tho two latter, in which tho claim of the IIoubg, the 
iaununily of thf warden, and tbu rl((hta of the cruditor am 
all pf»«i!rvMl, is {irinled below (p^ 3n). Tho geneTal Jktt, 
totcoikd lo obviate aJI such difficulties in future, ia girtB •■ 
pu »54 '■ From this time onward tho privilege waa Maa& 
At • timo when, for the sake of {xtisonal protvctionaawal 
oIImt rMutonM, the regular attendiinco of utrraBii wiH 
lie. it wa«unly tutuml thiiL the pririUp< 
4aa from anvst abouM Ik> cxt^tnln! to )>erBons In tk» 1 
vt nonben of Parliament. It nee«Ie«l, h««w«fc mamj 
rMOMfooto to flstablish it in the sixtooutli uulsj. t^ 
«aM at ttiggut in 1384 (p. taS) provos that th» 
tmforen it wJtlMut appeal to any estrvoaaa 
^■■■thrf cue, that of Hnniea in the ammm T^v. A^n thai 

aoMUDl t>r Ibtf oM>. EMfL IB^ 


thp )>rivil«g«> wa» ntnfinnd to bona fide menial liir 
ittay cMia in conn«sion vriUi th» Houao of Coniuuna uccu 
befo«» llie wttll-knon-n unr of Smulli-y in isjAlp, 118}. 
chief iniportuice of Dus affair )i<ia iiith« fact tliat. wbi 
previous cases th* prisoaer w«» released by a writ of j 
from tlw Ch«iKH^, in (ht» c«ne b«WM rekMMd by th« dtr 
aiotion of tlip HuuiK. Tbo pnevdcnt ao «MbibluluHl »«• 1 
uaril& auiinuiiit4. It may b« t«mark«d ibai Siiial]«y 
his master, tiall, vers subaequently instnim^ntal in illin 
(rating at their own cost other privileges of the Uousu 
Commonalpp. sciii. 131}. 

Thu vxeii)|itiun frtim tbo duty of f[ivinfi rvid^ncu 
a law-court awl frum i^ittiug on jurieci, may be eoneiAetvi i 
connexion witfa the right of b««dom &om arreM, for 
an^ Ulmm] on tb» paramount i»«c«erity of attaodaneeat 1 
and thut the highest coart of the realm. Tbe ezaai|i 
from M-n-ico nn Jurirs seem to bav«> bwn fairly twtalilisba 
durinii EUxBbctb'» n-igo (p. 1 19), In n^onj to aiimmuDa ' 
a subpu«ua, th« nmlttT li not quitv so cltw. Tbv jiriv 
appears to have been eelabliaJiHl a« aj^ist th(^ Star Cfaaint 
and inferior courts, but not against thi- Clianc«ry. 
court r«aiated th« claim of tbe llou»« in 1583 (p. iiq^, 
a^iain in 159;, when tb« Lord Kccp«jr dcclarvd that 
revoke the subpoena waa (o rcetrain b«r M^jt^ty la ber 
gr^tcet power, which is justice '.' 

The nghtfl to determine qaoatioos eoQWcted with 
btotihip of tho HouKi, to control, punidi. or «xpol ita 
members, and to ptmisli oltacka luadv upMt tb^ Uouae 
Ivctively or upon ilj^ uieuibiKs a^ iudividuaUi. are not 1 
the pnvil^ta demanded by the Speaker, but were iifirfnTaiJ 
in tho Mxtcttatb and snventeentb conturiw to Uia rrlBeimey 
and indvpvudeiico of Pariiamoot. ThoM ritfbifi werv lalali 
liabed during tht- period under rftvinw. 

Tbi> relums to writs for parliamentary election* werv by 
an Act of till! y«ar 1406 (7 Hen. IV. 15) madu rwtumatiW 
into Chancery (|^ 3i8)> but during the fiflt«ntb cvntury 

Parliantenf : Privilege- 


)ui«4&g out of IhoDi Kt» saiid to hxro t)«<>n i]«t«r- 
' ibw King Bn*! ll>o Xiurtls. It wiw nut till tbc rvi^ti 
vt Eiinb^tlt tltat tbv Houba of Cofnmous claUiii.-d Xixv right 
•f HtUing tbcee quc«tioa«. The first occasion on which it 
wfffiM/LtA m Bp*ciiU committee to i-tumini) tho r«4iirn!( npp<ian» 
lA have boon in 1381 '. A aitiiilkr oc>niniitt«c waA upfKiinted 
■ 15114 *. Wlut tJiMtt «omnutt««a did is not r^cunluJ, hut 
|ttar pn>M«dij)ga prohably formed precedents for the conduct 
Ftbc UuuH in 15M. The rhancollor luid th«jiidg««und«i> 
L>k ia tkst ynnr to wttln n dtoputvd olcctiuii for tito county 
Norfolk, hut thv Oimmous fasoIvmI (]>. 130) that iit tw 
; tiwy ir«ra wxec«<ling their jurisdiction. Aa the House 
t to the same ««aclu«ioa as th<y chancellor with t>i<»po«t 
tlw poiot is (MMt«, that officer prrhiip* thought it wai 
whiht to diaatM the ciitcAliori of jurisdiction ; at 
Lb BpiwaRi to havo acquiesced. It was probably 
vwnig Uj thia afiair that the duty of examining retuni* was 
ratnccivd in 1593 (p. 1 it<) and subsequently (p. 31^) to tho 
standing nxumiltve for privili'g«>. During thu mat of the 
Ri|fO the dmntona xi'in to Iwve be«n allowi-i) to iva]> the 
InaiU *4 tkrir vtclorj*. But the question wa* not ^ttled : it 
rwiffniTrd in the faoioua case of tb« elodion for Burks in 
t4o4. When Jame*' firnt Parliament waa tniinninnnd, hn 
took the unuMial sb^ of imming a pnn-Iimiatiou (p. *io\ in 
wbidt be not only ctiiiatod to the electors and tu the uflicers 
wmrfro wi tbe couiluct which they ought to pursue, hut 
tfipcmdy orderet! that the writs ahoald b« returuod into 
Omoemrr. When I'arlinmnnl mot it wait found (p. 325) 
that Ik* firet fltiction for thu county uf Buck^ had been 
Unwhrd aiidaMwund clinrtion held. The House of CooinionK, 
advr s^nng into the matter at length, dochirod the fir«t 
doctjuli good, and ■dmilli.'d 8ir >'Wnci* Goodwin, tbe knight 
fin* tAfKtmA, tn his M«t. In lAking thi» sti-p they deliWi^ 
MdyignafKd Ihv king's prockuuatiou. which uiiiM havii bei-n 
koowu lo wnry meinher of the llouwv A long dis|>ut« 

• fif £•.*•■ JvinaU, pp. Jij, J4+. 



enstK^, in whiVfa Uiv Coiiimoiu, «rUfa an almost bam 
cwnbiiiatioii ufdefei-ence ani) firmnees, ilefeodwl tlieir pomtiaa 
ao w«U that the king was forc^I to givd way. A c»m|m>m»e 
was anang^, in accMnJanw with whi^h l>o(h di>ciaton8 were 
mtMMdo, «ndan«w«^«;tioiioriJortd(ii.33i). Taken «]<ni«, 
Bucks pieetion would bardly have made a aatiafa«tory 
dent, but the victory praetically remained with PnrliamNi' 
On the very day on whkh the new writ for an eWtion for 
county of Buckit was iimwd, the Houmi d«t<^muned, wilboiit 
contradidiun, two other dbfiuted deL-tiona (ppi. 331-333V 
These caaea may be taken to have established tbe pririUgt^ 
which was never afterwards assailed. 

The right of detennining tlta qnalifiealiona for member^ 
Hhip '» vloudy Goiinectod with that of examining reti: 
General rules on thia eiubject oould only be made by Aet 
Parliament, aswaadono by the statute of ■4>3(i Hon. V. 
which decjiecd that only resident knights or burRtfi^ea could 
1x1 v]<«l4sl. An IiaM almatly bouu observed (aboTe, p. Ixv 
this statute had become obstdete. A bill to repestl it wi 
introduced in 1571, but after being twice nmA w>» alloW' 
to draji '. On Iho other hand, pntendanta wens set in indi 
vitltial atsuA M'hiGh practiodly had the foic« of law. Tho* 
Smyth's ca** {>55<)> decided that an outlaw could sit, whi 
Ixird ItuBsell's c«»o in 1576, following on a similar cokb 
I ^^tf, confi'rred th" i>amr> right on tho ddeot sooa o[ peen 
(p. 131). Tho deciMon in Smyth's case waa upheld in 
of Vanghan (ijjSt)', while in the case of t'itzberhert (p^ 11 
a distinction was made between outlawry in a printu 
and outlawry at tho suit of the crown. This distiuvtioi 
recurs in thi- RuckH L-li«lion msa (p. 319). By admti 
Goodwin lli« Coniuions only confirmed their preriona di 
eiaions, but they declared their intentw>n of bringing in 
bill to diequalify outla<n-s in future. The ^neatiun of lu 
has in recent time* giTi-n aoinu trouble^ but tiie HouM 
•utUeS it without difficulty in 1560, in the case of 

■ irnn/ZoBiuifa, ppi 16SC 
* Cbtunnu' JvtnmU, L 1(4- 





PaHiameni : Privilfge. 


Jir f««M, «li'«l««] for GrampotiRil, luiil 'rcttorii^ to bu 
• loialic,' by simply bouiog « wamoit for a q«w election ', 
Tbt election for Cambridge in i6ji (p. 333) settled that 
srtunuDg oEBcors could not ntum tbnmtwlTCK. 

Hm li^it of tfau UotuM of Commons to puninli it» own 
iibLrt) was proved in tb« caae of Fet^ . . Wentw orth 
IjL tJtV whoee lint comniittol in 1576 was due to ^e 
action of thp IImum) itvolf. Tim rigbl wiw ntil! mom foicihly 
aiiBtfBttil in thv uu«e of Hidl ( 1 581 ), who. fur a Ubol on thr 
BpnUciir. waa not only fined and imprisoned, but expelltn] 
t^ Ilouae (pk 131). I>r Party wt in 1584 oonuuitt«id 
In tlw tMfjmml'n word fur u violimt upoi-di in QpixMiti^m 
ta tiba biU agaiuitt Jesuita, and waa eubs&qu«nt])' eipellt'i] '. 
n>e figbt may b« uid to have been i^rained in tlie cssea 
«( Sit K Floydo and Mr SIivi>h<.'rd, who w^cm «xp<^Ucd in 
itto, thu one for tli<.> i-riim: of being a uionopoliiit (p; 333), 
tbv otbwr because Im) had spoken disparagingly tA tfao Puritan 

Hany cano a occur in which the Uouso oxcrciwd the right 
ti paaialiinf; thoMi who rioUlfd or nbu.-w^d ilx girivih'grs or 
•■mltod Ita mcuibcnt. In 1543 thv dhi'rifls who had 
mitnl FemvB W«r» committed by order of the Houitv. 
T&e impfisoDRwnt of the Wardon of the Fleet and otbeiB 
IB 1604 i« an iariancn of the nmu kind (pp. 311, 3i3>. 
SoaUry, wh<»i! reluiBO in 1576 {atstt abov«, p. xc) hnd 
fflaitfaled the immunity of members' servants &om arrvbt, 
\ aAenratd* discowred to haro fraud uli>nt)y procured hi« 
in order to uacape jxiymeut of hia dobt, and waa 
■sTitfvly puuiabiid by the Uuuso'. The case of Williams 
(f, 132) iUu&trales the special protection from n.wiaull con- 
Strtwl uiMin mi'nibors of PaxliamonL Thin privilege wan 
pnilMbly of Tory old standing, for it bad been extonded 
by an AH "f Parliament in 1404 (5 Hc'i. IV. 6) own to 
lerrantfi. The right of committal waa appliod 

■ OmiKKm/ AwMb. i. ;s. 

■ ifKtat' JoHrub, p. 35*. 
• i»^ p. 158. 




in th« same ynr to protect the priricy of <]«bat« fp. 1 3 
o priril»(i;« whipli ParliomBiit enjoyed in eommon wit!) 
hifili coiirtu of Uw. 

But all tfi(«^ privileges w«ra of oompantively littln rultie 
If th<i oiui tiling neodfiil, frvedom of «peach. were ilenieiL 
Thia all-important prinlogci, it must b« oUowui, rax nol 
completely established until the Lon); Parliament. Tlic 
ram corns, Buch M that of Wentwoith am] I'arry labo' 
p. xcii!\ in «rLi«b th« Homao it««lf placed nwtraints upon i 
membeni, need uot roeeivti nioixt than pa««inir nntinv W 
requires congideration is tlie extent to which tbe cmim 
inteKerrd <o chwk lihorly of debate. Tlie caaea of Haxiry 
in 139; and of Sljtide in 151,1 ary^*"!! known. In 
uiMA tiio privilege waa aneoeaafully TindioalMl, but Simla' 
AH (a Uen. Vlll. 8>. though it faarred aclious ai^iunKl iiiwn< 
bera of Parliament by other court* or pri^-ate individuals 
BCMrtint of Ihinga luud or donn in Parliament, wns evidently 
nut rvKHrdi-d aa capable of application afiaiiiMt the isrtTwn. 
The control exercised by Elizabeth over the introductioR of 
bille, experially nuch as concerned religion, has alreaidy bc«a 
notiotd (»lx.v», p^ IxviX and inlorferenoe with legishuioB 
cannot in practice be diatingtitshnd from UmitAtioas no 
freedom of speech. Apart bifsa eocleaiastiaal aSaxr*. ihi 
wnre certain other i»ubjecte which the queui waa ve 
unwilliitK to Eiibmit to public diwiwaioo. Soch were the 
((Ui^tiuns of bur uiarriaK« and th« mmcmuoq to tJtv 
But theae w«e matters f>i such grave. publie in 
eep««ial1y tn tlio aarlier part of her reign, tliat diei-uwiion 
of them waa inevitable Eltubvth'a (irfit Parliaiiieni piw 
aentMl a pvliliun, bt^rgin^ her to marry, to which nhe gavs 
a gradouH answer, couched ia the enigmatical atylv in wliid 
when she ohoae, she could show henelf so remarkable 
fici«ot The IIoomi •xpraaeM) its Mtisfitotion. but when, ft 
ymn lat«ir, it met again jud nothing had burn dona 
uppease its anxiety, it could not help recurring ta the 
ftiihjivt. The pt>tition of 156J. at once raspectbil and 
pi\«siu^ is prinUnl bdow (p. lo;). Tfaw queen's anawat 

> OD 


Parliament: Privilege. 


109) unoanhHi to « diaEinct rofusal to show b«r luutd. 
oecaKJonv, when wo coiMiiinr tbo impnrioHS cha- 
of EluabHUi anii th« eritit-al ruiture of Ibn liiiKM. it 
win l>« Allon't^ that the Houm* di&i.>Liyed some iKildnoaa auO 
tfi# •{iw'vn sn oieinplary |)atieac«. But when in t566 
rarliuRrnt ni>ntfe«lcJ ita intention to p<«»ut in putting 
ircMure on )m.t, nliu euuM boar it nu luriKor. Bh» IxtKiin 
h; iatunating h«r dialike of th^ir proceeding, aod rinding 
Wr hinta diw^arJed. ah© p^reoiplorily slopped th« d«)i«t« 
(fi itS). It WM in rain thiit Piiul Wcntvrorih raided the 
^■ertioii of pririlf^gtt. Thp igun-n )uid thn gnnd M-niw to 
rerak« ber formal prohiliittoa. but hi-r disp)«aauri> wiui •<> 
$f Mtpreefled that th« matter was alloved to drop. 
Um> doMi of thv M««on ih« Commons r«c«ivod a M>v«r« 
from thr ■oTcn-itin in penion fur Utrir inufipurtiino 
faucardoq* pcnislvnce '. 
' middle period of the reign, as it was the most critiml 
' the mt^ of lh(> countTy. n-as also that in which b'berty 
' ip«eth WB« moKt b'kuly to Ik> nuttrainrd. At tho o|wning 
of Pariiuncot tn 1571. thn Lon) Ki't-jwr, aft^r iudifjiliiig thn 
mH^Kta which required attvntion, took occasion, in anawor 
t* tfav Spcmk^r'a t«>]nest for privileges, to intimate plainly 
tp, I ia> that (hr Hous« would not be allowed to stray beyond 
Ibnau b^iandik Tlu- (lirvul wnn fullovrod by tbu inhibilinti nf 
Mr StrickUnd. who bad venturwl to mor^ for a ooiiiinilt4>e 
OB cedeeJaatiral matters and subsequently to introduce a 
tiU * for tfa« rvfomintion of th« Book of Common Prayer.* 
m» hiicty-itandad vX btoumh) so much reMinlmont (p. 1 19) 
thai atrickland was allowed to Ktum lu hla placv, hut tlK> 
9*KMi h»i her way with reepect to the bill. In the same 
oenKKi another member. Hr Bvll, who had called attention 
tolbaabaivof liei^nMa, waitnummoncd liefocctbt'Coundl and 
ifrhnandeJ ', while a bill of attainder which was being 
pwparvd against Haty Queen of ijc«t« was stayed by order 
nS the cruwD. The Lord Keeper wound up the aessioa nnth 

ff Ewa' Jiftn»U, f. ilQ. 

• ftL^p. »4». 



a »j>«<<ch in which tho ' ■iidncity and prranmption ' of 

meuibi'm wa« (MtTwvly liIamiHl. Th« conduct of the gov* 

menl in thut »etoioti, and in Uia( of IS71 (p. no, nnd iklwi 

p. Uvi). led I'et«r Wentworth tomake a formal n>Jiiuiii>ti 

in the Parliament of 1576 (p. 130), but all he gained by 

KHiragtious prot«<«t was a month's impmooment in the To 

hy utd«r of Uio Houao il^df. It h-m by llw r]ui-<in*» int 

ventioa that he was at length rt!l(«s«d. Sir ^V. Mildnias 

■[waking on this occasion (jx. iia), made a distinction betnr 

llbftrty and liccnrv, which obvioosly lp(t it in Iho discretio 

of tbi! guvcninmnt to draw tho line whcrv it pltaiuml. In 

1587 Wentworth retum«sl to the charge, and divw up 

a scrifw of ijuoetions (p. I3j) intended to clear th« way fo 

th« ditwuNKion of certain propoealii madv by MrCope, tone 

allt'rationa in the Prayer-Book. It ia hardly ncooMnry 

say that these questions were not put to the Housci. Tfc 

roriiwd book and thu bill intended to secure its adoptia 

wcru eoiit for by ibv qucnti, and Capo and bis Mipjiortc 

after ao interview with the Privy Couneil, w«re vonuntt 

to the TowiT. Thi> suno policy was puisu^I in 1 59 j, wt 

WiMilworth and thrtxi other mombons were imprisoned 

appruachiuK the Uouse of Lords witli a vi«w to a jo 

petition for the wtllt^ment of the succession, wliUn Kr Ilf orric 

wiw Mvludnl for pntu-uting a bill for ilie refomiatiuu nf 

cburph-courts '. These despotic pronrodinpt rhowM) 

dele rn)i nation of th« government to luaiulaiu the 11 

tions Mit by the Loid Keepor in his sp««ch at the opnnlnd 

of Parliament (p. tif). Tbe petition for jadttomeDt afpdi: 

Maiy Queen of Scola. which was presented in ijSfi (p. 109). 

with the paivaijiiM that fullowi-d. forrn no rvAl dvfwrtuiv from 

the rule, for it is clear that at this timv Elizabeth was no< 

unwilling to undergo the preflsure which ahe reeeutod in 

15; J. while her curt aud imperimu answer (p. ii[> prove 

her rnolutioa, in ef»te of thia partial coQ«eeeioD, to 

Ihd final decision in her own hands. 

These ivpcal^ rvpnonoos of partiamentaijr 


> irsW 

l» *P>. 47*. A9i 

Parliament : Privilege. 


ly Kquie«icod in or at nuiet but fc-eklj- T«sfrn(«<), ahow 
frwjilom uf tqwiccti luu) loadn littla proigress duriug ttic 
lUi mutury. But thi? nwjiMt for Ibo crown. th» con- 
nfKWfn] in itfi policy. snJ th>- |»'nioiml loyiiUy fult 
tlM> sciwrcigti. ifhich made Elizabelh'a Parliaiiit-itt^ 
•olimtmro, gxvv wny to difTtn-oiit feelings in th« followiof: 
It is hardly likuly tlint Junm' fint Pikrliainoiit. 
fOQgbt the battle of privilege so stoutly in Uil- onsra 
Iwin uk) ShirW. wotild hav« tamely submitted had 
: rcclrietvd tbcir liburty of speech in thtj poremptoiy 
DMDJutr itf hid pnMfeceMor. But a goo<I undoralnniliiig wiut 
(n the whole maintained durint* the «urly pnrt of the n-igii. 
a«l Ro oollinionn of thifi kind occarrcd. The firat attack on 
Cb»ty of afxtwh «raa niadv in 1614, aftor thit diwnlution of 
wiiat w»a koowu aa the Addlod Partiameiit. That aaaiNiiltly 
had djAtiDately refused to grant supplies unkm tiw kinfc 
mold afaajuion his claim to impodtiooo. Finding the king 
UBBioTcalile, thpy attacluKl Ihir courtiArK ami tln! fiivoiiritf^ 
bwa* £ti:di«alir«atoiii»of JantM* timidityand ufhiit uawiic- 
iam th*t hf. did not check the leaders of the oppositJoD 
wUIe the lloaeo wa« sitting, but punished them when 
aatiiini; warn to be giunwl. Aft<!r Piu-lium^iit had broken 
>p^ Xhts more riolent spiaakere w^re sent to th« Towvr ; 
•lUwn were ordered to remain in London: otbora again 
wcr» ■tract: off tho commission of the poace. In lAii 
> wnnt furlhor. Tlic t\nA arauiiou of tliat year vra.<t in 
oiajn BuecwsTuI and harmonious, but tbt» king showed 
idi«ple»sure against Sandys, who hjid already aufforcd in 
114. by ttDprisoning him during the adjournment. When 
tbe Hooav mi4 a^nin. ijuntlionH wcm aakot) as to tho caoae of 
kia d»(«ntiuii. In an arrogant and ill-tempered meeeage 
310^ JaUM Dot only declared his inteDttoo of punishing 
member whoso rondui::t might npprar t» him to merit 
bat forbtulv thi- Huuxi to |iruc«e*l with the dis- 
on of fomigu afiatra, respecting whiefa they bad alrvady 
up a petition <p. 307). The reply of the Coinnionn 
,}li) wa« temperate bnt firm. They insisted on thvir 



n^A to difwuea foretgu a0'*irs. and on Uie rHognitioB < 
liberty gf speech as tb«ir *iindoubt^ uiheritaaoe'(cf. p.i^4 
On tbis point Jumea joined issue. Uis tvmmrk — '■■'( du 
for tlie nmbiiaaHlors '— mado au tbv ■rri^'alof Ihv , 
tiir>' ili.-i)utiv^ ftUutved tbat ht wua out blind lo Mas bet 
PatlioDieDt had. wbetber it kii«w it or not, aamitlMl 
position of an indepondcnt power. From thia 
li« WBK rutolvfd to drivu ihom. Hut rajoindcr (p. 30 
cltallvni^od tbe niibtd vrbicb th«y bad claimed, and 
tliut tbeir priv{l<?g«e, far from Wing beiitable \* 
dopi-ndvd motvly on tho mvomgn's gncv. Sticli an 
tion wait dmtriictiTo of tliv ol^tctA for whiob Parliania 
existed. Tlie famous protest of 1621 (p. 313) was tho: 
It van in vain tbat ibe king torv it trota the book: : 
remained engraved on tbo Iwari of tbe nation. Tbo 
pruonmuitt of Coko and other Ittading nttroibcni was 1 
futile: iu tlie ParlianieDl of 16J4 Jamea waa for«Dd lu 
all tliat tbe rnrliament of ibn lud demandML liore 
half aenntun- clapwd buforv tito final victory wa* woo, 
tho Long Parliament, the Revolution, and tbe Bill uf ] 
merely dc^veloped and established tbo principles oa 
the nion of 1631 bad taken tbair stand. 

Conccn, ViinsTSM asd SiABrniuiitnL 

If tlio control over Ivgi»]atioa and laxalioo was matolvi 
tho banila of Parliamvnl, tbo coKutaand ttt the eseoit 
twluuK^ eidosively to tho soraMlipi, acting oitbr alooe 1 
tbruiigh the OonncO. Orw this body I^riisinMit bad 
eontroL Tho &>et tliat Privr CouncQlors were almwl b1« 
nMmbera of one or other Ucosa was not, in Iba 
ondiT povii-w, a meaas wherabjr tho larger body 
iikHiieuw the sutaller : on tb« contrary, it enabliid th« 
Council men easily lo sway th« mind and guida the actioiw 

The Privy CoujutL 


il. no«r much influence the CouQcU could bring 

lkira|W(i tbu cruwn it is diflimlt to tuiy. TW cxtrnt of 

tMawKW <lir[>onijei) mainly on the personal clutra<'t«r of 

wvMwj^a. It whm «-rt«inIy larger in the* dnj-s of th« 

thmn in ibooo of thu Tudon, l>ut even undvr the 

I wtf-wilied monarcba of that intperJoua line it must 

^bnmxKiAidcmhlo. For though the sovereign notnin- 

tk* mvniUifw of (h« Coiindl (p. 179) and pereonnlly 

«11 Lho highfr d«|iartjiivnl9i ofStatt^ ho wm 

, (Ten if as watchful and laborious as Henry VIII or 

to Inavc much to his subordinates. Uen of iho 

of BurKhlfy ami Wdlnnghaii), MiMrnny nnd Honry 

f, Koollys and Jfubt-rt Ctcil, won- 110 MiTvilo iustru- 

Atnrt from the force of routine and the influence 

: fiuR] th» mniuigement of details, the counir^l and 

of Muiti nii'ii niuKt tuiv<> liirgoly mndiliiHl tlto 

' of tlku State. If this wnw thu vasv tiiider Klizaliotli, It 

! Bocli raoov 9D Dnder James, whoso constitutional indo- 

faa» and Garele«n«8B left public bujaPew mostly in the 

tore. Tho groat difloreuce batweeo these, 

:Ar aei their attitude tovrotda sbito«fficia]s EbI 

wmiUiil, Um in this, that Elij»beth, though aim had hen 

j lanvritee, nerer tnuled them with supremo coiitrol,| 

\ rt — Januw allowod theni to direct the gorerumoDt. 

LtieMtcr, Haltoit aud Tvw« wore hiadcd with giftx and had' 

nady atonaa to the auwivigu's ear, but it wad Burghloy who 

yMwmed for the queen : Buckingham, on the otkiT hand, 

«^ trMMSter and Burghley rolled into one. 

TboODoncU, or Privy Council — for thwte titirat aro indi» 
qJnupalJtly oaed — was not, during thia poriod, a largo body. 
It attBLb«r«il, as a rule, about eevon toeo or«ight«en peipgm. 
Moot af whom were high of^cen of Slate. Its mombers 
tNok a apKiBl oatli Ip. 16^). The only siirx-ival of tho old 
'omaUnra oniinariuin' oa dlidiiiguisfanl from thu inniv, 
iwihhintial body, the Privy CoutMil, whi4:ti liad gradually 
ita functions, is to be found iii the eii^tt-mre of 
WqkI quaai^xnincillors * the <jue«n's Counsel learned 


ill tlio Uw- ' (pp. 167, 403), whoMi advice or uaisUace nudul 
be requircO m \fr^\ ntattvrs, l>iit who othemtac had no | 
in Ihu busiaeas of Die Council. Und«r Elizabeth th« 
cillora vrM\^ with nuw mtcoptionii, hiyinvn : «v«n unil 
Jiuiim T the cK'rieaJ «]emeii( was small and coiii(^iiintiT«{ 
umni|K)rlai)l. The Church had now resign^ all claim up 
th« great iemponii offices : no rhiirchman hold nueh uO 
undnr Elixabvth ; Biidinp Wtlliiuu!i, who liucanii-' 
Keeper in 1621. waa the only exception under Jame« 
Among the great offioera, th« Lord Chuicellor still 
A lechnicAl pnvedpnco. Tho gn<at soal w«a ocnwonallyi 
in coiiiniiHnioii, but only for aliort iiitt'n'ala. A Loti] K)f 
unca ap]wars instead of the chancellor, hut this miule 
practical diCToreDoe. for. by an Act of 1563 (,<; Eliz. 18. p. 441 
their authority wa» dceUrxd idnnticiil. Th>.i pulilical 
flueneo uf the chancellor waa, bowitver, not what it 
oiKe been : the position of the first minister, if it is 
prvmaturo to use tiie pbraae. w»s hold by othon, som* 
by tho trcwuiror, MntfltinH** ovon (as was tl)i> a>M> witb 
Cocil«) by the secrolar)'. In Jamat' reign (he Tr 
like the Chancery, waa sometinim put in comminioR. 

Of the oth«r grMt ofSc^rs nothing n««d hore bo «uil, Imt 
tho ofii«' of St-cretarj', nr Prttici|ial Secretary, dcsurw* mo 
than pasaing notice. The«t officere^for at this time 
TTwe geoerally two— wore characteristic instrumonts of 
Tador ayntom. Their origin, indow), li<M much fur 
back, but their political inipurtancA dates from the 1 
nient of the Tudor autocmcy. and is indicativi?, W(> m^ 
almost any, of tho befriuning of government in tlie niodit 
aonW; During tlw Middle- Agea life was nimpUi, and 
nii^nlwaalargi-lyaniatlerof laia!N>E-faire : it waaforlhuinil 
pail occasional and sp>asmo«tic. negativA rather than pt>att(1 
coeix^rp mther than od licit ionnl. It consisted chteOj 
collecting taxui, suppreoHiiiK robullionit, and inaintuininK < 
authority of the common law. The reUiiou^ with for 
powen were broken andirregiilar: [•crnianeiit c ml^ 
noluowa. But with thv Tiidore life liecaine mora j 

Minisitrs and the Council. 


I iSain tnorv MigroNtin^, and gov^mment entered or a 

'fhiML It became univenal, fiunjitantanil p)M]p(raUvt> : it 

I to npiUt<-. n-ith iacr«Mitig minutviiiiAi. Uil* unlinaiy 

tt lifn, i t >iJd<^ 'Uroction to coptrol. LcgiaJatioD 

|if k^H unil boundsL Kcw miichinmy wms i]iveat«d, 

lery vxp«ade<l, to ezL-oiite tlio \a.\r* ; whilo tho 

U>ft hy stAlute were constantly uarrowed l>y 

«itl prorlnmutipn. In this devi^topment the 

Ciosdl luok tlia cliief put, nni] in tlic work of tho Council 

(^ Mcivun' bevaune mom and more i[i<lis(>vfiMtblt!. That 

WMt d«iiartnients. the Church, the Law. th« Keveiiiie, 

lh» Court, thi- Nary, might be lefl to the old officials 

—^km ArriibuhoiMi and Biiiliopti, tho Cliancpllor and the 

Ai^ea, tbit TrtKwnin^r and tb« Chancvllor of tbv Exohcqu«r, 

ft* SlMnftl, the Admiral, with their ancient cotirts and 

iWr IMW aMsUnts— but local government, industry and 

tnJc tkv culoniwi. Ireland, and nlmvu all tho diplomatic 

rriuiuoa with fureijpi St^itivt, rci^nirud wuntant attention. 

^t tlxMe matters the Boveretgn waa primarily reBpunniltln, 

I^B k was cfai«fly through th« secretary that he exerci)^ 

^1 np«nri»on. Through tbb cbaniHd ho onToycd his 

linMin to liw bmdtt of dt'partineula, to Utu Ijordifl^ioM- 

traant. tjt thr Cvunoila of the North and of Waleei. to tlio 

Lml Dtipoty in Ireland, to the ambassadois abroad. The 

Movtary wa.« r^poDMhte for the minutosof tho CouncU, and 

ina eX|K«t«d to act aa a rt-putiitoryof all uaeful infonnation. 

Someof hiamultifiirious duties aro Qot«d in a memorandum 

printed ImIow (p. t66). His otTico w tho g«rm front nhirli the 

■aaat Mcntarial dcrparttn*-nLsuf tlii> pnwi,-nt day havu .ipruu];. 

^^Qm pawt!«s of th(! Council in ila coriMirutu capacity were 

^wide and Turious that anything like a full description of 

^^n woald mipiirfi a fwpanile trcialine. It has be«n rightly 

■M thai lh« pt'iioil •■ftht'Tiidorsand tho Mrly StowartA was 

tb« * panud of ffOTiTnmunt by t^HinciL' lu other worda, it 

«■■ in and tbi\jugli th« Council that tb« absoluta monarchy 

pafiMUMil ha work. Repr«>«entiDg the sovereign, who was 

•appOM^ to be proHDt th«r« (i\ 183), lh» Council 


»itpcrTii«ed Uiu kditiinitlralion of tlw Uvni, tvpilatoil tra«&^ 
and wagee^ baniahed roguca, dealt wiUi obstinate recuant^ 
graoted licences to travel, restricteti the prves, »dinini«faffJ 
««tbs of «lIoficiaiKa^ n>priiniin<Ii-d juries kept ui tifo aa 
law-oourta, tlie ju»ticm of tbu iKwra, atid tbo grAat CouO' 
of (he North and Wal*§, and even to some extent control 
tho Church. It deliberated on all affaire of StM< 
out plot-s, took mc«:iur<<H to supproiw rolx-lliQn* in i 
to TV|>ul an invasion <^ th» coaat«, cidl<.-d out Ili« lui 
forces and directed the movements of the fiiwt. It WM 
stituted, n-ith the addition of certain other p«rso9UL a n>u: 
of rvgORcy in tho eawi of the qu'-on'x tuddim dmih (p. H 
In it« right to iuutt onlns or ordiniuiouit, «. k- for tbu 
ship of the pi«8\ it poHseeeed a Bomi-legisUlive po' 
through its commercial reguhiliona. its managemeii' ' 
aad IwiK^-oI'-nnoi, nnd itJtdetnrminnlion ofiiiilitju^ ; 
Et «ban!d uunlrol over taxatton : tiiudly it poasctaed a 
Bpnad and peculiarly despotic jurisdiction. 

This jurisdiction was partly appellate^ partly origin&l 
Tba supremo jnriixlicfiun of the king in Coandl wiw. 
Baoon aay» (p. 408X through all tho ebangca and d(>v«l< 
ment of the judicial system, alwa^-s rMwrved. Tbo api 
jurisdiction of tlie Council in civil cases doe* not seem 
havti bv»n seriously otgected to, and, surviving the Loi 
Pai'liaraent, lias contimtMl till ihn prvM-nl ilny. Itn origi 
criminal jurisdiction was uf Ear gruat^r cunMitutiuual i 
portanoe and requirea longer notiM. Uany complaints 
boon niado iLfcninst it in the fourteenth r>intun', but in tb« 
early paii of IJte Lancastrian period tbv control wh: 
Parliament obtained over tbc Council modified tliis 
and Acts were passed (e. g. 13 Uen. IV. 7 ; 3 Uen. V. 
8, coulinuod by 19 Hon. VII. 13) which confprred D|ma 
statutory powers to punish riots. TbcM powors 
•ztonded in 1453 (3' H^^ VL s), so as to cover 
misdenieonouix. ITio Gunous Act of 1487 (j Uen. VIL i| 
h therefore no iHolntoiI phenomenon, tiut 1* to bo coo- 
shlorod in Mnnexion with thoforogoiug statutes. It 

Tfte Court of Siar-Chamher. 


» now «>urt, conitisting of rertnin gtf-nt officials and otiier 
uiembera of tlte Council, witli tiro jitdgiM, nnd nndow^d it 
with large l>ut sjicciflc [wwera. This is (hi.* com! afti*rwsrd« 
known ns Wx'- ytnr-Chnnibcr, and abotiehed in ifi^i. Tlie 
Act of 1 487, wliilo Hdtliiiii; ii|i thix nitvt mncltinMy, did not 
repeal llii- (ibovc-niiiitUoned Acts, or tn any way limit tlie 
jurisdiction, partly customary, partly statutory, exercised 
by tim Council. For som« lime tho Council and the court 
ivniiiini'il i]uito iliMtincI, and llii'ir jumiltolionTi, thongh nt 
least partiuUy oveila|iiiiuK, wore exorcised concurrrnlly. 
Since three-fourths of tho membeTs of the court wer* Privy 
Coun«ilIoi's, this need not liave led to siiy coUision. That 
thu court of 14K7 ctxiittn) in it.t ori};inal form down (■> tho 
year 1519 is eltmr from »n Act of that year (11 Htm, VIII. 
30), by which its jurisdiction was conlirniod. and the IVeai- 
dent of the Council added to it. 

But nhout the middle of the Nixtennth century an imf 
portiint chnng*' took tiliicti in iti* Rom]HiHiti»n. Tho Star- 
Chandx-T, ea \ta know it in Eliuibetli's rei^i and kuIhio- 
quently. ta no longer the small body constituted in 1487, 
bat a court consisting of all the members of the IMvy 
Council iogethor with tho two chit^f jiinticc*. This is clear 
not only from the evidence of cont«m|iorarywrilt<rH |]>p. 171;, 
iSo, 18a, 4^3, 40^). but from manj' incidenttd allunioua, 
and from the records of the court. These records' show 
that, vrhile the court was nomnttme'i imialler in r<»pnc.t of 
nun)bi-r» tlian thai constituted in 148;. it was Keiioivlly 
much tu^r, and that a bishop was not by any m«u» 
always preaeoit. This discrepancy has led Monie eminent 
writers to conclude, that th" lourt iHtidiliHhi^d in 1487 wn» 
not the Star-ChiunlK'r. that it ceased to exist about the 
middle of tho mxte^uth century, and consequently that the 
Star-Cliumber (that is, tho «>iirt known by that namo in 
the reigo of Elizabeth and afturwai-ds) could not luLHuany 

' SniiM notM from Cli&rlii* !'« rvljta *rr publUhfid ia 'CaMm in Ih<.' 
Star-CluiMbMr and High ComiiiiBuoii,' Ci)iii<I<in Suciety, iSI)6. 



nf its jurisdiction on the Act of 1487'. But tbcivdoHUt 
>I»]>ear lo be sufficient ground for this c«nc]iu«oin. Mil it^ 
opposed to tho tradittoa of the sixtmntli ocnturj, which. !■ 
A mnttor of «> ruocnt diit«^ iii»y probably be trustwL "n* 
Act of \A'i^, l)ioui;)i no muni: id ruenliaDed in tho Wrtf 
i1h> Act, tB headed 'ProCanii>»Stell»ta».' This phruttouuKU 
l>e taken to imply tbnt th* 'Caninra Slellnta' ulroadr m- 
i»tnl, unci Unit tho Act iiu'raly eonfinawl and expanded 
juriadii-tiuii (cf. 175, 408); b4il however this may bo^wa 
etttainly infer that, at the time when (lis Act in qui 
was enrolled, tho court which it m^atnl w:ut n-gardvd ad * 
Cotirt of mnr-niiini1<or. ' Th** Htatutn of Rt^tainer^, pMoed 
■503 (■9llt.-ii. VII. 14, $ 6) mentioua IJiu juriadictioD of 
Lord Cliancellor of England ... in th« Stai'-Chamhnr' 
concurrent for tho purpoem conteraplatiMl in th« Act wii 
the jiiriiuiirtioiiit uf 'tho King and his Council' and 
•* KiiiK in luB 6«f)cli.' A SUtiito of 1^3,6 (>8 Uen. VIII. t 
}f 4- 5) orders that certain offenders shall be bwind over 
app««r 'bvfure th« King and his Ouix^il in th« Slai^ 
ChanibtT at WctituiiitHli'r,' and tlial the bund.t for 
appearance are to U? ci'ititii<d ' Into the Stai^Cbauilier. 
may iwrhaps bo inferred from tlua Act that th« «xpanaiMi 
kfokt-n of abov« had already taken place. Thai in 1563 
the court was boJi«ri-il lo Iihta bad, ao tar. ■ continuouN and 
unbroken existence, la provod by a Statute of that y 
(5 Elti. 9, f 7). which provides ' that this Ac4 . . . sball n 
. . . nwtrun (ho power gtwn by Act of Pariiament niade 
it) the tiuw-* of Hi-nrj' VII lo Ihf lArnl (.'hanrplW and ittbura 
of the King's Council for thi.' timi; bi-in;;, tu eiuunJna and 
punisfa riots [&c.] : which Lord CliaDcdhd* and othan aiM* 
tho making of tho mid Act hare moat conunonty used \» 
hear and ii«-t(>rTuiQe iiuch mallm in tb» court at Wolf 
nitn*t«>r commonly callml liie Star-Cbanber.* 

Thcae uxtracta aoLOi coodwun of tbe point Utst th« 




' Itallua. i%ML HW.. t M •»*•: Wt cL gtaU^ LkCml ^ 

The Court of Star-Oiamber. 


\ia 1487 W8S historically identical with th« court 

I in Elinbetli's rviga aa tb^ SUrChambor, and tha 

I'MifaicDa is ooafiinUNl by nil inxitpmporury n'ritont on the 

I ■fefMt In dffault (rf cU»r vviiU'ik-i.- it M«ina rwBonabl« to 

llal. nt mime time betw««a 1519 And the e&rlier 

\firi a{ ^ub«th'a r«ign~pvrhat>8 oven b«rfnm 1547— by 

! p ww jw of wbirli n'(i hiivv no rrc»id. wh«th«r by na 

tit ()]<• cruu-n tiitml«r U> that of 151^ or by 

>p»fMl Mid unobserved aroadgannttion with the larger 

iIt, the composition of the court underwent a cboDge^ 

li* &rt that the Council nnd Ihu court hxvwIjmhI very 

I Mtbr jtifiMlictionN, and that tb« court watt at finit liUIu 

BMft UttD a coiumitt«« of the Councilfd p. tSi), facilitated 

fiot fmeasBk When once the Privy CMiQcillon, as a body, 

iai nmn to )>p reinirded as ex-oflici» nii>nilM>rH of tho 8(>r- WM only natural that th« Cuiiiici) sliould gradually 

trmfcr Ha ctimiiuU juriwdJction to (be laltor. The two bodies 

fwith lb* wception of the justiceo) being now identinl. it 

mittnnd littln in which capacity, as OouncilJors or aa Star- 

t^ainlwrr judgm, ihrir nK'nibcra diachargrd ihmr judicial 

■ ; and since tfit-n: waa a better statutory foundation 

' jurtadicdon of the StaKliainber than for that of the 

while in the former they had. what they had not 

laltwr— thii n»»i»lnnce of legal adrisere— it was morn 

iTKiurnt to diwbargci thcHtp functions in tho StarChnniWr. 

The ration botween the Privy Council and the Star^luuuber 

Amog tb« poriod under review thus re«eiablea very eloaely 

<tsi»trd between the Curia Kegia and the Ex- 

' in the aarly jinrt of tho reign of Henry II. 

ttift ehuign deecribed above laid the courl open to 

I tAJMdioRs which were eventually faiaL The old dialihe 

ha cMiriltar juriMliction. though it was latent during 

iilor tinii^ luul nevtr Ini-n altogt-ther app«a»r^. and 

rivtnl in tbe sixteenth ccntuiy. Now only a part, nnd 

pniliably tha anialler part, of tho juriddiclion cxorciaud 

|tjM> St^'Chamber in the seventeenth century could be 

im the Act of 1487. It was on this ground that 



Chnnibora in i<'>39 ncistod lU judgement. The! 
liuliliiiK Ihut Ui<! 8tar^liAinl¥>r exuti^ long 
aud Uit-rt-furu did iiot di-jwinl fur iU juriwiic'tion on ttin \t 
uf Henry VII. rfj<M;ted Hie (iliui. In tliLi dwisioii tbpj- It 
lliQ lino already taken by sutboritiea so ilireriM as Co 
(p. 401) and Bacon (p. 408). Those sr««t Uwy^fs 
havtt b<Miii iiicormct in Miyin^ ttint ibe ' Conrt of 
Chamber,' lliut is. « i-uurt known l>y tluit niunc, 
b«fbr9 tlie Tudois ; but th«y lure t-igbt in Ihoir nuin 
t«iiti«D that tho court as th*y knew it, that is the I*ri» 
CouiiL'il in it» jiidicinJ ca|Kicilr. could tnce its JHrii>dirti(4 
to a fiir earlier ilalt-, Ni'vcrtliclriw tho lawycin "f tlie 
ParliBUi(.-ut, wlivii thfy aliollih<id tho SlarChambtT, jufttifi« 
tbeir action on the KT<>und that it liad «xcc«deHl the 
conferred upon it by the Act of 1487. Some conftision ii 
rugHi-d to tb« antiquity of the nam« of tht> court lm» l»M.>n 
cauHcd by tlm fart that, to far back a« th« rvif^ at 
E*]vran] III, n ruoin ca1b-d tbn SlarOuuubor. tho chaadn 
deiHoilfs, was uaed by thi- Council, whi-ttivr sitting jiulicialljr 
or othervriae; while in the sixteenth and scirentecoth 
conlnriot Iho 0>uncil tT«n«act«d much of its non-jc 
Intaincas in Iho lamo room (a. g. p. ifrB). 

The jurisdiction of the court, and its mMhod trf proce 
when at Iho height of its activity and the x«nilh 
powor, nrtf too wcU known to require discussion livra. Tlii^ 
nro tluscribul in thi> |i«s*ng<!S printed bulow, and iUnstral«J 
liy ovety history of the time. It is worth wliiltv horrartr. 
to oall attention to the fart (bat. at least till the eod of the 
fifteenth cantuty, the court was neither rv^utlml wi 
dislike nor chargod with ill^xality- IIi»torian» like Camd* 
lawjats like Coko, stataanen Ilka Sntilh, ]>hiluaopbers 
Bacmi, country gentlenien like Lanibanl, comluoe in 
praise. In tho reign of Elizabeth it was looki-d U|ion an 
as an instniment uf trninny hut as tho guardian of 
while n-wn in that of Jamas I, a vary large part of thv 
neea tiiat i-uiu- bL-foiv it arose from suita bcought by prii 
_penoa& It was not till the idng and the nation w«« 



I of ^^1 

The Judkatttre. 


nraoM liuit it mts iwcd t<i inMntiiin a liiiti'ftil i)c«potinn. 
II k «f«D pcMsiblc that, had it kupt cImt of eocluoiiuticMl 
ifio^ it might have esnpet] tho fate thnt orertook it in 
I*)'. It wn» apjnronlly Whitgift who first led it into 
tkwt^rnj^ piithft. V.\v\fx Inn infla«aM\ and iiubwqu^-ntlr 
■^ that of Iikud, it MiiiiL-litnu dealt with cwmm which 
fl^H if dealt with at all. lo have been doalt with by lliu 
84^ Csfiimisiion, and ihiia religious fi>eling lia<l no liUle 
ttiMni th» nn'n of an rnatitiition which hnd tKHtn mIImI 
Bl* Mb0 lo Mipprcm baronial anarvliy. 



\ta eonatitutional Importance of th« judicial ey&tem in 
th* «ixt«eath and sevMiteeath centunm may 1>o inferred from 
Iho felknring considonttJonB. Tlio old province iif tho 
mnmoa-law omirto wan not only narrowod by tliv «quitabl« 
JBOMlktioa of tho Chaucen,- and (till 1599) of the Court of 
bipMlB, but it wa& invuded on several aides by the laler 
<l^nalfl|i(nMits of the «vclMia«ticsl tribunals. It was furtlier 
■ncroacfavil upon by thi> Stnr<%ainb«rr, by tho locnl courts 
(nunol on the modid of that iu»tilutiiin, and by oIIht courts 
' Vb» Admiralty. The growing jurisdidioti of th« 
4f tbo peace, while it eonducod to the maiutenanoa 
of Uw, li^ttinod tho dutit« and dimini»bed the importanco 
«< tb* jaalM«i* of aaaiML Af^in, lliu coiiinioii-law courts 
•<•«» awd by thi? Stowarta to support their claim to aVisoIuto 
wrthi—ilji especially in regard to financial exaction*, and 
JB^aa aoch as Coke and Cn-w, who rcfuiod to further iha 
widioa of tho cmwn, worn liahlu to diHintiwuL Clowly 
1^^^^ t!i Ibia wHi thr practice, ufton adopted by tho 

I^^H t: v%art«, of consulting the judges about cofMti- 

iMtMnal t|UMiioRft in an extra-judicial manner, a method 
ntriomly open tu gravo abusea. The niles of common- 
iraw oocasionaUy 6«t «dd* in tiiTQur of (larlianK'iititry 


[irivil«j{U^ Of l<'iuf">nirily [tu!>|M-iic)<Kl by tli« est«bir^Iiin<wl o^^ 
martial law ia portUtulMr diolriets or for carUin cUmms «f 
persons. They wer« repeatedly strained or violated by tli» 
liiKh-hnixlo'l urtign of great officials or mambere oT tii» 
Privy Council, by ttiv ovmiodii of sUtulo* and Uui < 
of special tribunals in political trials, and by the Bubeerrieno 
ur intiitiidiklidii of jurioN. Idatly, tho gml cxti'iviDn of I 
law of treasou placed many persons in daox^r of tlieJr U« 
for acts which were not previously treasonable or which 
were unlikely to bo committed except in circuoutaooai 
pectiliiir to the Tuilor and Stowart times. 

An Bc'uutinl of tbe nnoivtit Suprenit- Courtit, the Kini;'^ 
Bench, tlii^ Common Pleaa, and the Excheijuer, logeih* 
with the High Court of Chancery, which underwent 
important changes during this period, would bo out 
p1iin> hi-rn. It ia worth a piksxin^ mention lluit th« 
of R(><iii<>ntii. a sort of pour-mati's Chancery, presideil over 
by the Lord Pri\'y S«J, was in 1599, after an viistence 
some two centurieo, declared by tlie court of King's B«e 
to liave no judicial powers^ In siiiti* of thin di-ciiuon, wl 
tlluslratos Ibo very In.tocurn foundatitm on which m 
part of the Tudor ayittent stood, the extant records of 
court allow that it continued to act until the Long Pwlii 
menl. Much importance ba« been attached to Ihu fact 
the judges of the High Courta of Juoticv rvtaineil offiM ' at 
tliP gcMHl phiiKuro' of tlie crown. Thai ihU was not a)WB} 
the am*: i* nltowii by the Comiuwdon to Baron Flowudn 
prinltd below (p. M3) ; and Coke (Inal. IV. 117 
that the Chief Baron always held office on n j- 
tenar& Bot. whether the judgim hvid duranfe b^nepiiictt* • 
ipiamlhi litvK «r jrcsserra/, no nuch diUinction is likely to ha* 
■ItHMl in thu way uf tlii'ir dismiseMl. for, after all. tfae i^i: 
tioii wliL-tbcr lin-y had 'behaved tbameelrw wrir <ir no 
could be decided only by the aovocmKn. It »>bould 
mentioned bore tJiat a court of appual from the Kiu^'s 
nllnl llio Court of Kxchti|u<<r<*bauber. iuid wwaidn^ 
the JusUna uf the Commuu Phws anil the Bamn of I 

Thf Judicalure. 



■ iBtnhlUht^ in 1585 ^l^ Eliz. 8). A similar 
FbriqipMh fropi llio Exnhi.-qHM- wax erwU^ in 1589 
iV For aatov purpoM«L v. k- >'■ li>" Iiu^'iiiiU aw* 
liktiwt of Hftmixlen. alt twelve ju(lf>es wi>n> afsueiat<Hl 
bfakr, Th« coramiMions of 'Uyer nod Tt-rmioc^r' and 
'fi«d DeliTpTwy,' under whi«h tlio juxtinw wont on circuit. 
iprint«<l bdow (pp. 361, 363). For this pur]>«t«' tbo 
pM «Mioti«« wn» now divided into aix <;ii'cuita. intd 
' itutiiY* of both twnches, with the Barons of the Kx- 
i^MTMid thn Lord Chan nd tor, worn ivmployod. It wvm 
fnUiljr to facilit«to thi-ir participation in Wxaett! duti«w that 
Ai Banna of th« Esche>)uor were in EiiiaWth'a n-i^n 
jttaA oQ ■ Jovfl with the justjoes of eitJier bench \cf. 

Oac t4 th« ntost atrilcintr f«*luna of Ui» Tudnr i<yat«ni 
wm the btg« uuml>er of coitrta poas^asing special jurj^it- 
t>M) or d<«IinR inth limited di)itmt>>i. Several of these were 
Mtalilinhod in the Mxtcvnth ciuitury, but Homo won* of 
nUer iaXm. One group of these courts was aiiaociatvd with 
Mitkin ^t'*i officers, such as the Lord Steward of lh« 
HouM^fafdil, Iho Lord Admtnl <»eo below, p. cxiil, and the 
Eari Uanhal. Another tfroitp drjilt with special branches 
of Uk rtiT&niie : such were the Court of AuKinenlatinnK and 
ths Cuart of Pin^t-fniits and Tenths, the outcome of the 
Bafcrmation, and Ibn Court of Wards and Lireries, which 
ttftiataJnttl Iho fLniiliU righta of thn crown. A thii'd group 
omuM^d of the older palatine and local oourta. the Courts 
M \h* Dueby of Lanca»ier and the County of Chester, and 
Ibv Stannary Courln in 1h« Duchy of ComwitlL The forest- 
iMnrta, which still niairitiiiiiwl u cvrtiun Jiirbxlictiun over 
tMomii*x%h\t\ tracts of country, are among the old«t of theee 
liKsl tribunals 

B' ' -^ thvsc apt-cinl court'c waa no imiwriant or so 

■_*bai-^ -f tltv Tudor titnisi au tlm courla of the IVoii- 

it and Council in the North Parts and of the Preaidfui 
iindl of Wales and the Blarches. The Council of 
forth wiB 8st up in iS39- l>ut appcnn to have hiul no 



istricti ^ 

eUtutoiy hMis. It wiu, hovruv«r, Tecogiuwd in an AH if 
1540 (jj Hod. VIII, 50X ani! also in one of 1571 (ij Elb; 
I3)l THb Council of Walm exi»«t*d bclorw 1541, Iwl WW 
eonfinued by Art of Parlumpnt in that year (34 Uisu. 
36). Both iuHtiltitinius tt muHt b« Allowed, bad 
original jiixtilic^liuii in the ctivuinatuiMB of tlw 4istricti 
ovtir which they rul«i]. The UvrleoBnesB of thp !ScuUi>li 
border is well kuowQ, and sptvial mMminw for th« tuaitt- 
tenanoe of ordor in theM unruly disLncls wure not tin- 
fniqiH-ntly IfKulixed by Act of Parliameol (pp. toj. 170 
Tlie uuiuu of 1603 did not by any tneaiM inimediiit«>)y pt: 
» stop to the evil (p. i^\ Moreovor lh« whol« of 
Korth WAS in a backward <.>aii(lilioii nntl mora or Ivhs tiim 
luous. In thix dittlrict— iii>t tu j^u fimher back than tlift 
Msti.H.iith c«ntuiy — originated the I'llj^nagB of tirataw in 
iS3(i mid the rebditoo of tho Northern Eorla in 1569. 
condition of the WoUh bordur hwl b«cu in furmer days 
bad as thnt of llw Scotch, attd thouj;fa the principality 
hrcoini- mi far civilized as to be repr«fl»nted in I'arliameal 
it was still regarded as a half con<iu«rod cutinlry, rc^ui 
distinct trestmt-nt. Thu Act of 154J (34 Hwi. VTII. »t 
irhicli c4>nfvrnM! Parliiuueiilary rvpreeeutatiuu upuu Wal*^! 
also icuvu the King (§ 119) power ' to make laws and ordi- 
nanctis' fur that country 'at his pleasure' and this clauw 
was not repealed till 1614 (]>. 377). Tb«n» waa Iuw> oxcom 
for the Cotincil of thv Woxt, «r«ct«d by St«tute in ii;40 
(31 Hen. VIII. 50) on the model of the Councils of W^ea 
and of the North, and this court hiMl but a brief vxi»ti>nre. 

The Council of thn Korlh i-JCvn-taed jurisdiction owr tb« 
afairee of Nortbnmln'rland. Cumberland. WesttnORJund. 
Ihirfaatn, and York. It consisted of a large number uf 
persouH, including sercrral ecclesiastics, btit only fire of its 
mi'mlivr*, exclusire of tho Pnasidwit and Vicp-Piwiii 
were bound to continufli attendance. These regular 
dants received k aalary aud other allowances. Tho 8| 
nbjt«t nf tbu court seem§ to have been the iiujipmiiiiiin of 
rioU and other disturbances, ns wuU as of liveriua and 

I of its 

The Council of the North. 


>*»! umibr Bumvala of feada] UtnM, whkb t«n<I«d 

> tnbttM ftod injiistioo. But it« jurisdiction, an «lcliii«d 

1 &t inatniiHif >nn printod Wow ip. 3A.J), wont fmr Wyond 

It WAS to ui] tbo biabupa and tli« High Cotuijiis- 

iiB tfiv diacovery and repression of Kcuwinte aud in 

Ibt Biitttcnanre of uiiiformily uid good inonilK, to wntvh 

onrthi* iutvnwt* of Ilgri(:)lll<lr■^ tn prnti-ct Uiu [xior Aguinnt 

lb« tith, Ut vupvrviM; l)iu pTDCovdiiijitt of justices uf t)t« 

l«(f, (0 provid* for tlie dei«nee of thff border, and gene- 

L^jr to maiutain the Uws. It n-ns euipowrened to inflict 

^■iMit nay pi'nnlly kbort of ilrjiUi. In camm of iip««ial 

^■kdlT (IT [iui>orlttiici6 ttw Prmiilent ojid Council were to 

|||flf to the juatkcfi of tlie liigfaer oourta or to the Priry 

GmboI. and to act according to their ndviee. Apart ^m 

Ikb bat proTuion, tlioy vrvxv practically indv|M-nd<<iit. and 

Mfftal M*m» to have b«t-n allowed froui tbuir Oeeisiona. 

la "Mjfrfi to the multifarious duti«6 laid upon the members 

«f til* Council by tbw« inatructionsL they rfcmvod a com- 

■ianoa coataining paw*n ta <li>tcmiin« riial and pcntonol 

Mt&ma in oaaes in which either party wti^ Urn pour tu M«oit 

It Am nsual courg« of law. Tbey are also found holding 

wdiaafy ■easiooa, Oy«r and Terminer, and gaol delivery, 

hting indicttiMnta for murder and felony, and executing 

„|faaa. In thia reapeet thuir powere oxcevdod even thos« uf 


PW ioatnictions is«u«d to th« Council of WbIm {p. 378) 
an- xmy similar. ^bJa body contained nitarly twice »k many 
■ambMsaa Ifau nortbem couH, hut the number uf rej^ular 
pud aoancillorB ta the same. Special powers were granted 
to dvtcrmin* iwal and [*»n>«nal actions, mibjwt to c«rtain 
fimitatiooa, and lo t«iu!ilal« pi-non.i violently ousted from 
,lbajr Iaad& The juriMlictioo of the couil covered not only 
of Wales, but also the five boid«>«ount)ns of 
, WoTMatvr, Hereford, MonmooUl, and 8hrap- 
Ita eootiol anr four of these coiuit[«s was objected to 
[ Parliomaut in t6io |p. 307). and was attlMJied by Coke 
. IV. 24%), but WW apparently auunUuwd until 1641, 



when both this court ani) that of Uie Korth. togeth«r 
tJi0 cotirte of lh« Duchy of I^ncast^r «nd tlie County < 
Choabir, W4ir<t nbolishcNl liy Act of Piu-luunnnt (17 Car.] 
10. 5 ;f. 

One of the iiiostr«markahI«of tbo local courts, estafe 
liko thoeo of Wa]e« and tb« North, for political ob>c«ta 
vrull ■« for tltn inaint«nani:« nf justicu. wbk tli» Cooirt 
CssUa ChunWr in Inilnn<l i\\. 1.^0). It waa fnunuil «s- 
presly on tlio tnodvl of the BtarChamber in this country, 
ajmod at fiimilar ubjocts. tiaA prooettletl t>y similar m«tho 
Liko th« Star-chamber, it wa» to nt regularly twic« a 
iluritig lurni. to puniNh noU, bribery, am] iiitiDiJ<]Atioti 
jurors, mviilenic&iioiini of aherilfA, and various other crime 
and it oould inHict any penalty short of dMth. 

Tlw Court of Admiralty wiw of graliir antitiuity llian ll 
«ourta dntcribcd jiIkivc, and linn ciun'ivvd to thv [irvoi-tit tiar. 
Ill itH ori^'m it ruMRibled thv courts of the Uarbbal and 
iiw Steward, but it differed from them in that its procedu 
-wax govonivd by tho rulea of cnril lair. It« powors (p. 36 
«stc^Dde*l over all subjiKTU of tho crow^ al a«a or uu 
stiiji. in poTt« at homo or abroad, over the coasts up to i 
v»XvT inari', and nvor rivers and •ftunnos so far as 
lowest bridfiu by which Uioy worn npunnnL Itn juriwlic 
was both civil and criminaJ. It dvalt with all criintn 
mi^dpmoanonn committed at eea or elsewhere within 
pruvinciu, and it cuuld inflict capital punidiniMit or 
smaller penalty. It also hoard and (kHoraiinvd diapnb 
botween master-marinexB and sailors, or betweou ab 
owners and morchuntx, ciMes arising out of contracU 
or to 1h> p<-rfomi«i] over ftoax. niid similar miitters. Fn*m 
ita civil duciiuou* there lay an api<eal by ajiplicntiun lo tli 
CourtofChanc«rr, to a special Court of Delegst««, appoint^ 
by the crown as oMwinn aroso. Thin syslfm of app 
wbi«h foraitH) a niudul for tli« Court of Dolc^trs in <!«cli 
aatical ntattere established by Henry >1ll (abavei,p. xxi 
was confirmed by Act of Parliamtmt in isfi., (8 Elia. 5), 

The juri&dicliou of tho justiees of thv pvnea datm 


lh> lNiddl« ot iha fuDrt««nt)i nmlury. Tbu kiiiitlitit 

|4MalrT gonUninnn, n'lio befom thai timo had ncted as 

of lii^ eofutaliltM for th« nininlcnnnMi nt j>ul(lic 

tbtn rvwiriMl authority tw act sii judgtd in Uio less 

; eases Uiat camo before them. Tb«ir duties w«re 

if ioenAMd by th« «diiiiiti«tmUv» fnnctions laid upon 

: Ki tliR Inttcr part of tlio mna onntury, MiptHTinlly in 

on with tlu- StaluUa of Lahoururs. UihIlt tlirae 

I hsada. police, juatire. and adnxiuialration. their later 

may be grouped. Th« rorumibsions of the pcinc«, 

(pjL 144, t4^\ indicJkt^i by tho ordor of thu 

tlic liltturieal dev»1u]>niciit uf thfir judicial 

Their dutiwi grew ao rapidly that the older form 

t coianuBEion n^as out of date long befor« i &90, when 

' fovm vriis ockptfH]. Tbp priiK^ipid idtcratioDA oonaiMt 

lA««ih«tiluli(in of a|ien«tml eUii.w for the fnuiD«ration of 

' sUtHi«s in f I, in the omission of § 3 of the older 

sioD. and in the extension of the provision for th« 

tioo of cifrtain cn^cs ($ 3 b«foro, § 4 «fl«r 1390) for 

Jaatioes uf a.iau«^ It is somowhat remarkable that 

the bter form omits all mention of their admini»- 

dntioa. llio oath taken by the junticoH is printod 

f^ "49)- 

Id tluT Tudor times aud auha«|u«ntly, tb« justices of the 
foniKd an indispennable element in the judicial and 
•nitwm of thn country. Thi>ir functions 
two aspocta nuinot practically bo M.']MmitAd : 
I adtninialratire duties constantly iuvolvL-d the judidal. 
I tli» jastkc*. as .Sir Thomas Smith rightly says <p. ■ 79). tho 
fRDov pot bU ■p(«iiil truKt : without thtun, tho g(>vi-nmi«nl 
af the Twlom and (ho Stewarts could not havt- been carried 
^an for a suigte day. Tbeir i««ords, during the period, are 
nty, and litth' liglit has as yet been throvn upon the 
tuilurx- uf thi-ir proci'ttlinKK, but it in uKW tu mvo, if 
Jj^ liy llwi 'Slacks of statutus' whieh. as Lambarde saya, 
laid upon their shoulders, how large a piait Ifaey 
a|Ml IB th« Commi>nwAnlth. Tht-y wltc, and could b«, 
~ h 



nndor litllo (xtntrol, ftud tbey discbanied tirtlr 
daUes. for tho moat part, without |k>cuiuary rewtpd- 
the onlv allon-annt Umt Ui«y nK«ir«l was for th«ir i 
under tlm SlatuU* uf Ap|>rfnli<;<-« (p. 53). Thny pot— i 
110 duulit tliey wanted ruoro xhui money — power, utd 
Acquir^ >vhat win still more important for Uie 
tiitiofist ilrvMlopnicnt nf tlio country, nn ttxr«)lpnl politic 
tmintnn- Thi* intiird^-pcnditnco of rifditit and dutjo 
indiciilivi.' of what wtut bvat in the political xystrm of 
cdxtt^entit century. Kothing could so voU liuvfi pnp 
the country g«ntry and tho burg«««e« of tlw great towns I 
tJie share they wm« to toko in ths Pkrliamenta 4tt 
voniing ogn. 

The jiaticts hold office tinder conunisstons from 
crown, iMuod from the Clianeoryto the lending; genby^ 
(fvery county, and to ihi- local offieiidn for the lime h«B 
of the dlk-a, buruuF;lia. and corporate ton-ntk In 
statutes tbe mayor, aldermen, or bailiffs of such towns 
empowered to act as jitsUcea^ Among them were named 
fi>rtaia Irgal mcnibvni, the 'qnuniin,' whoaMi (vremnc* 
tbe more important oocaaJOtta wsa indi^iiensable. Afthn 
any single justice bad the power of committal, no jud 
deciaion could be taken by Khs Itian two. Tliu le«9s wetG 
mattera were haitdled in their fre)|tient petty aewioD^ 
more important in their great«r or <iuarter seeaiooa 
four times a year. As eommisrioiten of Oyer and T< 
many of them eat with Ihu jutitioc* of aanu>. Their | 
duty wa« to keep thu peace, to suppreai sodition. rint^ . 
minor diflturfoanees, and to eoforee the obsenation of 
Statute of LiveriM and other Acts of Parliament, 
great development of i>tatatc>hiw in tht> Mxlivntli cent 
touchingf u ft did, must il«iiiartmi>iitB uf lucal f^vvmr 
pliired many besh duties in their hawia. Tbi'V cmrriM] ' 
tbe various enactments concerning labour and indu 
a^mcially the Statute of Apprentices possed in i| 
(s Ktix. 4). Under tlicsc aetji tlw^ fixed the rate 
wages, boand OTer apprenticiw, and eettJed dbputt* betv 

The Jusiices of ike Ptate. 


nustor and man. Acttni;; undvr other statutes tliey pro- 
tooted the intei'ests of agriculture, ])r«veDtod the convereioa 
of RmUo land into pasture, ftud cnll«d in oompulaor)' labour 
whtfn r»(|iiir«L Tlin oxiwutioii of tho Poor Law, dovoluiKid 
by many EliEdbethnii atatutoa, especially Uit jtrtuil Arln of 
1598 and itiot (j9 ii 40 Kliz. 3 : 43 & 4-1 Kli^ a)- dvpeud«d 
almost entimly upon them. They appoinl«d bversoor^ of 
th<! ]x>or, rnit^Us) and nupt-rint<-nded ptiur-houMW, iav^ Ut« 
poorirate and enforced xia coU««tion. rated the pariahctt for 
reli«f to poor priHonera, trBDsmitt«d ]>nupere to their homes, 
and UomwHi Ix'gging at dlwcrtrtion. Clo«>Jy conn<ict«d with 
th« ^ur>Uw on one aide, and witli the labouhgUtiitew on 
th« other, was the leftialation toiicliinj; roguea and Tanabon da. 
Pr«^-iou8 statntes on this 8uhJ>?ct wero HdmnunsMl and 
amended by th« Act of 159** (39 & 40 Eliz. 4) luid furth«r 
■uncmW in tlio following r\-\^x\ (i 5t&. I. 7 ; 7 A B Jaa. I. 4), 
Under tbt-SL' Acts, tlio juatic«a set U|> liouM'tt of correction, 
enforced labour, instituted house-to-house visitations, exe- 
cutod the HUiguinary i>(iniilti<n< of the law, and ovon traD» 
portud otTiiiidura out of tlie country. Another soution of 
their duties was connected with the penal laiva ttftaiust 
it omaniata a nd Dissenters, They discovered and reported 
racueanta, tded offencon ugninist thr> Act of Unil'orniily and 
ftimilar Acta, adniiniiituriid tliu oath of allef[iiiiiL'c. broke up 
eoiiventiclta, and soaroliud tlie housos of recusants for anna 
and eui>erstitioU8 relics. There was little indeed, whether 
in town or country, that cecsped the »iirvcillaii«! of the 
jualtCM of tlio peace : they nipped treason in the bu<l. and 
a country parson had to obtain their licence before he could 
marry (p. 1S7 and index). 

It in cleiu' that a ,iudi<unl sj'dtvm. mi coinpl&x and incun> 
ruous as that of the Tud<irB, must have suifered from ncreat 
focts. There were, do doabt, many failures of justice and 
^iisnt conflicts of juriwliction. But on thii whole it 
Mama clear that onlinaiy jtintice was better doiiv l»itwc«n 
man and mas, that crlute was more rapidly and surely 
lied, and general order moro strictly maintained than 




in an^ previous sgo. The dark«r eklft of tho prtur* 
shovrn n'b«n «r« regard the violatituia of private liberty : 
thf (liNtcirti<>ii!> or KviisionH of Dm liiw whi^li wi>n> furtniUl 
t(i punwiiis ill lii^h [)liM«a, wnl Mill mon' wlieit wr-c: 
tbo manner in which political tmb wore conductal 
penaltifs itiflictod without trial nn politJCAl olT^nil^ra. 
thu funnier clnnt of nhuMM ivv havu. pi-rhap* nattir 
but littk> detailii) infurnialion. But. not to incntiun . 
Cliamber prosecuitoos and committals Ity order of the i 
Council, out of tJie ordinary cour«o of law. w« bav« eridc 
to whow thnt Hinxl" nftidolN and nolili-mcn in faroiir ' 
tlio babit of gi-08idy nbusinR Uieir (VMJIion for ]iriv»lc . 
The eril most hav« be«n rorjr Bagnnt to provoke ou 
ft rcmonstmnm as that of th« judgm in iS9i '• In 
ciuuiK Hx (ti(Me ulbidvd to, niits of Hnbcota Corpiia 
a mockory. and humblo claimants were deprivetl of 
rights without the possibility of a fair trial. It shouM ' 
ohM'rvMl, howovor, and mmombontd in eonn^uon 
Darnol'a mm, that tJio jud);^<a ni!j<«<l no objt«tio[i 
COmmiUala ' per speciale maudatum regis,' or by tbe Couc 
as a body. 

Tlio tynmnica] expansion and tho rapid oscilUlion* oTI 
law of treason ytwv due to the poculiar and var>-iiig < 
stanees of tho tfgs. Tho law on this subject ia to be < 
nnd«r tivo aspects— the legal conception of tfao crinw 
th« mnlbod of proewlurv. Under Hnntj* Vlll tho 
in till' law are moetly traeoahle to two boutc«& tho deBJra] 
cfitabliah tbe occlesiaAtiral supremacy, and tho line 
of the succession. The now trwMonx rmnttil in that 
were nflerA^-ards alfnliohcd. then partially ruvivwL and 
ropnalitl, before Elizabuth camo to the tbronei In 
n-if;n. r» llio imrcvcHion n'a% never settled, f bat ostiso for 1 
invention of in-osous fell away. Unt it wan nr««s«uy| 
maintain tho royal power, and ospecially tho wcl 

> Prinltd bjr Itillssi Owe BitL, i. i^\\. (rum I«iu>l. 
(a<>t ItiiL 8;. Tlir n^nl* in Ikv laM iwolion 1-iil <>i». a htrJi I 

ara'aojof. In | j (lart word), for 'aenuatica' nad '*>• 



ligtiDti bII oppnni'itLi. Hcni;e the fKntuent 

Mfaqprmeol* of thn dcfiuittuu of tr^aaon, mostly aimed 

^Ml the supffOrtefB of the Pop*^ with which the pi*n«l 

MrtiK both of Elimli^t) and Jamwi abuiiiid. But tb« 

MoBiaa wm utendnd in olhur directions as weU. noUiUy 

Iftk Act* uf 1571, is;i, and 1581 (13 KUz. 1 ; u J^ix- > ; 

>). BO as to comprehend \'anous action* ooL Ijithvrto 

b« tnasonaMo. In »pi(v of tbtiao ehanges, th« law 

tlm poriod iioviT uttAiiibd anything like the «xtrava- 

attmiou ot ihe imjuisitorial character which miulc it 

aaastnioa an engine of intimidation undur Henry Till. 

tvigti of JiunM I it un'Wwuit but little change. 
ftiHiim uidf thv acta uT attainder, which were non- 
cad impeocbmenlA, of which thprc w«'tp nonu for 
during this period, (riaU for truuioii wiire held, in 
of commonvnt, bnforu an ordinary court, with a 
; IB tho auMi of poem, before a Hj>ecial court formed of 
mamtitn of tlwir own body. Some twenty to tivi'iity-fivo 
|Hen w«rB generally selected for thin purpoite. They WW6 
jiMiidil vrer t>r Itio Lunl High Steward, whoso oHicei, 
■lliai m in trstiucU waa n-vived for such occasionf. During 
Xitv prHod utHUrr rei'itw tho procedure w»:s <»* "liould hiivo 
frian goremed by tlto iStittuto of 15.^1, wttich provided that 
tbe pRsooer should bo ciiufro)it«d by two witAeH«a, to 
from the rriminal act. But this Statulo wim ignormi or 
■v^nd toi moi« than one occosiun ; torture was cuustAiitly 
I anifcij I il both onwitnnwmaiid accused, to extort evidence; 
iad, «TRi if Iho [iroofs wbti> iusuflkieot, juries specially 

K— pifr-)Ti"' or liable to punishment wen> Tcry uidtkcly not 
cMirkt. The case of the Duke of Norfolk in 1573 
138) is a striking example of the unfainieM with which, 
tfHa of tlw> BUppmed nfeguatvl of ft court of p«ers^ tho 
lis of tfw* gttAt^^t nobles wore conducted. The duke 
«w rap««tedly eiamincd in private ; ho was kept in pri«oa 
hr tooctr than four mouths, n'ithout any communication 
vHh his friwuds : he knew nothing of tho chsTKOS against 
>an till tb« indictmrat was mod ; he was refused the oam- 



Unce of counae); the witoessea a^inst him wotw not] 
dured in court ; and the tvholo trial twttod only om ttf^ 
Iltn i-onJumnutiun vraa JuHt, Ixit bo uiiKht >« wiUl lun I 
rondemnet! iinhoiml The triab of Ewex taiA 
were Bimilarly conducted, and if the verdict in tho 
CAM WM jiutifiahlo, in the l«tl«r it wxn alinoot 
unjiut. TIiu trial uf Han-. QitM« wf 8coli (p. i 
like that of Queen Anoe fifty yews t>efore, con. 
a special commission. Here again, its in the C&s" of ^^ 
folfc, the i-esiill wan iwvitnhle, but it 'km nltnin^ withi 
similar dixniganl of lugid fotnialilicet. TtiuLt for tmk-ton vm 
le«ti tn-quent under Janiea I than uuder his iired** 
but the fate of Arabella Stuait. Kaleigh, and Norliiumb 
land, not to mention tho hamblnr Peacluini, prorc that 1 
ehancw in farour of political prisonen irvra oo hotter I 

Id a state of things tike that which prevailed in 
Aixl»i-nth oonttiry' it wna only naUtml ttmt proclamatiocAf 
martial law. by whidi ordinary logal proceas wan for i 
, suspended, should he not unfrequenl. The theory a€ 
'time— if wo can apply Much a phrase to ragiie opinic 
aliaped by no statutory rnactments — appiiani to liar* 
(hat martial law could b« proclaimed in lime of wmr i 
insumwtion. pn^iimably over those districts ooly wb 
wvm thrtfiilcned ur involved, but not at otbor timm. Thc' 
military and naval forces of the country, when actually : 
the fiold or on board ship (pp. 155, 397^ were of 
portnanMiMy itubjnct to llm rulo. Tho c*m "f Buret 
{p. iifi) illuslrat'^ thix view. But thongh Elizabeth \rm_ 
disMiuulfd from uaing hvr |N>wvr on thin occaitton. at 
timm alio did not so refrain. A pmclaaution issued 
■588 ' may possibly have been in Sir Tfaomas Smitli'M mii 
wlion bo wroto tho n-marku printe-l bi?low (p i7q>. It 1 
hardly be doubted thai the prochmuitinn of 1595* (p, 41 j 
was quite un warrantable, Ovrnmiaaioiis such aa that of 

> nalUn, CmtL Hit., L ut. 
• a. lUlUs, ML 

and Navy. 


\ which embnceti not ontj* eoldi^ra but o(h«r 
;wvTv Ultli) Mtor. Un Ihe other hand, objections 
Willy tw nuaod n^untt thai [M-rniitiuon (o I^rd*- 
fp- 'aS) t*^ uae martial law iu timu of iitritsiuii 
in lo far ks th« v^uvnoaa of th« wordiag lefl th« 
apen In nlinsr. Sacb commiiwionv wito also 
I to B>[4aioB of merchaiit-ehiiia aaUioK to distant vaixa- 
■ W vmj liat-« t<«eD jiHtifiod on tho ground thnt lh«ir 
Ja w*f« hardly Iu Iki iliktingiiiflnxl fmin moii-of-n'itr. 
ad beios in au alruuHt <!uniUuut ntaUi of iiiniirrvcliuii, 
to exeovte martial Uiw wer^ fmtu«at tbore, 
I (it« Mm« colour to StaSord'a contention that in that 
■tjY martial law waa tho rtilu. 

Abut axD Navy. 

Ikl apffafiit obligation upon every fAienian to be prepai-ed 

I pt la «nr io defence of hia country f^till held good in Lho 

ntnnth twDtury. D»vu]aj><H) and ^[rHiliintcd by thu krtHAXit 

•I Anna and thv StaliiU- of WinclitHtt-r, tliu nutiuiiul furcu8 

*«K mobilised from the tinn- of Edward 1 onwards under 

Gcvuniicians of Array. Th^ise commissiona in tbeu- lalor 

fvB 'j*- 156) were ibsuod by authority of tho cmwn tn 

tnJinj[ [KWona iu tlio eountins and largo lovrmHi, aud to 

ithan iMMMHsiag uitlitary oxpeoieiiee, ompowering Ihom 

k imke Hats of tba ablobodied men vriUiin th«ir diiMricts, 

ta &x llw nxmtL, horan; and equipmonta to bo providnl by 

^A pwrvMi aeoonlin^ (ohin ability, and to drill aud exercise 

lbs funwa «o raistrd, iu onlt^r thac lh«y might bo rondy to 

•ct wban and whoro required. The liata wer« to bo s«nl Ln 

to tiM Privy Council, by whoso further ortlcw and instrvc- 

tioai* tlM mnuuiiaiouitnt woru to abidv. Tba purpose of 

Htwr -'riaas iraa to organize, but not actiiidly to 

hoD): „.- .-■: lipid, the national militia. Wht^n requin^l 

br arti*v srrrie^ th* forcM woro called out by me«na of 

fi|H«iA] orders (p. 15$), «ent to thn Iion}i»-Livul«nnnt in 
different roll nti««. bidding Ihniii to niuHturBuck numb«i8' 
mon OA itvro vriuit«d, uiid tu appoUit capUina OT«r (litc^| 
uiid«r whom the men were to tt« roadjr to ntanh «t 
hours notke to the point of rvmdosvou*. Such tout 
c«ived monoy for thoir unifomu and ti«r«Uutg eijK 
(cost niid conduct muiiuy) iu addition to t}ieir pay. 

The infitituUoa of Lord»'Lieut«nAnt wiw a modern on* ll 
the time of Elixatiotli. Thono offidftU w»ra (int kp|<oiiib 
or lit idl urcnbi firat k'Knlized, under Edward VI (} t 
Ed. W. s)- A aimilar Act waa paaaed in the next 
(t Mary (>) 13), and continued by Elizabeth (1 Elir. iA)j 
but lapsed upon her dttiiUi. It may bu jiatbcivd fniin 
stattiint tliat the ori^iial object for which the Lieulec 
wcro appointed was rather to su(^n«s rebellion than 
repel invasion, but thdr powvni (p. 154) wcm equally rali^ 
in both omttrjfunnica. Tlu-ir military authority ovirr 
dLttrict*!— one or mora counties— committed to thvdr oha 
n-as Bupname. Th«y wer» authorixed to muster, arm. 
«xarei»o nil peraona liable to military anrviMt within 
prorincoa, to lead th«m acaixuU all i!nemii!a, doma>ti« 
foreign, and in the eiteciition of their office to uEie all 
severity of mnrtinl law. They were (o act on their o« 
r<w[iun.iibilily ax mkiii n» thn occiiAion arDN<\ witbotit inutiii 
for orders from the oenti-al authurily. They went a»iut| 
by Seputy-Liouteoanta nominated by the crown, and 
empowermd to appoint miistei^ma«t«as and other offic«Eb 
Finally they w<ini indf-mniGod in advaucn for any Hctirmf 
dona by auUiority of their cowiniiision. 

The obligatiuo either 10 serve in pereon or to prov 
otherwise for military defence lay upon all memliera uf I 
nomniunity. The proportion of arras, honua, and e<[uip-^ 
itit-nta to bo providiil by pvrMnn of |>rup<irty, wlii-tlitr 
land or gooda. wa!> fixed by Statute (4 & 5 P. & M. 
and tlio clergy were ratod on tl»e same footing aa the laity, 
either (or men or monoy. The biidiopii mtMi th« infnric 
clergy as w^ as thwuaelvM and acut in Uteir report* 

'rniy and Navy. 



Cooiwil {pp. 161-163)^ Th« ConunLifionera of 

Uie toMMit of tfa« Uy comniuuity. Pe^rs and 

!^ CouDcillorfi were ex«mpt«il horn their inspection 

I, AD(] it IK piHwililn that, in AvcurdHiici- with anricut 

lea. Uiv vrtwllliii:f of th«-ui uiaiib special umngomMit* 

•ak tJif. crown. The Archbishop of C«iiterbury. howovcr, 

B&wii! nting hiinself exactly in oceordaoce vnlh tho Act 

if. 163). Tim Prii-j- Council loviitd what contributions 

^n m|Oin«] ; but, just as the full number of armed men 

^Hdi ooald be supplied by a county vm seldom if t-Ttr 

«IU eat. so tlw (iiU contribution doM not ac-eu to hare 

hoi anally datnaaded. Duriug tho whole of this period, 

Iks riiTT Counci] retained the immediate control of military 

bat an important step was taken in the uppoiiilmi-nt, 

tfa« Mid of Jamm' n-ign, of a Council of War 

(^396). Thb council, it i» truo, vraa empowered only to 

CMsnll tosHber, to obtain information, and to ^ire advice ; 

W illlMiiiuli as it ciomprised at least three mombers of the 

Pmj Conneil. it caroa near being a cammitt<« of that body, 

wd as it waa composad mora or luatt of fX|)«rt& it must 

ksre «x«*eiaed some influenee on the Council's action. It 

oaoot, bowerer. bo said, when we consider the reaults of 

,lba war, to bare turned out a miccessful nxpnrinicnt. 

Tba navy woh manned and H|uippod on prineipU-^ aimilar 
fa> tboae whk'h ^ovtrnnl the m&intvnauoe of the army : that 
■ In iky the obligation to defend the country by »ea as well 
M iiy land, wa> iiKumbent on the subjocL Bui iniiHniuch aa 
asvaJ warfare n-quirm special training and (txpcriencve. the 
•Uiftation to provide for tb« navy and to serve in person at 
praictically restricted to tho conata and Hta-piirl townH. 
data«» in this rrnpnct werei laitl upon the Cinque 
■tnd«r «ontnl of the Ijurd Warden, who was to all 
and purptoea tlteir Lord-Lieutenant. The naval 
dtfferwl, however, in on» eswentini nmpcct from the 
nHitarT. Nu atanalinit army ■■xiKtiKl. but there was. and long 
hid l*«a. a royal navy, built and equipped uut of the royal 
nnn^K, anil tnauned, if Dec«8sary, by comiMlsory aervi<w. 



>V1ieu (Mvsainu r«]uirvd, »a for instance at Uw Uhm of A^] 
Spanish Armnda. this na<ry was reinforoM] by onnMnn* 
nti^rchnnt-vwipK a nifilhod rendortM) «»y aniJ oflpcti** bjr 
tli« &c( tluki dh rot tlii'it* vrax titit littlv lUfTcrenai between 
such sbipe and aliif^a of war. The obligation to euj^y ahif> . 
did not r«st od tb^ Ciiiqu« Porta only, bat al»o on all oUmt j 
towns iioaMHKing; inorcbant-xhippinfE, not oxrhidinK IxbiI'Dl] 
In 1596, for iii.H(aii<.'i\ wtt liiiil London mqiiirw] to pnirrilaj 
twelrp sbipa and two pinnaces ' for Her Mijeaty'a at 
annrtco.' This should be rcmcmbcriKl in conneuoo 
tbu Dunnii!! (diip-monoy eaan in 1637.' 

Thv Lord High Admiral. K*.>»etally apcakitiir. did 
himself command the fleet, for which an Admiral and Vii 
Admiral wato specially appointed (pp. 163, 397)1 
officer*, liko th« lAtri High Admiral (p. 390\ 
smpowen^ to roqiibition ahipa and to impma tn«a 
oocasioo reqoired. and to keep ditwipline by mean* 
martial law. They had aI»o (p. 164) a gvnornl riril 
rjiminal jnrisdiirtinn ovor tha fanMA under lltoir conimand. 



Till: wholp of th« forogoinj; fkrlch niny Iw r 
onti ]>oint of tiuw, oa a conmicntary un the pr 
a sb<at no(« may be added in order to ahow the diffuvn 
significations att»ch«d to the word, and the development • 
tb« Ideas whivb it involved, during Uiia t>vno<l- ^oi 
Elizabeth pjvrogatira waa generally understood to mMo thr 
aggrvgat« of official riglita and powon pos Minen d tiy any 
pOTMu in authority. Thus tliu onlor of Lhv Ecw]«auutiral 
Courts is said to luive been seltU-d by the Po)>e'8 prer 
(p. 199). The ArchbUfaop of Canterbury has his Pr 
tivu f jiurt, in which his special prixileg«s and jurisdic 
are mainlaintyl. Tlw prprogativi! nf tho crawn cooaiato 
the pMiillar righia, immunities, and powers vnjoytid by I 

The Prerogative. 


iluiic, ineltiding the prM«i]»n?« of all peraons in 

' mini. ThflM ptiviliigM nst purtly on xUUiln, jiArtly 

I cvtom and pr«eed«Ql. But th^y ure not raguu und 

nile: tlit^ arc known and mn- raiHihlo of dniwriptiM). 

rdo not ainouut to in emancipation from law : on llu* 

they are limitod by it. Thi* is th« view of 

an; it is innpljcd by Stiuinford nnd Smith, who set 

■Irm to analyzii and oniimenttL- (he puvri-rK of th« 

anciRhy (ppi. 174, 179) : and it is dearly stated by Seldeii 

(|i1it)afi well as by Cok» (Reports. pArtxrLp, i^ified. 1826), 

KibkUlb hrnmlf iiwra tbowoni in IIun M>niai(pp. 115, ii6): 

uJctvD Jainnal, though hnulw) p¥t« it a fumidcr meaning, 

■WMOoally appliu it in a similar manner (pp. 317, 315). 

SM p0w«n as the ri^t of the crown to veto parliameotoj? 

Ul^ to appoint and dismim niini«tJT^ to onlir mit the 

■BT, ta pardon prisniir'r^ ara clotrly purlionii of the royal 

|Rf ^atiTCL. 

: fhcBC recognizod and definite powers do not exfaaaftt 
of the crown. borauiK' cirvtimirtaxKH'* may occur 
Vmrt pmvidiHl for nritln-r )>y law nor ciulvm. Oocn- 
arise in which the sovereign power uiiist um-rt 
without prerioua example or authorization. It is 
kbt* that on such oRcasinna thu noreroign may (w 
' in ordnr to hbvo lh<t State, to aver-rid« tliii law ; at 
iD wTvnta be may often be called upon to act without it. ThuK, 
id tb*' doGnile pnirognlivoandoulaidotbu an^a occttpicd 
law, thoro i*, and most be, a vagn« and undefined 
I act for tlic good of thv State. It i* tliix indcfinito 
r(f> aK *i>ut of the ordinary course of common law.' 
BUekatone regards (p. 410, note) aa the essence of 
royal peeiwgativo. On thin IhwIimw pmvincp, law and 
gndually i-ncrouch, either in thv tnt<-T«4t of ihi* 
tir ol thu «ubJ4!ct, but within its area, if the ao'Tuf 
and the subject come into rolliaion, the subject must 
: way. The Icm advanced the Stat<>, or, in othnr wonJs. 
I eoinpiotc tli'i control of law and cii<ttom, Ihn [nrgor 
I ana over which the sOToreign ia free to act. It 



was still very large in th» daya of the Tiidoro and the 
Stewarts, and »» the initiative in th<- crciitioii of liiw and 
custom was \Xwi\ ulinciett (txcluttively in iXve hands of the 
moiiHTcl), it might well liavu eeemed to contempontries 
(pk 389) that the ' Piei-ogatives of Princes " vftstv dnily (trow- 
ing, that is, that Inw and custom wom uuiiHtantly n-atrictiug 
tho indefiiiitt) un-a In Die inturtstt of the crown, and convert- 
ing uncertainties into defijiite prerogative. 

It wiifi the existence of thia indefinite power, and the 
inovitahle attai^hmciit of It to lli« crown, whieli guv^^ some 
colour to the cluiiii» of tlic Slewarta and llji-'tr aupiKirtera in 
the sevcnloeutli century. But the immediate origin of their 
theories was the necessity, not hitherto folt, of forming clear 
notions of so^-ereignty and of defining iIm uli(>dc\ Tlio 
writers of Eli/jdx^th*:* timo, fur iuHtance Sir TItouias Smith 
(p. 178), <]eclHretl sovereignty to it-eide in Parliament, that 
ia, in the eruwii and the e<ttatee, combined in one harmonious 
whole. But tliey did not nnticiputethv case of a divergence 
between the elements of which Parliament was composed, 
mich a divergence as occuixed in the following reigna. If 
the sovertiign Parliament disagreed witli itself, where did 
the right of arhitnition He? Was it in the crown, or wan it 
in tlie estates ? It ia not wonderful tliat, in this dilemma, 
many men decided for the crown. It may well have seemed 
impossible to leave supreme control in the hands of a hetero- 
geneous collection of ntoins, tutidly unused to guide tiie 
difEcult machine of State. But those who concluded that 
Uiu ciutting vote in such caaett lay witli tlm crown were por> 
force driven furtlier. It seemed inipoaaible (o limit tlm 
sovereignty thus acquired. It had once been agreed that 
the sovereign Parliament cnild make und unmake laws, 
levy taxes and I'cform religion. If the j<iiiit Parliament 
were dethroned, and the monarch stood alone in ita ]»lac«, 
w«ru not thwe powers tiansfened to him ? Somewhere or 
otlier they must reside, and if not in the joint Parliament — 
»till li'!>H in the House of Commons' — whi^re <^ould they 
reoidc but in the crown ? The alternative— that they 

The Prerogative. cxxv 

Milled in the House of CommonB — could not then have 
bmi adopted in the same outspoken way. The Parliamen- 
U17 pirty were eventually forced to claim the sovereignty 
in jmdite, but they did not, until the end of the Civil War, 
diim it in words. 

Thas was produced the full-blown idea of the absolute 

■wnirehy, unrestricted by l&w, limited only by its own con- 

nptiona of the ' salus populi,' that is, not limited at all. It 

■ tlie theory maintained, if somewhat dimly and incon- 

■«l«otly, by James himself (pp. 294, 400), and by the judges 

ii Biles' case (p. 341 ; cf. above, p. Izzv) : it is pushed to its 

M logical consequences by Cowell (pp. 409-411} ; and it 

WM openly preached by the absolutist divines of the follow- 

iDg reign (pp. 437-43())- Cowell describes the prerogative 

M 'that especial power, pre-eminence or privilege that the 

King hath above the ordinary course of the common law.' 

isd this was the watchword of the royalists. It required 

«Jy an alteration of one word to enable Blackstone to adopt 

Cowell's definition, but in substituting the phrase ' <mt of 

the ordinary course of the common law ' for that which 

Cowell uses (p. 410, note), he substituted a constitutional 

doctrine for one destructive of the constitution. The whole 

qurrel between the Stewarts and their Parliaments lies 






First Parliament. 

J*a. S3—K*y S. 1&50. 

I Em. Cat. I. 

io nMiriny u> tk*. Crown the ottctml ptrUdifiiim <M»r tie 
Am KtittiaHUai and tpirituai, and abeti^hu) ail /ortngn 
|iwr rtprngnamt lo (A* lame. 

Hm hmMj faewecb joor raoct exc«11«nt M^Mty yonr 
ni tt^ obedieol subjects, tkt Lords spiritoal and teinpornl 
ibt CommiM)* in tlu* yixir [irewut Parliamcut AimeniMed, 
vhm ta time of thn reign of jour moiit dear father of 
memory. King lltrnr; tlM> Righth, ilivera good laws aod 
made ami eMsblisli^d, as well for tbe ul(«r eitin- 
anii puttiug »wmy of tl) usurped and foreign power* 
out of tliia jrour trolm and other jour Ht^ui«ui' 
flod couDtries, as aUo for the ntUaiag and uniting 
ti tfe impenal crown of this rtalu the ancient jnrtadictioiu. 
■ttaritii a, wiperiuritiea uid pre<emttiencea to tbe (aineof rigiit 
Uaifiag aod appertaining ; hy rcaMu wbrrvof we your moot 
wad obedient ^utijectii. from tbe Iweoty-fiftli year nf Uie 
of ytnr raid dear fatli«r, weie conlinuaJl}' kept in good 
aod wvT« duliarddwd of divcn great and iuloliirsbte 
rttwU before tbat time onkvfKlljr taken ami 




exacted by rach foreigD power and oatliority m b«foT« Uut ' 
UHiirj)e(l, uutU vuob tinM as oil the raiil good laws mA 
by one Act of PariiMnent' mnde in tlu; fint and wecoudjtan^ 
tbn ntigtis of tbo late Kiog Philip end Qocen Muf, 
Uighnwa' H8t«r, intituled au Act rcpmling aJ) statulM, ■rtid 
aud pr«vi«ioos made a^ainitt the See A)>o«tuIic of RaiM i 
the Iwtiilk-tli 5«or of Ring Hear; the Eij^-tilh, aud alaa Ita I 
utahtiHhmrnt of all spiritual and ccclcjiiartieal poMCMJOMi 
hereditaments oourejed to th« laity, wore all clearly 
and mnde roid, as liy tlie Hame Act of BepMl tean at 
doth nnd tuny uppnar ; by raoaon tS wliieh Act of Bcpeal ; 
said homblr eullj(^cte were cAaooos brought under an 
(oraigD pover and authority, and yet do mnain in lliati 
to tlw iiilulcrable churgts of your lonng aubjccta, 
mlroK by the uuthority of thia your High Oourt of 1 
with th<^ lUM^Rt of your Ilighncaa, be mrt had anil 
May it therefore please your lligbneH, for the repassing of < 
mid (uvrjied foreign power and the restoring of the 
juriidiction and pre-eminencea appertaiuiuft to the 
croim of thia your realm, that it may be eoact«d by tfe 
autfaority of tlu* present Parliament; That the aaid Act ouii 
in the auid first aud second years of tlie reigna of the >ud 1 
King. Philip aud l^ueeu Mary uud all aud ewry 
dauwa and urticleir thttnun contained (otiier than anch lo 
daitsn aod seutcoces w hereafter *>hall be excepted) nay fr 
the last day of this sesnon of Parliament, by authority of tb» 
pneeot rarliaiueut. lie repealed, aoil shall from tlicnccfortb be 
utterly void iui<) of none eBicct. 

II. And that also fo«' tbe renHng uf divers of the said goad 
Iaws and Statutes made in the time of you- said dear father, 
it may abo please your Highness, That one Act and St 
mnde in tbe tweuty>tbinl year of the re^ of thn said 
King Kenry the Ki^hiti. intilitled an Act that uo pt-raoii 
be cited oift of the diocese where he or she dwEJIcLb. riivpl 
in certain casee; and one other Act* made in the twrntt- 
fourlh rear of the reign of the said laic Kti^^, intitB 
Act tliuL appeals in siieb caaea a* hatli l<een uivd to Im put 
to the Rec of Rome sh*II not be from bcDceforlh had our 

Bid ■ 

I & a P ft H. 8. 

• n H. vm. 9- 

[*j**^U \i>l»^.fU(>^*j4^?JiL. 


Acl of Supremacy- 

hill witltiu this reixlm ; and one other Act ' mtAa in tlie twuuty 
fiFtli yt»T of tlie twid 1iit« Khig, ^inc-rning rp^lrnint »f pnymeiit 
of unnat'* nnd lirst frails of arc]ibitikoprii:§ nnd bishupiics to 
the See of I1ori« ; aiid one other Act • in tlie Hiid twenty-fifdi 
year, iutitukxl eu Act coticeming tJic KubmiNnon of the clerK,v 
to the Kitig'i Majesty; and also one Act' tniide in the Maid 
, twentr-fiflh }-(<ar. intituled an Act ratitraimng the payment of 
' ftQoatM or Gnt fruits to the Biabop of Rome, oikI of tbu 
eleotiuft xod convecratitig of ■rchbinbo])* and liitihopti within 
thit rettlin; and one other Act* made in the mid twenty-fifth 
\jt»x, intituled an Act concerning the exoneration of the KingV 
InbjectB from exactions and impositions herotofora fwid to the 
^Sm of ftome, and for having lic«noee and diapensatioiis witliitt 
tbis realm without voinK further for the xnine; and one othei 
Act ' made in the twcnt j-siith j-nar of the iiaid Lite Kiiik. 
istitnled an Act for nomination and consecration of ttutl'nigiuii 
within thi* roalm ; and alao on« other Act ' made in the tweuty- 
eigbtli year of the rrign of the said Inte King, intituled an Aot 
for tbe releaae of such as have obtained pratended licences and 
dispenaationB from the See of Rome ; nnd all and ever^- branches. 
wor.Is nnd iwntca<wii in tbe Ksid scvcml Acta and Statut** 
contained, by authority of this present I'arliameDt, from and at 
all times after tbe last day uf this aeasiou of rarlisment. Dhall 
be rerived and shall stnud uud be in full forte and str«ii^fa to 
all intents, conntrudiuuB and purpuKi-n; and that the bronchcs. 
■enteiKVs and words of the "aid wiveral AcIjp and rvery of them 
from thenceforth sliall and may be judged, deemed and taken tu 
extend tu your Uifthn^Bs, your heirs and euccessora, as fully and 
lar|t«ly n» ever the satiie Attn or any of them did extend to tlie 
said Iat4^ King Hrnrr the F.ightli yiiur Highneia' Csthcr. 

III. And that it may alra plcaxc your Highnrm that it way 
be eDacl«d by the antbority of this present I'arliamcnt. That to 
rauvb of uuc Act or Statute ' made in the tMtiy-Mooud j'ear of 
tbe n»gn of your said drar father King Ueni; tlie Eightli, 
intitaled an Act conconiing pre-contracts of inurisges and 
tvucluug degrees of consaugniiiity, w in the time of the late 

'■ l\ O- VIII. H (thin Aot nKwivrd lti« myil uiM«nl *. r. 11'- 

Vin. 10. • j; U. VUI. to. ' Jj H. VHl, ii. ■ ij H, 
• it H. VUL li. ' 31 H. vni. 38. 

VIll. 1+ 



KioK Kdwud tbc Sixth, yovr Highiwn' mo«t de&r bntbo-j 
ime otber Act or Sutat« ' wsn not repealed : uid aIhu one . 
mode in tlte tlurtj-«e*ct)th year o( tlio rrign of ibc ikid \ 
King HoDrr the Kighth, intituW an Act that Doctore »\\ 
Civil Law, l)eiu){ manaMl. maj exercise ecclesianim) juriadicM. , 
attd all arid vvn; 1>niitubea noil urticlca in the aaid twu Ad>| 
last meuttiUMid end not nprvli^d tn tbn limn nf the nid lilt 
King F^vatd tbo Sixlh. maf from b«DRcforth lik^wiw Mni 
and b« revived uid remain iu their fnll force and alraiF^ h> (B 
intents and {wqMMs; anjrtliing coiitaiudl in the aaid Ac^ 
Ropcnl Iwfoi't! mentionod or «oy other mattar or c*a» toj 
uonlrary notwithstanding. 

IV. And that it inay also pleaae your Highne** that it j 
tie (iirthi-r pnacird by the aalburity aforenaid. That all 
ijlws and Sututrs and the Imkoches and cbvsse of any Ki 
8tatut«, repealed and made void by the said Act of Ite]i«iil ' 
in the tim« of tli« laid lat« King Philip and Quwn Maiy.aDl 
not in thii prcacnt Aet e^iecially mentioned and rertved, ihil 
stand, remain add b« repealed and Toid, in aDcb lilce manner aad 
form aa they were before the making of tliis Ait ; anti 
liercin contained t« tlxt contrary notwithiitaiiilinK- 

V. And tliat it may aim pleaae ynur Highncas that it 
enaetad by tlie anibority aforcaaid, That one Act and Statal* 
made iu the first year of the ragn of the late Klni; EdvM^ tli 
Hixtli, yiHir Majiiity'H moat de«r br»tber, iiilitulnl an Aa 
>^'niiitit »iich pvnoM as (hatl Bnr«ven>nlly speak aftalnst lb 
-Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, oomiBOuIy itSm 
tJie SaonoMDt of the Altar, and for the reoeiviug Uiercnf a^e 
l«>tb hinds J and all oiul every branchca. clatuea and senfmS 
theiwin contaioed, ahatl and ntay tikewiae from the laat day a 
tjiis MaeioD of FwUament he rwirud and from thmcrfurt 
dialt and may stand, runain and be in full fnrcc-, utrongth as 
rCferi to all int«nia, constractions and purpoaea, in aoeh iOl 
manner and form aa the same wai at any time in tbeflrktyaiu-t 
the >vigii of ibe laid lat« King Edward the Sixth; any law, rtatttt 
■>r uthor matter to the roatmrr in any wim- uitwillistandii 

W. And Uiat also it may pl«*»e yuur Utgboe^s ihat itj 
be fortlicr establisbcd and enact«<d by the autliovily 

■ I ft J R. Vt ij. * j7 H. VIII. ir- • I K. VL \\ 


Act aail Sdttnlv ' made in tiie first und tecond year nf AU'< 
ft> wit late King I'hilip aad Oiif«D Mai^ intituled au Acl %./1i 
||rd* Rnvinfr oT Oirdc Stututcawiiuile for tbi^ puoisluaeut of 
tad aba tbe nid tbrnt t«tatiitfii tn«ntioDnd in lb-' 
i'Ait and bf tkn fame Art reviToil. and all and fvn-i- 
ftttirtee, cUmes and eentencee contaiDed id the himI 
I Acts or Statute* and eT«rj of tbnn, ahal) be Crooi tlie liuit 
' thn Ksdon of Pnrlwinpiit dMiMK) naA rvinaiii uUerlr 
, tM aad of nono effert to oil int^ ntt and parpows : 
IB the said several Acts or any of them contained or 
r^lhtt Bnller or cauac to Ibe coutrary uolwilluluiidin^v 4( 

ni And tn tli« iuU-iit tlmt all tuurfxid aud (urcifiti powri- 

i aslbnTitv, •piriliud sod temporal, mny for rvrr lie clearly 

aud n«T«r to be lued nor obsyed within tbt' 

•r any oilier yowr Majesty's <loinini<ma or eounUie? ; 

r it |dc«ap n>iir Hii;lu)«M tint it may IfC further enacted l>v 

' «atfaDrity aforesiHl, That no foreifni prince, ptntoa, prclsti-. 

4Ue «■ potentate, fpiritoal or tvmponil, sball at any time Hfter 

ibi ImI day it tbia wMtaa of I'arltament. use, eujoy or exorciM- 

«e> nanner of power, jiub^cliou. nperioritr, autbonty, pre- 

iwmi.niii or iiririlr^, vptHtual iir eccleiiarticnl, nithin ibtr 

(mIb or vitblii anf otbrr yonr Mftjtvty'a dominioDs or 

tnoauiea tkal iiuw be or hereafter thall be, bnt from tlteuce- 

lb the <«ae diall be cleai'ly aboUobcd out of tlit« mlm and 

ntber your Ui^hitm' dominion* far evnr; any. atatote, 

rnttom, coast ilut ions or any otber matlvr it caiitie 

fcr lu the routrary Ui any wimp aotwitbstanding. 

VIIL And tKut o]k» it mar likewiite pleuse your Higiuief* 

at it nuy b« cftablialied and annetcil by Ibc autburity 

■til 11 will Tliat ioeh JDrifdicliooe. priTikg«s, snpcrioriliea and 

{MK-Cfniaesna; apiritual aud eecteaiaatieal, as by any epiriluul 

«r «eelMBatical power or aatbority faaUb her^l^ore bern ur 

■ay kvfully be exrrciiMd nr n»ed for tbr Tinitntion of the 

iral ftatc aud ptnonSi aiid for reformstioii, order 

nmctkon of ibc eaiae and of all manner of ertvrK 

aboaea, offences, coutenipta and enonniti**. 

ifiir rtvr.krantbority of thut pmrnt Carliamcnt, be nniU-il 

annexed to the impenal crown of ihia realm; and llwl 

I ft » r. * M fi ■ * IL n. (.■ 5 : J H. IV. IS : I H. V. (i). '■ 













^^^^fe your MiglmeM, your licira and aucCMwrs, kings or ()ii'«u4 
^^^^H this realm, shall haru full power and autJiority by virtoB i 

^^^^B thk Act, by Lett«r« PuteiiU utider tlie Greut Seal of Ec 
^^^^H lo DMigD, namu and autliorim, wbsn aikd ne oncn m 
^^^^1 ilifibncM. ytmt Uijiv or ncceHora, tliall think rimI and 

^^^^P vuuient, atxl for anch and so long time aa iball plurt 
^^^^*^ UighDMS, jour bcirv or BuocaMom, nieb pcrKou or 

^H ^^ licing natural -bom iiubjocU %a your Highii*!!*, yo«ir bon ' 
^^y^'"''^ «u«oe«ors. a* yonr M(ij«Bty, your )i«in or succ««»ai«, siuU I 
t"'^'^ DDMt, to eieiciiie, use. oeeup}- and exeoule uufer your Hit 

your b«ini and *uDcnMini, all ttiunner of jurisdtctioDs, priv 
and pTc-cminenc^ iu any wiiw touchiog or couceruiug 
«)>iritiial or ecciesinstiml juriadictJon wilhin tbeeu your : 
VjUf, I '-o^ Hu$;lHiid aud Ireland or any otber your UtgbueM' 

L<A i.'^' j>nf (HMiilriiw; uiid to vL^t, refonn, redrew, order, eomtt 
■mrnd all Mucfa liercMm, crrori, rdiism*. nbusBt, oAcoora. i 
tempts and enormitic* whntKwror, which by auy muuxr 
spiritual or ecdcaiaatical power, autbarily or juriwlictiuu can i 
may lawfullybe refemed, ordered, redreaaed, corrt«trd, rvsttvii 
ornisooded, totli* pleamre of Almighty (iod, the ioorttue of 1 
tue and the cooaerratnii of the pnoe Kud unity ut'tliii ifalo 
Hnd that such person or peraooa so to be nanud, 
BUtliurieed aud appointed by your HighmM, your hcjn 
■ucccMur*, ofttr the mid Letters Patents to hini ar tlten 
•ad dcUtvrcd m is nfnrt»nid, shall have full power uod au 
by virtue of ihic Act aud of the (aid Letter* Patents, i 
yuur Qiglitiew. your lieim or sncccMon, Iu oxotcisc. lue 
rxvcutc nil the pntmisacs necordiug to the tenor and effect ' 
the M>d Iirtter* Patents; any mutter or catue to the 
iu any wise notwilhstanding. 

rX. And (or the better obeemtion and inAinlenau<« wf this 
Act. may it plram: your HigbneM that it may lie turthrr 
by tlic authonty aforruid. That all and every anibt 
bishop, and all and every other wcleuutical peraoa and otiM 
eccJeaiaatieal officer bjuI minister, of whnt estate, dignity, 
eminence ur degree soiircr lie or Ihey bo or shall be. und all i 
e»-ery leoiporal judge, jusdcvr, mayor aud other Uy nr tv«i|: 
idioer and minister, and e^ery uUier penou liavin^ 
Highness' fee or wages within thb realm or any yoor Uif 


Act of Suf>r€ntacy- 


ilomiiibnH, nhnll niukr, take and rnceirc a oorporal okth upon 
tho fivnngolist, before such person or persons as shall pleeae 
your UiKlux^iut, your ht'm or KuoctmKUTii. nnitr Uie (ire»t Seal 
of Bnglonil, to BHign und iiniii«, to nccept nnd t«lc^ tlio nunc ac- 
cording to the tenor sod effect liercnfter following, that is to m]r : 

I, A. B., do utterly testify and declare in my coBscience, That 
the Quecu'a Hifr'nu'ss is the oiilv supreme kuvcuioc -ot thi* 
mUro luid of nil other ht^r HighiirSH' doiniuioiix luid countries 
as well in all spiritunl nr coclesiaiitical things or canses 
t«mpon)], and that ^o foreign prinoe, poraon, prolate, state or (U#4mi'*v- 
pot«iitnle Itatb or oujfht to have any jurisdiatiuu, power. 1^ , 
superiority, prt-cmi lie ntf or iiutlmrity. ecdrsianlion! or ipiritunl. 
withio this realm ; and therefore I do utterly reuonnce and 
Eiraake all fui^-iKU jurisdictions, powei's, tiuperiorities and 
authorities, and <Io'proiiiiBe tlmt fruni hencefortli I iliall bear 
faith and true alleginnct! to tbc Quiren'x Xighiiens. her li«ir> 
uad lawful miccetuors, and to my power sbHil uiuiBt luid dufead 
all juriBdicti«nK,pre-«uii lieu cea. ])rlvite;^ and titithoritiei> granted 
or belongiog to tlii> (juci-n's Higbuexi, ber heim and sncc«Mor«, 
or unit«d «r aniiciod to the impcrinl erown of this realm : so 
help me God, and by tlie contents of tiiis Book. 

X. And tbiit it may be aUu euacted. That if any aucb 
itrchbiehop, bi^ibop or otber cccleaittaticnl officer or minister 
or any of tJie said tempornl jndgi^B, jtuticiariea or other lay 
olEuer or iniuistei- shall peremptorily or obsUiiatelj refme to 
t^ke or rct-eive the said oath, tJiat tbeu lie ao rcfuxing alutll 
forfeit and low: only duri ng bin life all and every eccleiiaiilicnl 
and spiritual piomotioii, b*iivlice and office, and every tcmpoial 
auii lay promotion and office, which he hath sol<^lyat the timer 
of tuch rehunl iomU ; and tlmt tbe whole title, JutereM aiid 
incumbency in every mich promotion, benefice ami other office 
aa against such pcr«on only »o refusing during his life «Iia11 
dearly ceaw and be void as though the paity no refusing were 
dead ; and tlmt, alao all and every such pemoti and jjereuna so 
refusing t« take the f«itl oatli aball imtiii^iliatf^ly alter auch 
refusal be from thenceforth during his life disabled to retain or 
excrciMi any office ur other promotion which be at the time of 
auch relunul huth jointly or in common with any other person 
or persona ; and that all and every purvon aud persona that at 



auj tinM li«reuflcT iihttll 1m iit«r«rr«d, promoted or collated 
Ijjvw^ - imj imlilnRlioprii: <yr biihopric ur to uqr other iivrilasl 

ttt.-X'U- eeckviutical benefice, promMMn. iJi^ily, office «r miniktry, 

r titataliHUbeb; jtiurHighans, jt)orbeinornicc«won,p 
Vf.^jt&^J ■>'' pnNootcil to auj tFiii|>o«%l or lay office. mliiiatT? or 
I j" 5„^ 1 witliin Uiis rvaln or in aoy jam Hifrltnttn' dooiluioM, 

^1' lie or Uicy "hull (»ko upon bim or them to rwcJTi;, oat, 

^^ supply or o«(upy any such arc)ibiBh«pric, bubopric. 

^^^K dignity, oAkw, miniiitry or nervior, nlinll likewbe inalw, 

^^^^B nnc! receive the >«i(I eorponil oath bi^fure mctitioiMi) 

^^^H ErangcliMt, before «ucli |>ervon« «« hnrr or *baU hocr 

^^^H admit any sucb peraon to any each office, oiiniitry or 

^^^H else before sueli peraoti or pereoos as by your Higfanraa, juat 

^^^H i>r suecevaora, by commiuioD undor tlie Great Seul of Eiigl 

^^^^1 iihttU b« named, eangned, orappoitited to minitter tlic mm! 
^^^1 XI. Ami Ibat it na,y likewiae be further etioiCt«d ^ 

^^^H authotity aforeaaid, Tbat if any such person or penotu u 

^^^H any time UereaAer aball be pr^piotcd, prvfeired or oolbled te 

^^^^1 any micli jiromottoo aiiiritual or «eclrnn*ti<sl, benefice, oftee « 

^^^H mitiiglry, or that by your tligfaness, your beir« or miccccaen, 

^^^H (bftU be pi-nninlci] or preferred to any temporal or lay oCct, 

^^^H miiuatiy or nervife iliatl »iid do pereiti|itoriIy aud ol 

^^^H refuse (n isike tlie mine oatb »> to him to be ofTcred, that 

^^^B lie or they BO Tcfaw^ iilull prcaently be judged di^bW in 

^^^H taw to reoeite, take or bave the aamc prxxnetioii Mptritiul 

^^^H ecclesiastical, the nae leiupuml office, miiuttry or aervi 

^^^^1 within ihin realm or auy other your Uigfaneas' dominioBB 

^^^^a all iiileuts, oofwtnctionK ami piirpOfoe. 
^^^1 XII. And that it may be farther euseted by the aiithi 

^^^H aforemid, That all and every penau and pennm tecnj 

^^^H mutis livery or ouatre le mtune not of the lianda t}f jonr 

^^^H Uighncn, your hcim or aarcMaoni. before hia or their livery 

^^^^1 or oostro le maioe sued forth and allowed, tuul «n«ry temponil 

^^^H person and pertou* doing any homage lu your Flighueai, wg||| 

^^^H hcird or auceeaMra, or dut diall be received into aerviee 1^^| 

^^^H your nifihueHB. ywur hcira or aneccavon, ahall make, take a^'' 

^^^H reoeire the wd corporal oath bdbre mentjoaed lirfoie (Jie 

^^^1 Lord C^ianeellur of Bngbad or the Lonl Kecfier of the Ur«at 
^^^^^^^ Seal far the time beiiig, or bcfotv each persan or persons aa by 


j4ct of Supremacy. 

yowr HigluieBK, your Uolrs or succeaBore, shall bo ntiniod and 
Kppointrd to ncccpt or rrccivii thn nuiise : iiud timt uIho &U 
»aA rvcrj- person and porsons tftking orilcru, innl iJl imd CTi-ry 
other ptTAon nnd persona which shall Ije proiimUid or preferred 
to nny defr<^<' "^f Ipiirutng in luiy Univeisity withiu this your 
rmlm nr (loiniDions, before he shall receive or take ouy mich 
order*, or he preferred to any Buch deRref "f lejimiiifr, Bhall 
iiwke, lake and receive tlie said oath by this Act set forth aod 
dorhired, a* i> afdrcnuid, before bit or thetr ordinary, cominitsary, 
cbanci»llor or vice-chancellor, or their mifficiciit deputicK in tlw 
twid Univemily. 

Xm. Pri>vidc-d alwayx aod that it may be further enacted 
I)y thr authority iifori»uiil, That If aiiy person having any 
estate of inheritance in any trmporal office nr offices «huU 
hereafter obetinalely luid ]>creniplorily rcfuan to ncccpt and 
toke tlie *aid oath u ia aforesaid, and aft«r at any time during 
his life ahall willingly require to take and receive tlie aaid oath, 
and to do lake and accept the utme oath before auy peraoii ur 
pearsoiw that ahall have lawful authority to minister tli« MDie, 
tltat theo every .-lueh penion imiuediately after he hatii S" 
rcoeived the »inic oath iiliall be resled, deemed and judged 
in like eslale sud poraession of iho said olfics se he was before 
ibe said refusal, aud shall and may utte and exercise tli« iiaid 
oflic« in such inumicr aud funn iti be shouM or might hare done 
before «uch refutal ; any thing in thia Act contained to the 
contrary in any wise iiotwithstaDding, 

XIV. And for the more nure ohaervation of this Act, and tJie 
utlcr Rxlingui»hmeiit of nil foreign luid unurped power and 
authority, mny it picnic your llighncx that it niny be further 
cnat'ted by the authority iirurentid. That, if any jn-raou or persona 
dwelling or iiiluibitiiig within tliia your reulio, or iu any other 
yoor Highnexn' rcnltni or dominioiM, of wliut ciitale, dignity or 
degree noever he or they be, after the enil of thirty flayii nelt 
after tlie <l«t«nniiiAtioa of this session of tliia piv^nt I'arlianMnt, 
nhaJl by wriliug. piinling. teaching, preaching, expreu words^ 
deed or act, advinedly, malicbuHly aud directly nffii-oi, bold, 
Htaod with, set forth. maintaiB or defend the Huthority, |>ni- 
emineiice, power or Juriadiction, spinloal or ecclesiastical, of any 
foreign jiiincv, prelutc, {Minion, ilaite or potentate whatmcver. 





limtofore cliiimed, imcd or luurpcd within thiit rttaJm or gtay 
liomiDion or couiitrii' bpin^ withiu or under the power, dominioD 
ur obeisnuce or your Hij^-lmt^sti, ur sliall tulri^dlv, malit.'it)ii^y 
mid directly )iut in urn or uxi^cute miy thiiiji; fur tlie «xt4>lltiig. 
NttraiiccincEit, netting furtli, miiintonaiicc or d<<roiic<! of niiy cuoh 
piYtendfd or nsurped juriidictioD, power, pre-eminence or 
iiulhority or any part tliei-cuf. timl then evi-ry buuIi persiDi luid 
perBonH m dniug imd oUTeiidin^, thrir nhctliirii, nidcrx. pracntvD 
iind coun»cHorK, being thereof lawfully convicted and Attainted 
acrordiog to the duo order mid coufau of the Comniou Law* of 
thin realm, fur \aa or tlieir firxt offence slinll fol-^t^it and lose 
uuto your Highiic-tiE, your heir* and succcMora, all his and llieir 
ij>«ikI« and,tel». us well real as peraonal ; and if any kucIi 
pereOQ so convicted or attainted ^huU nut hare or he worth of 
his pro)ier gouds and cbatteU to the tbIui.- of twenty iiounda at 
the time of such hia conviction or attnindni*. that then every 
such person so convicted and attuitited over and beaidos thtt 
forfeiture of uU hin mid gondii and duittvU siiull have and tiufier 
imprihonnietit hy the ]i]>aec of one whiile Ti»r wit.lii>ut bail ur 
Tnaitipiite ; and that also all and every the heiieltces, prebends 
and other ecckaiastical jn-uiuotioua and digiiiliea whatsoever of 
every apiritual iicrKHi no offRndiiig and heiug attainted slmlt 
immediately atkr such attainder he utterly void l» all intcnt-i 
and purposes u though the incunibent thereof were dead, and 
that the patrou and donor of every anch Iwuefice, prebend, 
spiritual {immotiun and dignity shall and niay lawfully present 
unto the ntnic, or give the same in tnch manner and form aa if 
the Miid incumbent were dead; and if any snch ctlendnr or 
nlfenders afler much uouvietion or attainder do efteoons commit 
or di> the said olfeuces or any of them in manner and form 
afoit-Kaid, and In- thereof duly convicted and attaint©"! a» in 
nEbri^aid, thiit then evpry xnch offi'oder und oD'endeiH shall for 
the aame second uifence incur into the dangers, pmaltiKi and 
lorfcitui-cn ordained lUid provided hy the (itutute ' of I'mvicion 
und l*i«inunire, niutlc in the sixteenth year of the reign of 
King Itichard the Second ; and if any such offender or 
otTenders, at any time after the said second conviction and 
attainder, do the third lime commit and do the said offence* or 
■ i6 R. n. 3, 



r«(thcB in tnumer uid form afijreuiJ. Biid Iw tbcreor iluW 
•ad ftUaiutad m U Kfbrenid, Uu( tUen every such 
twCBKea siiftll be deemed uid odjodged high trcwou, 
i;that tlw offeiuler and oOVndere therein, being tbei''^ 
' Rinrtctad ni.d ntluntcil accartUoK to Um liiw* uf Uiis 
^rfall siller paina of dcstli end other penaltiua, rorfritunv 
. w in cMw of Iii||[U toeftaoB by tlie Uws of Uiis realm- 
XV. And eleo that it nmy Ukewiim |il«Me your HtffhMn 
tit iwy be euiuted by the nutliority nfortMiid, That no 
rotpetsou or pereons aha3t be molratiMl or imiwachcd for 
Ik cSrnoee aforawud eoiiimitt«d or p^rpeliated ooly by 
tnchii^ or word*, tmleea be or thvy W tWn^of 
|IhUIj indicted vrithin the tfrnem of uni; half yttiir nest nflcr 
or their agrttoea »o comiaitted ; mmI in eve «ny pcncm 
■hall fortune t« be iupriwDod for auy of the aeid 
eofumitled br prc*cliin^, tcncliin^ or irardN ouly, nnd 
I aat ibcevof iiidjcti^il within the ^i«ce of one half ycftr next 
' hi* or their •tuJi offunee to coinmitted aiul dune, that then 
|)eT*<in eo imprisoned ^hall bo ict at liWrty and Iw n» 
' detained id priwHi for aoy euch <»u»c or offeDce. 
XVL Proridci always and be it enacttil by the authority 
till, TlMt thia Act or aoy thing thei-vtu coutaiiMid vliall 
Mi in aiDy wise rxten«l to repral any clauKv. matter or mntciice 
raDtainHd or specified iu the sMd Act uf Itcpol made in the 
«m1 6rat and eecMid ytan of ibi? reigns of the faid late King 
lUip and Qoevn Mury n* doth in auy wUe (uoch i>r oonccru 
«iy MMtter or csae at premnnirc. or tbut doth make or ordain 
•ay inatlrr or omm to he withui t)i« ciuo of prcmunirc, but 
that t^ MBie tor so tuuch ouly u touelwth or concerneth any 
<a»e or matter of premutiitc »liall Htaod and reoiuia in HKh 
farar and effect aa the seme wae boforo tlie making uf this Aul ; 
^^mr tbuw in ihui Act eontainetl to the eontnrj- in nuy wioc 
XVIL tVovided alto and lie it enacted by the suthonty 
That thia Act or any thing thungiii contained aluJl 
^M* in any wiae trxteud or be prcjodieial to any person or 
I ior any offeuce or uffrucea eomniitted or done, or hcmfler 
! or door. cMtlnry to the tenor and effect of any 
StatBtc now rvvirrd by Uiis Act, ha&rc the end ul 




thirty Aays next After tbo end of the B««Bion of th!s |>rrscnt 
1'arliam«nt ; niiv thing in thiti Aut conluned or any oUi<r 
inattcr or cuitse to the mmlrary nDtwithHtiniding. 

XVIII. AdiI if it tiiipjieti tlint. nny penr «f this renlm shall 
fortune to bo indicted of and for &ny oti<?nc« that is revived or 
made preiuunii-e or trcAtiou bv this Act. timt theu he so beiii^.' 
iiidict«d sbnll hnvi- his trini by bis penrs, in niich \ikv tananvT 
onil fonn a» in other cases of treason hnth been used. 

XIX. I'rovided always and he it enitctedaa is aforeetiid. Thai 
no muuuer tX order, act or detennination for auy matter of 
rdigion or canae ecclesiosticnl, fand or mndc by th<' nuthorily nf 
this present ParHantent, slintl be accepted, deemed, interpretiite 
oradjndged at uuy time hereafter to be auy error, here'y, bcliiem 
or sdiii^mulioul opinion : iiiiy order, deereo. Hmteucc, cuiiHtitutioii 
or luw, wliutsoi'ver the snme be, to thi- contrury ncitwithidji tiding. 

XX. IVovided alway*, and bo it enacted by the autliority 
nforeKBid, Thm euth person or perRous to whom your Higlinecs. 
yoiir huiiu or micei-swirs, shiill liercaftor by Letters Piiteiit^ under 
the Grcnt Seal of England giv* authority to have or execute any 
jurisdietioii, power or authority Hpirilual, or to vibit, reform, 
order or correct any errors, liereiieii, schisms, ithiiseH or Mior- 
mitiei by virtue of this Act, »hall not in any wise have authority 
or power to order, determine or iidjud^^e any luatter or oanse 
to be hereay. but only Hucii an herctufiire have been di't*-natne»l. 
ordered or mljudged to bo hcrcny liy tlie Buthnrily of the 
Canonical Scriptures, or by the firHl four Genei'al Cuuiicils or 
any of Ihi-m, or by aiiy other General CouneU wherein thi? Mune 
YTM declared li(Te*y by the exprcBn and pluin words of the Mid 

• CBJiouJcat Seriplui'cs. or such oa hereafter bhall be ordered. 

judged or deleriiiiued to be heresy by the High Court of 

J- Pftrlinnient of thin riMtm. with the uiuH>tit of the nierg)' in their 

Convocotion ; any thing in thin Act conWined to the contrary 

not w i thdia nding. 

XXI. ka& lie it further enacted by the authority uforesnii), 
That im person fhnll (»• hcrc-ailer indieted iir nrrnignHJ for luiy 
the ofTeiiced miide. orditined. revived or adjudged by this Act. 
unleiu there lie two Ruflicient witueaneB or tnore to testify «iid 
declare the said offence* whereof he "hall bo indicted or 
arraigned ; and that the luiid witneaws or mo many of them an 

..«/4*rt^ i,A.-sSA,'^^\ 

Act of Uniformity. 

\x thring uid witliin Ihi* rralni at the time of the UTai<n>- 

rf Mdi |>enoi) BO indict^ shall b« brought forth tn person 

\t bu before ttie party «o uraigiwd, atid tWre tliall 

•ad decUra orluit tbcy cut mj aguiut tbe porty ro 

if he rrquire tha ann«. 

PniiUfed aUo, u)d I>« it enacted br tlie authority 

llut if any peraon or iktwmis shall lienakftur happen 

sKy rrlicf, aid or cnmfort or in any wiitB be aiding, 

«r oomfartiog ta tli« petsoo or porsons of any that 

kmller happen to be any offender in any matter or caae 

ire or trvason rvviTad or made bv this Act. that tbi!D 

nlieC aid or mmfort given ri»ll not Iw juilgml or uk«in 

•ar dSeaat, unlna there be two suffident vitnesaea at tbo 

that mi and will openly te«ttfy aod d«<ibre that the 

or pmcns that ao gave mcfa ralicf, aid or comfort tad 

ild knowledge of Mich offienoe committed niut donn liy 

laid oSiBder at the lime of neb relief, aid or comfort so to 

fiT«n or minieterol ; any Uiiiig in thia Act ootilained or 

tnatter or caosa to tbe contrary in any wire notwith- 

NdiiMuv XXllt and XXIV, eoneemirts wrtmn 
»« A«« omiutd.] 

t BLrz. Cap. IT. 

i» Att for lAt uttifomuty ofCommott Fraytr and DivittB Strviet 
la bU CAvrtA, and the AJminiMratton of the Saeramfntt. 

^ftrbefv ai tbe dcMh of Mir late SoTercign Lord Kioj; Edvnrd 
^H Sixth, there mnained one unifunn onlei- of cwnmon Service 
W PrvTiT and of tbe adminittnttum of Saonuuent*, rites and ' 
TTTOMiirr in tbe CbnrcU of England, which was »ct forth in 
•■e book intatnW tbe Hook of Conunon Troycr and adminis- J 
mtiaB sf SAcruoents and other rites and ct^remoiiics iii the 
i«fEB^and.authoriii«ibyAa' of Parliament hoWen in 
[fifth and sstb yean of oar aaid lato Sovei-«i|in I-ord King 
tha Siitb. intilnJed an Act for tbe Unifonnity of 
I>a*M- and adaunntration of the SacramanU ; the 
rtpaU«ii and taken away by Act* of P»rlt«n)i-ut lat 



I Umt 




tbe first year ol the reign of oor late Sareniigii Lady Que 
Uatj, lo tli« Rreal ilecuj of tbe doo lioDOur of Gvd and 
eomfort to tJw pmfciiiiftn of tlia tntb afChrist'f retipon: 
it tbernforv ntmctcil bv tbc RuUiorily of tlii* pm«nt IWImsii 
That the aaid Stat ale ofltepealaudeveiylhing tltereincoDt 
Otdj coDcernicK tim »aid hook aud tlw tcrvicc. ordmuuilntiuB i 
SacratnenI*, rilcH und crnTtnonici contained urappointn! in or I 
the anid liook »hall be void and of none <^tct fraoi and i 
the F«ast of tli« Nativiiy of St John Baptist iieKt ooBitf J 
and tJutt tlie >uid buuk. witli tJie Order of Serricv and of I 
admiuiRtntion of Sacnunenta, ritea and eermioiiiea, with 
altrrntion and ndditiona thcrain added and appointed bj i 
Statnt«, ahall »tand and bo from and after tb« said Feaat of I 
Nativity of St John Baptist, in full Iorc« aud effect, aco 
to tbo tmor aiid effect of tbiti Stutntc ; auytliitifi iu t]i« i 
tnid Btntuti! of Repeal to tlie contrary notwitbatandlng. 

II. And fortbiT be it enacted liy tbc (^cea'a Hi^neaa, ' 
tbo a#8mt of tli« LordM and Commona in thia pmc«nt 
meat aasenibled and by aatbority of tiw aanw. That all 
wngnlar mtnisteit iu any tatlicdml or paridi cbardi or 
place within tbit realm of Kngbnd, Waif* and tii» : 
th« aamc or other the Qaoeu'a domtnioiu (hall from 
tlie Fcavt of tlie Nativity of 8t John IIapd*t nest coining 
bounden to aay and um the Matins, K-naeong. <«t«brai*ua 
Ibe Lord's Supper, and admiuiatratioD of each of tlie 
nwnla^ and all their Common anil oprn Prayor, in socb 
and form ■■ i* mentioned in the Mid book so aiitbor 
I^liamcnt in the t>*id fifth and nsth yean of the rvigu of 1 
Edward the Hixtb, with one alteration or addilioa of 
Leaaona to be oiied on every Sunday in the year, and 
of the Lilany altered and eorrected, and two md 
added in the delivery of the tiacrameat to Um commai 
and none other or otherwise ; and that if aiiy manner 
parauu, vicar or other whataoever miuiater, that ouj^ht or tb 
linR or My Commoa Pnyer mantioDed in tbo said book 
miuiiter the SacnuDCot* from and after tl>e Keaat of Ibe Nalt«k 
of St John Baptist next coming, nfuae to use the aaid Cu 
Pl»yerv or lo minister the Sacnuuenla in Kioh cubedrai 
parish church or other pbu^a a* be should use (o intn»t«r I 


Act of Unijortnily. 


mmc, in nudi orAfr anil Torm ss they bo noirtiamed and wi 
forlh in tbe aaid lHx>k, or dliall wilfuIJy or obstinately (Btamlin); 
in the »RmB) use any other rit*. cereniouy, order, forni ur 
manner of celulimtio^ of the Ijiird'ii Buppcr, opc:ity or privily, 
or Mfitinn, Evftnuong, odniiniglratioD of the Sacramonle or 
utht^r opcti prEyer« thnii is mentioned and aut forth iti the said 
boolc, (|byj u|inu prHyerin iind throughout tliin Ant i* nu'unt that 
prayer wliich i» lor other to com* onto or hwr, rilhrr in 
common cfaarches or private chapela or oratorieti, commonly 
milled tbe Service of the Church,) or uliall preach, deelnre or 
xpenk liny thin^ in the derogation or depraving of the xaid biiuk 
or any thing therein contained or of any part tlirreof, and shall 
be thereof lawfully convicted according to the luwsof this rtalni 
hj verdict of twelve men ur by hit own confession or by th« 
notorious ovidoiico of the fact, shall lose and forfeit to the Qaeen'M 
Highness, . her heirs and snccesiior*, for hiti fimt oBcnce, tJie 
profit of all liin Hpiritunl boneficM or proraotioos oomiug ur 
arising in one whole year next after his conviction, and nUi> 
that the i>erson so convicted shall for tJi« same offence suffer 
imprUonuieut by the i<]iai:e of *\x munthii without bail or niain- 
priRe ; and if any such person once convict of any offciicr 
concerning tlic promises sha^ll alter the first convieljon eftsooiis 
ijffoiid and \iv tliereiif in lovm iiforonnid lawfully convicted, that 
then the rrunK pi-riion Khnll for his second offence suffer imprinon- 
ment by the ppare cf one wholi^ yenr and hIso aliall therefore Iw 
deprived, ipso facto, of all Kin spiiitual promotions, and that 
it shall be la^vllll tu ull piitrtmH or donnn of all and !iin;ful<*'' 
the luime (pirituni promotiuns or any of them to present or 
collMte to the tame aa thoufrh the persons so oflending were 
dead ; and tluit if any mioh penam or jirnoni after he shall hi- 
twice convicted in form aforesaid »hail offend agnin^t any of thi- 
preniini-x tlie third time and shall be thereof iu fi^mi aforesaid 
lawfully eouvicled, Uiut then the peiroii bo offending and co»- 
victed tbe third lime »hall be deprived, ipso ftioto, of all biii 
apirilnal promiitionK and also Khatl miftrr imprinnnmcnt during 
his life ; and if the person that shall offend und be convicted in 
fomi afors-«aid, cancemiiig any of the pi-eiuixes, aliall not he 
lieneliced iilt hnve any spirituiil promotion, that tiien tiie tame 
person ni offending and oonriot shall for the first offence suffer 




unprtHuuitieut <luritift one whale year next after his eoii) con- 
riction without l>iiil or miLiniiriBif ; nad if jiny such peraoti uot 
having aoy spiritual promoliou, Fifter his 6nt cuiiviutiou, xhull 
»ftiKX)iii> utTeud ill iiiiy tliiug ouuceriiiug Uir promises and 
Hhntl be io form aforcsniil thereof lawfully convictet), that then 
the aaiue persoo shall for his second offenC6 suffer iaiprisuntiicnt 
during hia life. 

III. And it b unlained and cnndnd by t)ic kulhnrity above 
^ftid, Thnt if iiny person or pcrnon« whatspever after the said 
Feast of the Nativity of Ht John Baptist next coming sljull \n any 
int«r!udeB, plays, songs, rhymes, or by othiT open words, di^ckrc 
or speak any tliiiiK in thu derogiitioii. dt^pruvin^ or despising 
of the seme book or of any thing therein conUined or any part 
thereof, or t<li&ll by open fact, deed, or by open threat eDingscumpet 
«r cause or atherwiiie proutire ur muintuiu any parson, vicar or 
other minister in any cathedrul or parish ohurch or in chapel 
or ill any otlwr pl«c», to siiin or say any eoiiiiiiou or open 
prayer, or in milliliter any Sur-'muirnt, othenvisp or in any other 
manner and fonii than is mentioned in the said book, or that 
by aijy of the said means shall unlawfully interrupt or let any 
panun, ricnr or oIIht niiuintrr in any ciitheclml or parish 
church, rhapel or auy other place to siug or say common and 
open prayer or to minister the Sacraments or any of them iu 
ftueh mauuer and form as is njetitioned iu the Kaid book, Ibnt 
then <!very niicb person being thereof lawfully convicted in form 
aboveanid shall forfeit to the Queen our Sovereign Lady, her 
heirs and buccessors, for the first oflonce a hundred marka ; 
and if any person or peisuns being once cuuvicl of any auoh 
ofTeiicc eftsoons offend ar,raiiitt [sic ) any of the last rrcitcd offrncos 
and shall in form aforesaid be thereof lawfully convict, that 
then the same person so offending and convict »hall for the 
seeoud offence forfeit to the Queen our Sovereign Lady, her 
heiis and SHcrcessors, four hundred miirliB ; anil if any [H:nioii, 
after he in form afoiesaid sliall have U^n twice convict of any 
offence roneerning any of the last recited oflonces, shall offend 
the third time and be tiiereof iu form ahovesaid lawfully 
cODvict, that then every person hu offeudiiij; and convict aball 
fur hia third offence forfeit to our Stivi'reigu Laity the Quocn 
all his goods and chattels and shall suffer imprisoumeut during 

Fiftftniks and Tenths, and Subsidy- 33 

%hm «Md roiuniiaaioDerB ^hen betog elull by th«ir 
I appoint uul limit unto tJie sftid penoua anotber duy 
1 fA*M lo >|ifMr brfori! ttui lud oomnuHWucn^ uul vbnr{pii}[ 
) moA pt y a a* . tliat (faify in tbe nMftotiim: «li«Il nuJte dttigvnt 
' tf kll wayt aod meaiu of tbe prcmues . . . : uid of such 
liplMU nadj to make oertifieato m b afoTMud, tL« nid 
Umv being ahull take and leeeire tli« *inie 
', and if tbn satna comBiiuioners mv cnnsc rruon- 
^ tWr kkall ezaiuine tbe eaid pr«eeiit«Ts tlu-reof, and tfaorp- 
I ifar KUki ivmuiiwioDeni . . . »luU frooi time lo time upcnlj 
fitfix a day ■ ■ . for tbvir farther proc««iliiig to the foid 
[oftbn aaflie subsidy; and tbfT<nipon at tli« (aid day 
■ 'm ttme camBuanoners shall iaak« ibeir pm«pt or [ireceiHa 
[b tht cnnatMble* ... or otlier aSearrm of incb iiiiniliHiIs . . . 
r elW pUoBi aforcNid an tbv iinmu oommiMiioncrs tliall bo of, 
in tite same pi'et«pt lli«' nanuaaoid surnames of all 
I pKC*etiled before lliein in Ibe wid cettiftcstle, of whooi if 
I mi cmtminioocn . . . Kball llicii liiivo ntbenioDt iiuiipcut to 
' rf taore greater value or substance . . . tlian npoa in>>cb 
*ldll be certifiMi, the aamc commissioners sball make 
piwepA to tbc constable, haitilTii or other officen, com- 
I Hafing the fame ... to wni^ 10(11 iicrw>n« wlioac nanKt ahall 
b cMapnMil in tlie mid piy«ept, . . . that tlie same prrKins 
^lU penoully appear U>fur« the said commiarivuera at the 
{■refixed day and |>laoe, there to be euuiiined by all 
I ^id a>ean*, other Uinn by corponl oalb, by the aatd 
of tbeir gn-atest subetance and best value, . . . 
MantiBg lo thia Act : at which day and place to prciixnd tbe 
■al raBBnatood* . . . shall oaiiM to be oalled the siud perauna 
i* tktir examination ; luwl if any of tho« persona . . . innbe 
'iMi and appear not, . . . that then every of them so making 
Md^ to be tajied and charRed to tbe Queen's U^jesty at the 
taMt sataa of tbc rate thai be nbuuM linvc bvpu set at . . .; 
.■ii^ eamaiuanen ahall travel iritb eveiy of tbo peisons w 
I «ad there app«aring, ... by all such ways and moiins they 
.other thaa bj* oorpnnl oath, fur Llieir better ktiowlc>l(^ oS 
best value : . . . and if any pmNMi orrtificd or rated by 
of thia ktX . . . doth find hirawlf grieved with the inaie 
cat . . ., and (hereupon complain lo the commissioiicra 





. . ,. tlint then the sftiil commisi tuners absll . . . examine . . . th« 
perwiM »o com[>liitiiiiiK nm! otlirr his neiRlilwurs liy llieir 
dinTetion . . ., nnd nftrr iluc^ t^xntninntinn aoi) pirrrpct kuow- 
ledgo thereof had . , .. the i<aiil commissi oners . . . mny nbnto or 
enlurjre [he suiiic araesHiu^iit, iiuirordiciR as it ahall appear unto 
them ju»t upon tho imme «'xaiiiiiiutioii . . . 

XU. PrnTtdctl nlwujTi, That every guch portoii which shall Iw 
set or tated fur pajTuent to this subBidj after tlic yearly value 
of Ilia lunds. ttiieiueiits aiid other renJ pot'At'Ksion^ or profits at 
any of the taitl taxatioin, shall not h^ taiiN] for bis g'loHs and 
cliatlels or otiier moveaklu Buhataiioe at the same taxations; 
aD'l that he that shall be l.ixcil for the same Mibsidy for hit 
gooiU, chfttlels and otiier moveables at any of the said 
tiualions, shall iiul be taxed or olisrgeable for his lauds 
(ir other real [Kisse^sinriS and profitti abovcitaid at the snmft 
taxations . . . 

XIV. And furthci- hn it enacted. That the said rammiii- 
aionera of nvery commission shall according to their divisiona 
- , . have full [lower to tnx and uess every other romniissionerj 
Joined with tln-n) in every aiich commiMluu and divJiiiun, and 
^liall alsD n^si'iU rvery nssc-ssor witiiiii thrir division . . . 

XV. And that all periions of the estate of a bai-oit and 
every estate alwjve «lmll be cliurgcd with their frechnld and 
valui! na \» above said, by the Chancellor or Keeper of tha 
Oreat Sfal, Treaturer of EuKliiid, Lurd I'resideiit of the 
Queeu's Mujettty'a Pi-ivy Council ajid Lord Privy Seal fur 
the time Iteing. or other persons by the Queen's Majesty's 
aolhoriiy to be limited . . . 

KVII. And further be it eimetcd. That the said commia- 
aioueii . . . shall, for eitlicr of the snme payments of the said 
subsidy, namn »uch suflicipRt and able pei-sons which then 
shall have lands and other bereditamunts in their own light of 
the yi'ui'ly value of £io or gowls to the value of lOO niurkii 
at th^ least, ... to be high collectors and have the colleotioa 
nnd receipt of the said suras . , , 

XVIII. . . . And every collector so deputed . . . shall hava 
auth'trity by thi* Act to apjioiiit ilays bjuI places within thfi 
circuit of his collection, for the payment of the said subsidy to 
hiai to be made, and thereof to give waruing by proclataatii 


I6W.] Fifttentks and Tenths, and Subsidy. 35 

or othcmifio to all tbo con«t»bl«8 or other peraona or inhabit- 
ants having the charge of the pni-liculur ealt«ctii>n within the 
huDdrecls. parislies, towns or other plncun by him or them 
]in)ilt!(), to muke piiyinciit for their uniH pnrticubr collrction of 
CTerji niim an to tlirm shiill nppi'rtaiii. . . . 

XIX. I'rotideil uIwayK, Tli'it no pernon iiili&bitlTig in aiij 
city, borough or town curpirnto rhnll Iw compdlctl to be an 
nuMueor or eoltector of the ■ubsidy iu anj place out uf the said 
city [&c.] where he dwellelh . . . 

XXI. rt VKulso etincted, Tlint crery of tlioMid high collector* 
which >huli account for any jHiTt of the snii] sabsidy . . . shall 
be allowed ... for every pound limited to hia colleclioo, . . . 
nis p<!noo, rm pnrcel of their chiu^ie ; that in to «i>y, of every 
pound tlieivof for euch person ax theii have hud the pnrticntar 
collection in the towns and other pliiora . . . two {letice ; aod 
other tiro pence . . . every of the said chief collectors or thcii' 
Bccounlnntn to retain to llieir own UM . . .; and two peoce . . . 
to be delivered ... to such of the mm niigsi niters a» shall t»ke 
uprin ihem the Inmintft^ siid lalionr about the premiseti . . . 

XXII. Anil tbut no jirisuu now being uf till) nuralfcr of the 
compniiy of this prcucnt Purlin me lit, nor any com mim loner, 
shall Ije iiaiiied or assigned to be any collector or sobcollcclor 
or preienier of the said subsidy or any part thereof. 

XXV. Provided that all ]>erMiinx hiiviiig mnnor*, hrndu [&<:.] 
chargeable Co tho paytiKTit of thi> siibsiily, and also having 
spirilitul iiussessioDs chargeable to her said Mi^eety by tlie 
gvant mude by the clergy of this realm in their convocation, 
and over this having substance in goods and chattels chnrge- 
&ble by tliia said Act. that then if any of the said persons be 
liereafter tbari[ed for the said nianyra [Ac.) atid npintual 
[xisiiieuioiis, mid nlno churned fur their goods and chntttiU. tlint 
then they shall be only charged by virlnc of thii Act fiH* their 
said mniior^i [&c.] and spiriTual possessions, or only for tlieir 
said gODiIti nod chattels, the best tlieruof to be taken for lh» 
Queen's Iti'jesty, and not to be charged for both, or doable 
cliarjied for any of ihem , . . 

XXVI, Provided that this gniiit of subsidy nor anything 
therein contained extend to clinrge the inhabitants in Iivlaiid, 
Jerae}- Mid Ouerneey for any lands , . . goods, chattels or other 

D I 




moveable eubetance which the eaid inhafaatautB have within 
Irel&iid, Jei«i'y aud Guernsey . . , 

XXVII. Provided aUo tlut t.hU prtwint Act of xubiiidy uor 
anything thrrrin contained, oxt^ud to aoy of the Kiiglish 
inhabitants in any of the couulieB of North uiuherlaud, OumUer- 
loud, Weitmowhiud, tint to«u of IkTwick, tht? town uf Now- 
eoetle upon Tytie and the biahopric of l>urhani, for any hmda, 
. . . goods, chattels or other moveable Bubitiiucu whUih the eame 
■ububitAUbt . . . buve within the mid c«uiiti>t* [&C.J . . . 

XXIX. Providrd that no orplian or infant within the ago of 
tweuty-oue yeain, born withiu any uf thu Qutwu'ii Mujt^bty's 
doTOtniuiis, Kball be charged . . . for gooiU and chattrU to b:m 
or hor left or bci^neatlied. 

XXX. Provided al«o that this Act nor anything therein 
contained aluill exli-iid tu the ftuodv tir landi uf any college, 
hall or hostel within the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
Uf t« ihi- Koods or lands of the Culk;;e of Wiiilon ... or of Uw 
Cullego of Eton ... or of any common free grutntnar stdioot, 
withtD the vealm, or of any reader, Khoolmastcr or acboUr or 
any |,Taduat« within the said univertitiea and eoUegrs tlieru 
remaiuiuj; fur «tudy ... or of any boMpitnl . . . used for the 
BUiteutuliuu and rcJIuf of jioor p<'ople. 

XXXlll. Provided also that the said grant uf auhsidy do 
uot any wi«e extend to the iiihubitauta at this present time 
within the Gvd p»rt« corpunitt^ or to any of their members 
iDcorporatc or united to the samo five purtu . . . 

I Eliz. Cap. XXII. 

An Act irhrrrhif tht Quern t flii/KncK» maj/ mak« ontintmceg and 
rvlc* in (Jiurehta collryiate, eorporalionii and tohooU. 

I. Poraxniueb as certain cathcdml and cnllcgiate chnrchea 
«)k1 other ecclesiastical inroqwrationn and some schools havtt 
been erectwi, founded or ordained by the late King* of worthy 
memory. King Uenry the Eighth or King Kdward the Sixth, 
or by our Inte t^vercign Lady Quceu Mary and by the labs 
Lord Cardinal Pole, not having as yet orJuiuud and eatablithcd. 
Buci) good orders, rules aiid cuuatitutions as should be meet 

i] CiJ/eges am 



nt for the Rood ordtr, tuifrtj uiil coDTcnicnce of 
Be it tlieiefura nnnctcd. That (bp Qiiwn'a Majmljr 
LiAafl bv Tirtii* of this Act \u\c full pow«r and nutkorilj' 
and prt«cnb« nuto erer/ of t]i« aforenaid ctiarclio, 
Q'oBa sod Khooli uid unto til tli« olficrni, tninutpra 
[■ifikn in Ibem . . . «neli «t>hite», ordinnnces aod orders 
I far tli« g»od hm and gDvemmcDt of theiuwives . . . «n 
I lor tWir hoiuu, land* [ftc] ; and that her Majuhl v nuiy at 
km f h tmn aim ... nil tins Statnln [Ac.) of tli« afonMi'd 
I lA«.] fnim t!iDC to time *» to bcr Majac^ diall swin 

I Elo. Cap. XXTV. 

Ja Jc< lo imnne lo lie Ctovm certain rrliffiou* ktmta and 
mtminii.ritt and to rtform etrtain abumt in chatUrut. 

h Vhttw, since tii« decease of oor ti>ovemgii Lord Kiug 

Btvwii llw Siith . . . o«rlAia ab1i«7>, iiriimeti, hiwpUali, 

aMMciaa, boii»« of ftUr*, elMntriva and other rcligiouo and 

•cricKMticftl hooRTK, by [irnciimnrnt of certain peraous mean- 

m^ la reduce this your realm ratlin to darkneas and w\>rT' 

Mitioa ihaa to the true liuowl(M}|;e and boootmnfr cf Almigfatj 

Ogd, in tba time of the Intr Queen Mnrj-, joar Majetty't sMaTt 

WRv re>>(or«d or of new entered nnto .... and divers hoiMM. 

atanon, koila . . . Kuoda . . . and profils, all wluch or the most 

thcfvof anltl thai lime were appertnimng to the imperial 

fntwu of this mini, liave hern givrn to tlie name corporalionii. 

aa well bf the said late Cjucen Mary ... as aUo hj siindn- 

peiKMu of thia your Mt^e«tj''a realm ; vbicb utd sbbtya 

asd otbcr rdigimui kooMa and choiitrica, are now wholly 

by a (ew per«on« bom within tbi* realm, owing of 

by llae lawa of Uml aod of thia your Maje>ty'B rviilin their 

whob obedtcnfe to the add imperial ctowu of thia r^^alm ; and 

jct tHVertteleai noder the coloitr of otrtaiu supei-elilioui rcU- 

IpoaM and proferaiooa have not only profeaxd ibemseWee to Im 

Mlajtct umI obcdieDt to foreign power and autbonty, to thn 

■awfat dnt^ation uf the juriadiction ... of the uud tm|>eri«I 

of tbii tvslm, bnl olao hv and under the ■ame foreign 

■ and aathoritf only, do yet daily are aoudry mlea, ocdi- 




aaocrs, ritM siid ceremouicB in (heir services and common 
pravvra rrpu^iitnt to tlic usage nf lli« lioly cntholic and 
iipostolic church nf Ctiriiit; and to lite intent ttint tJiu eaid 
abbejn and other religious liuugeii and cfaajitnes, nnd all the 
hon«ea, niouun, Uwdii . . . good* . . . iind ixxJIIb wliat^oever to the 
said religioiiB . . . linusen tippertsiuing . . . mny ln^ horn lieuoe- 
forth by yonrilishncse employed to such good um-» for the Ktting 
foiili of tiie true liunour and iilory of God, tli« advaucomcnt of 
your MnjeHty*!! suid crown impcriul mul jurisdictioD of tho nme, 
and to the nid nnd relief of the public weal of thin your 
Mt^ebly'H ivhIiu afon-suid. as untu your UighneBS shall M-om 
good : ... Be it euutled. Tlmt your Iligimess ehall from hence- 
forth have, hold and enjoy to your UighiieES, your heirs luiil 
aucceaton for over ... all the abbeys ■ . . chnntiies and 
other religious and ecclcaiaatical liouses . . . which have been 
at any time Biuoe tlio decease of our suid late Sovereign 
Lord King lidvmrd iho Sixth newly restored ... or e'tAblished, 
and alsi) nil the i\lcv^ nmnon, lands . . . iiud prutils whatso- 
ovpr which appertain ... to tho suid . . . rc1igiuti» liouGeit . . . 

IV, And fni-thcrraore ... be it enacted, Tlmt all the religious 
and professed persona of the said . . . reliKiiiua hoiinea an shall 
lil(c true and faithful ;nhjcci* freely ikud willingly take ujxm 
the Holy Evangelist one cor|M)ral oath set fortli in one Act ' 
entitled an Act restoring to the cruwu the aucient juris<lictioa 
over the Slate eccleHiasticnl and Hpiritual [&c.j. and iJiull al»o 
from lieucefurth observe nil mniinor of Nervier and coinnoD 
prayer an othur your Majesty's true anil obedient *HbjeoIs are 
bounden to observe by the 1an-a uf tiiis your realm, and none 
other, sliall before the end of forty day* nfti^r tlic end of t]iis 
■canon of Parlinuit^nt have assigned ... to them, during their 
natural lives, sncb convenient pensions oi' annuities . . . aa to 
your Highiie«H shall aeetii meet, nnd shall nleo nt the plprisurc 
of your Majesty remain in fucIi placo and hou&e as they have 
had and held duilng the lime uf their profession . . . 

• I Glii. i.isi. 

As$Hrame of lite Quren's Pottvr. 



5£«»cD Paruauent: First Sessiok. 
*^ jsa. u^Apni 10, tsaa. 

6 Euz. Cap, L 

Jh idfvr tltt KcnmrmM of the Qtum't MajtMifw royal potetr 
im oS tuaUa attd mthjtcU teitkin her tligltHrM dooiinimt. 

fmjfnumtioa dS tht Queen's motit exc«II«nt Uis;\iaetii, ]»er 
iMim. ABiI llle lUfliiit)' of llic imprriiJ ciMirn of this 
irf Rngly^. and for uroiding Ixnth af such liniia, perils, 
•ad uiconTriu«Dccs, as bare beforv-liine bcTuUeii, m 
i to Ac Qneeii** Utgesly's ooble prof^ikm, kin^n of this 
«, M Cor lli« wholo Mtste tlirreaf, by im-ans of the juru- 
tttA puWfT of tbe twe of Itom*. uojuiUy cluimed and 
: wttliiii UuB nalm uiul thm duuimiocw tbvnwf, and aUo 
'i Ik Augrn bj the &ntgrM of the lutd uiiur|>ril power, at 
>bi tiM! grown to marvclloiu outn^e wid liccDtioin boUuen, 
[ mnr nqninuf; mure tliarp mtniut and correctJiiii of law*, 
UtberUi ID tli« tim« of (lie QiiocR'a Mnjt»t}-'» oioBt mild 
Maa[i)l nign bnv« b«vii rMnbtiabcd : lie it tlwrefore 

'tmOti That if uuv pernou dnrllin;; witluu tbtn nudm . . . 

<IW Uw 6nt d»T of Apfil. vrliich tibnil be in the y«ar of our 
1"^ Ocxi 1563, shall bv writing . . . pi'csching or t«Hching, 
4iri Mr met . . . Biaiutaiu or defend the authority, jttri*dtcttoii 
« !■■■ ef tie bi»bop uf Itorae, or of ha we, heretofore 
dnatd. OMd or usorpi^ within ihi* realm ... or by any 
fmk, «pai deed or act, advisedly and wiUlngly attribute uiiy 
■ch iiiniT of Juriidiction. authority or prvemiiicnce to l)i« 
■a' <BB of Baae, or to any luahnp of the wue m* for the tim« 
(■■at within thi« rMOm . . ■ that then evrry such p^ifoii w 
do^liieir alirttoni [Ac.] . . . being tlirreuf lawfully ii>ilictrd 
•t pnaenlrd within oiw year next aflor any Rich ofltncea by 
|ka cammitled. aj>d being lawfully convicted or altaiuted at 
rtiacaAer, acvordiug; to the laws of Una realm, for every 
I Waolt mod offeuoe tliall iitcur into ibe . . . j>enaltin . . . 
by the StatDl« of froTtsiou and Tncuuiiirv made in 
lintKDtiiywir of Ibc rettin of Kin;; RicbaTd the Second'. 

' l«RII. J. 


IT. f JtuUccN of Andite, wid JuvticM of tbe Pe&ce in ibiir 
Qaartcr fivmont, to inquire of eucb offtncm. and certif; 
Kixg's Bench.] 

UI. [JtiBticea of Ui« Kin^i Bench to bear and 
siidi offunccN.J 

IV. And nuHcover, be it rtiact«d. That a> well all 
of peraous expnsaed and appointMl in lh« Act ' made ia 
fint yt»T of tlie Quwn'a Majciitj's rctga that now it, 
titulrd, an Act mtoring (o the rroim the BDcicnt jui 
over the estate ecclfaaatieat aud tjiiriliul, and abo)i 
oil foivigii pow«r3 repuKuaiit to the natne, to take the 
Mt Torth in tbc midc, a» all otbrr penona which hsra 
or tball take orders, cooiraonly called OrJines SaerM or 

Riaaticnl Onlen, (^ur] lia're been or ahal! be admitted le 

degive of Iraining in any Umvcnity within thif mlm . . 
all eclMoliiMslen and public and private teachera of cbili 
a« alto all manner of peraou tliat have takeu or bercafW 
take anjr degree of learning in the Common Ijiwk of tins naha, 
u well utter- barristera as beocbers ... in any bonae of 
and all piiiiei|)al treaetmn, and ineli a* be of the grand 
pany in avtry Inn of Chancery, and all attornevH, pfutniwi 
and philieera towards tbe laws of the realm, and all manner 
■beriflii, Mclieatora aad (eodariea, and nil other penone nhitk 
. . . bare lieen or shall Iw ndaiittcd to any ministrj or office 
the CoDDmoo Law or any nther tav, . . . and all otber ofBetn 
any court whatfoever. shall lake a corpanil cnth opoa 
Evanj^clisls, beforv Ihey shall be admitted ... to laka a: 
them to . . . excrctM . . . any socfa vocation, offico [fte.] «■ b 
aforesaid . . . 

V. And also be it enacted. That every arclibUbnp and faialnp 
within tbi( t««lm ahall have full power, hy virtne of tin* Act, 
to t'^ndcr thr nslh aforesaid, to orrry spiritual or erclcaiactml 
person within tbcir proper diooete, as well in places aod 
jurisdictious exempt as clsewbere. 

VI. [Tlie Lord Obantellor may isane special conua^uoM Cor 
tcodcnnjt (lie oalh to partJi-iilnr persons.] 

VII. Aod ho it aim further enacted. That if any p«na« 
compcUable by thia Act or by tbe raid Act made in the tad 

' I BEa I. 



w^rawe of the Queen's 

ytmr lo uk« the Hud latli . . . kImII . . . ndae lo take 

«U DAtli in muiiirr utd fona ftToronid, that then thi? 

• nfusiBg, uid being tiipraof Ikwfnllj indict«il or pre- 

■iftiiii on* jr*«r neil aiWr any nodi refiual «nd con- 

TeMiI vx atlniutnl ut uiir time after, ML-cnnliiig to tbe tnwn uf 

Iw, fJtslI aafler tl>e p«DnIti*« ordaiDed and providtd by 

M.\r of FrOTisMu and Pneniuoire afiM««aid . . . 

[Sucb Tvfanl to be wriilied into Kill's Bendi, aiul 

tfatdcr to b« initietcd their.] 

nL j\Md for BlroDger derence and maintenance of tliia Act. 

< i> fnrtlier eiiai'ted, Tbiit if any Mcb oHeoder as ts afoivmid of 

tt« lint port of ibw Statute .... after (acli eunvietiOD imd 

Mliiriu H i» afbremid, do eftaoonx commit tbo wid offences 

■r uj of tfaem in manner arweKoid, and be thertof duly 

<awtod and atlaintrd a* is oforeatid ; and abu, tliat tf oDjr 

Ife ptngtia appointed by this Act to take tbe oatb afor«»>d 

tbe >pace of tliree tnootb* uexl after tbe fint tender 

•i, tW (ccxiiid time refilM lo lake . . . tbe Knnie ■ ■ . , thai 

cverf well offender for Ibe eame second offenca sliall 

. wScr tbe fame {Mumi . . . and execation ai Li a»ed in caies 

Bi|pi ttvajon. 

XJll. And b<> it further enacted, Ttiat every person which 
^KteSer eball be elected or appoiuled a knittht, citJuen or 
t wp u a , or baron for any of the five |>ottiE, for any Parliament 
bCTcaiter to be holden, shall from hencefarlb, before he tlmll 
«M>z tntn tbe FarUiunent House or have any »oice tlifre, ojieiily 
Twiit* and prmioDiice tite uiid njttb Wforc Ibe Lord Steward for 
lb* tine being, or bia deputy for Ibiit time to be appointed . - . 

SIV, Pmrideil alwayn, That forasuiuob aa Uie Qtieen'a 
Majcaty ■• otbrrwUe nuflidenlly luwired of tbe Eaith and loyally 
«f Ifce tPBforil krds of Her Ilighneas' Conrt of Tarlianient, 
ttowtfcTf tbii Act ihidl not extend to compel any tenip»nti 
p a iwi W . of nr above tlie drgrea of a baron of tfain i««lm. to take 

ELb> oUh aboTciaid . . . 
5 Elk. Cap. IIL 
I An Att far the rtlief of ihi Poor. 

L To the iutrot Uwl idle and loilrriii^ persons nnd roliant 
h^gui BMy be aTeidnl, ami (he impotent, feeble and Ibumi, 



whi«1i are tlie poor iu very deed, bHoqIiI be lienaft«t t*-% 
liev«d »D<I nrll iimvidRd for: br it «uacled . . . TliM m\ 
t^tute' made in the tnrntv-«<-<x>tid ynr of tlie Uu Kio;<'| 
GkinouR mvinor)-. Hairy (lie Ei(^tb, aiul aUo tbe 8utntc' nu^j 
in the third aimI fourtb ycur* of llw reJKu of llie Eiiuoai Ki^ 
Edvnnl the 8i&lii, eoncorning hrgj^iF, Tn;:.-Bbuud* and if 
peraoM . . . aball *lniid iu tVir full forvc and rfTrct, uidl 
be aim from hcticrfortb jiutly iu>d truly put in HtcutiMI . i 

II. And furUier be it cnaclcd, TUt jeoriy upou liw 1 
aexK after tbe f«ajt day of tli« Kativily of St Jobs 
con>nv>tiIy cnUrd M!tUuuin)«r Day, in eveiy citj. bona^ 
ton II cxir^'orat?, tbc tnayor, b*iiiffii or oilier bctul oSoen (orl 
time bviu^. aud iu every other parish of tbc coutitry it 
|»noo, viotr or cnratc and diureb wardens ihall l»i* wntb 
in * register . . . aa well Ibo uunca of the tubabilaulc ' 
lMii»ehoI(i«ra wHbin their city ... or paiiah, as aI»o the : 
of all ■nek impolciil, apvd aod naedy ]«r*atis aa be vrilMn I 
city ... or pikrisli, which ar« oot able (■> live of thcDivelvea 
with thrir own labour; uhI shall openly in tbe diurrJi 
quietly after divine service c«ll tbe said koocrlioldi-n 
inliahitnnla tt^lher, amoi^ whcan the mayor or other 
«ffi«>!ra and two i>f Ibe chief iDhabilnnls in every turfa cHr [ftt-I 
such aa tlie mnyor or oUier head officers ihuU ihint: mrri -..v 
(bu |>anon, vimr or cuiule and cliurdiwardeDS iu vtvty 'luc^ 
fiarinh, shall apfMiint yearly two able {■cniuns or roore, In 
tplhenn ami cnlIeclor» of the charitable alms of all the 
of the pedpl« inhabilin;; in (be jiuTiMh whereof tlmy be 
colletion for tbc relief ol' the pcnr : whirh c^iilWtoii 
Sunday next after tlieir rkclion, or the Sunday following, if i 
rr<quiic, wbtn the people are nt the uhurob at di*iu« iieeTice, shall 
gcnilr u>k and dcntand of every man and Woman what tbcy i 
their ciiarity vill be coofeuted to giie weekly towards tJie neli 
of tbe poor, and the aune to be w ritten in the aaid rveisUrr . . | 
and tbe said fpitbererH . . . shall junlly gather nud truly 
tribute the suim chaiitalile alms wrelily ... to tbe eaid poor ' 
and impotent pervons . . . without fraud, covin, Esvunr ur i 
lion, and after uieb sort that the more impotent may bsTe i 
oMre help, and tach as cau gel part of tlieir liring to h*ve 

' 11 u. vm. IS- ' J A , E. ^^, it,. 

ve tiS" 

Xflief of Ike Poor. 


.nd bj-thr diKratioD uf th« cotltctoa (o be put in lacli 

M Uwjr Iw fit a&d JiAf Id do. Lai im»« to go or sit 

rarWggiBg upon )muii limited iu the utuKMid tUtutM . . . 

-VT. [fViMHie* and other provision* for tbo duv CM-cution 

And be it rnrthtr ntindrd, TImI \S any peraoB, beiug 

brtlirr this clnriub!* work, do olMtiiuit«1y tvfuae 

ilf to fiT« towards (be lielp and ivlirf of t]i« poor, 

I «3fullv dittcoungTi irtlier from no cliarilubl* n deed. tli« 

I. . . luid churrliwnlciisof tbc[«ri*li wlirrein bt- du-ellcth 

^thcB ireDtlf exliort him tuwards the relief of <he poor; 

rhe«tU not to be pnnuadrd, tbeti upuii t]i« certificate of 

' |«noa . . . lo tlie bUhop of ibe diocceo or ordinarr of tbe 

. . ibe aUM bbliop's ordiuary . . . shall eend for hiai, to 

htm bv chariiaUe miHint to extend [Iiib] churity to tbe 

' . . .; Mid if tbe pcnun hi Mtit for . . . iball obitiiifttelf 

I lo px* Ht«kly to tbe relief of tbe poor aceording to his 

Iben ibe bisbup or orilinary of tbe dioetw . . . shall 

t MJ fanrer . . . lo bind the laid obttinat* and wilful penon 

Aaag tkDto tbe Queen by recogniaance . . . wilb condition 

..Ibattbe Mid chriinale pcnion *o reftwinii vluill perMiiuilljr 

hAn the jactices of {mwoc of the county ... if it be 

' aaj ciiy [Ac}, and if it be wilhio any city [Ar.] then 

tbe mayor a, bailide [&g.] of etciy such city [ft^] ■ - • 

if say tocb obdinnic pcrsoD bImU refun to be bound a* is 

Amaitl. that iben tbe said biiibop, ordiDaiy [&c] . . . »hall 

baT* anthotity ... to commil tbe tuid obaliaale penon to 

VLIL !iu\ further b« it enacted. That tbo mmI justice* . . . 
•r the iK«T«r [ic-j of cter;- encb city [ftc.}, if tbe said ob- 
•tiaatt pvnuD du apprar before tluim, »Jiall cburitably und 
J J . . . BkOTe tbe foiid obeliitate prraou to citend bin cliiinty 
. the relief of tbe poor of tbe parish wbere be dwcllrth ; 
if be . . . will not bn |M.-r>aadcd therein . . . tliat tliea it aball 
_ kwfttl for th« mid jostiMs . . . and ... for the mnyor [ftc] 
iCthc anc dty [ftc] with the church wardens wbere tlw aaid 
it^ prrwn aball iohabit, rr one oF tbrm, to ce»a, tax and 
apoo every mch obstinatA person ao refusing; Mcordiag 
Ueir good discretioDt, what mm the taid iibuinale person 



shall pay WMkly lowanls Ibe relief 6t the poor . . . ; Boii if I 
Mill penou . . . >]iaU rcfiuc to pay tli* nun tbat fkoll be . 
•I^ioiiYUd, thon Uie said Jualiws of I'csee . . . ur thr mu 
msTtir [Ac] sh&ll have full pown- ... to comnut iW 
olxilinatc pcraon ... to the tMoct g»ol . . . 

X. And b« it further «Bact«l, if it bImII ebanoe aoj | 
to h&Te in it mora poor and impotent folica . . . tlwo the ' 
jmrub in alilo to relieve, that thoo in every •neb pomli 
staixlii^ in any city or town eorporate. the ponoa . . . snd t 
or thrt« of the chirf iubabiUiota . . . aod ia evtry city (>r I 
cuqionte the nuyor or cbtef officon of the «ame city . . - 
the parton ... of the (aid pari^ calling (o thtnn two or lb 
of the chief pariahiooen . . . shall certify unto th» Ju 
of Peace of the county ... the Buinl«r and namea of I 
per»f>ni" with wliich they be nrehargcd, and opon such 
ficftte tlie Mid Justices of I'mm . . . ahall then grant itntn id 
and OK ronny of the tsAA, poor folks as by their discrrtiwa tk 
sitall think good, a sulficient liconoa ... to go abroad to bty . J 
tho ehariiable alms of the inhabitants of the coantiyoatoiFI 
said parishea ... so surchargod ; in which licvnoa the i 
of tlie person, the plaoei, town« anil parishes la wfaieh 
poor folks by that licence ba licenced to mort. shall in ibr i 
licence be named . . . and If any of the said poor folks 
licenced nhall tiansgresa Ibe limits to tbrm appointed . . . ' 
party so transgra sM Bg to bn taken for a valiant beggar 
punifehnl according to the Statute made in ths nid twtBl5- 
•0cuwl year of King Henry tlie Eighth . . . 

XI[. And be it alto rnoHed, Tliat in all cities, borongfas atid 
town* eoiporatev within which be divers parithes, the noivr 
and bead officer* . . . shall eonsider the stAlo and ability li 
evety nuch parish ; and if the same mayor aiul oRic«r* ■baO 
nnd«istand that Ibe parishioners of any one of tlie said p«n«lH« 
. . . have DO poverty among them or be able aufficieutly Is 
relicvs the poverty of the parish wlwre ihcy dwell, and alwi la 
succour poverty clwwhcrc furtlier, that then Uie said roaynr 
and oAcerv. with the assent of two of thn moat bonesl and 
substantial iuhahilanta of every soch wealthy puislu ^Jfi 
, . . pennuile the pariKluooen of the wealthier jiariih rhu: 
to auitrilmte soowwbat — towstd the weekly reliaf , . , oi * 


Labourers and Apprentices. 


{KKir and needy witliio the other ptu-Jib or |ttrUh«s aforcwid 
where need ta. 

5 EuK. Cap. IV. 

Art Aet HmMng divert orders for artijietrs, labourera, tervanU 
v/ hutfiandrt/ and appretUice*. 

t. Although there reiunJn iu force preei^ntl)' a great nniDber 
of iitatut«s coDceniiiig . . . uppruntices. servants aud lubourers, 
u wvJ] ill husbundry na in divcr> other . . . uusupnliou*, yet 
partly for the impcrreclioD and contrarirty . . , ui KUti<lry of 
the said laws, and for the variety and numbrr of them, and 
chietly fur that the wttffes and uIlowauceB limited in muiiy of 
the sAi<l stntutcn are in divers places too amall . . . rvupiiclinf; 
the advancement of pricee . . . tlie said lawi cannot con- 
venieittty without the grcati^t gT'ef "nil burJeu of the poor 
laliourcr and hir»l man be put iu due exociitioQ ; anil as the 
said Btatutes were at the tiiue of the luaking of them thought 
to he very ({w)d aud heneficiul . . . , as divem of tliou yet are, 
•o if the siihotJiiiCR of aa many cf the Kai<l lau-a a* are meet t« 
be continued »hnll be digested and reduced into one eole law, 
ud iu the Bamo tiii uniform order jireHcribed . . . , there in good 
hope that it will ooine to pnKfi tlint the nvmc Uw being duly 
executed should banish idlencM, advance husbandly and yield 
unto thtt hired peraori both iu the time of Kurvity aud iu the 
time of pluuty n c:oiivenii.'iit gimportion of wages : Be it therefnri: 
emictt^d . . . Tbat as much of the statutes lierctoforc made as 
ciincem the liiring, keeping, departing, working, wages or order 
of Kcrvaubi, worltnieu, artlficeia, apprciitioen aud kbourcm . . . 
ahull be from and after tlio Urt day of f^plember nest ensuing 
repealed . . . 

II. No person after the aforesaid last day of September . . . 
rIi»U be retuined, hirvd or tukeu iuto service to work for any 
IcM timer than for one whole year in any of iho adcuces ... or 
arts of clothiers, woollen cloth weavers, lucker*, fullers, cloth 
worki-n, tlitarnien, dyem, hosiern, tailors, thoemakers, taiiuen, 
IMwicrcm, bftkcw, brewers, glover*, cutlerr, Bmitlix, fairiem, 

rriere, ladlere, spurriers, tomtre, cap|K'i's, hatmakcrs or 




fi^llmfthers, bowyent, flctohers, ari'OwlM-Bd-tmken. \m% 

III. Every pnrann being unmnrried •nd twtj other 
beiog uoder the wl^ of thirty yean (liat after t)i« fcai4 
Kut«r next shall mu-rj-, «ail lut-ioK born brout;lil a\i in mj 
the Knid urta (&e.J or llut bnlfa cxrrciurd wiy of tbual 
qwce of tlim ycAT* or more, and not baring Inniln, 
[Ac] copfhold or Treeholil of au (-sUt« of inheriUiiM or 
l«rni of lives cf tL* cU'»r y«Hy vnlue of 40*. mat being wa 
of Iiii own Kouds ihc clrar vbW of £to . . ., not beinfr 1 
witb any perwni in husbandly or in any of the afomoH 1 
. . . nor til any other art, nor in bouscbultl or in any 
vitli Kay uoblecoaQ. K>''n')*"ii<'n *»' otlirni . . .. oin" hafiaf 1 
convcniiMtt farm or other holdii^ Ln tillago whMvupon he 1 
employ lii« Inboiir, ehnll (during the time that ha shall n 
unmarried or under the uge of 30 yeuv), upon rtqaeai mxfc 1 
any perton uviug (Ii« art or mytterjr wherein th«i Mud penoD I 
required hnth bipen cxcrfiwd u ia tforveaid, be retjunod 
tliall not refuK to icire according; to the tenor of this 8b 
ufiMi ihc jwin atid penalty IverMtfter mentioned. 

IV. No persoD which diaJI ntaia anj Mmuit shall 
•way his snid aervnnt, and im pereon retained aerordiug to tl 
Statute ahall depart from hii maeler, miatreas or dame befoi* 
tint end of bin t«nn, upon the pain hereafter isRitiooeiil, vnleM 
it be for MiDc rrAMinnbla cnwe to bo ftUowed befora t«« 
Justices of resee or one at the least or before the mayor cr 
ulJier chief officer of the oily, boroocjb or town coqiorale 
wfaervin the tatd iniMter [&e.] inhnbiteth, to whom any of \!u 
partiee greved Fhall complain; nhich said jn^tiers or chief 
officer shall luve the lieanug and orderiujf of ibc matter lietwcea 
the antd master [Ac] and aemuit, accotdiog to the equity ef 
the caupc ; and no such niut«r [Ac] »hall put away anj hmA 
•errant at the end of hiv term or any enoh serrant dep«rt fi«B 
his Mid Bwtcr [£c) at the end of hid trrm without oneqiuitT 
wanting gmn • ■ upon Ibe pain bcmaflcr nnfuing. 

V. Every penon between the age of 11 yean and the a^ 
of tie ytsn not bcinit lawfully retaiuMl cor appreutice wtth 
any fukcmuui or nurincr haunting the twas, ner being in 
l«rvice with any earner of any com, gmin or iumI for 


Labourers and ApprentkfS. 



naton of the city of LondoD, nor with anj hoslmndmaD iu 
hiubandry, nor in noy (.-Uy [ftc] in auy of Ibe nrt* . . . kp- 
pointed by thin Statiito to hnvo apprentice*, tiur lieitig iTtninod 
... for the digging . - . melting . . . ninking nf niif silver [or 
other lui-t&iB. coal, ftc], uur beiDg occupied in the tnakini; of 
any k'"^' "t h<?ii>g ** gentleman liuru, uur beiu;^ u itudcnt or 
•cholnr in nny of the univ«rfiticii or in any ichnul, nor havinfi 
pandsor goods, as above. J 3], nor hnring a father or tnotlier 
then Itring or other aucertor whose heir iippareiil lie t> then 
having landti [&c.j of the yearly valuu of £10 or above, or 
good* or chntteln iif the value of 1C40, nor being a nfcessary or 
OooTenient officer or servant lawfully retained a« is aforesaid, nor 
havtng a convenient farm or holding . . . nor buing uihoiwise 
lawfully retninrd according to the tnii! meaning of thin .Statute, 
shall ... by virtue of this Stolule bo compelled to be retained 
to serve in htubandry by the year with any pcrvou that keopoth 
biubandry and will I'equire any huvH perxon so to serve. 

VT. [Penally on muntem unduly dismill^ing norvnnti, 40*^: 
on fervant* unduly dqiarting or rcfuiiing to vervo, imprison- 

VII. None of the said retained penORS in hu^hiUldr7 or in 
any of the aria or xiirnceii nbovc remembered, after the time of 
hiR retniner expired, gliatl depart foi-tli of one city, town or 
parinh Iu another uur out of the . . . hundred nor out of the 
cjounty wli«re be laxt nerved, to *erve in any other citjf . . . 
or county, nnleiE; bo have a te«tinioni»l nnder the seat of the 
•aid city or of (Im uouatahle nr other bend officer and of two 
other honest householder* of the city, tuwn or parinh whrro he 
la»l wrvod, deeUring hi* lawful deponnrn . . ., which tcsti- 
moniiil sliall be delivered onto the said servant and also 
regirtered by the panon of the purish where aucb niMler [fte.] 
•hull dwell . . . 

VIII. [I'enAltyon a «erv»nt deparling without such testi- 
monial, imprisonment or whipping ; on any one biting liim, £5.] 

IX. All artiricem and labuurers heiug hired for wag«* by 
tlie day or week iihall bctwist the midst nf the months of 
Uarch and September be at their work at or before r; of the 
clock in the morning, and oouUuue at wuik until betwixt 
7 anil % of the olouk at night, exctpt it be in the time of break- 




(mX, dinner or ilriuking, Uie which timeo at Uiu mo*! lUli 
•XMird nbdT« a\ hours in the Aa.j , , . aw) all tlw said i 
and l*boDr«rs between the uiidtit of September and tlie 
of March sWl be at tiieir mrk from ibc ■prioif of the iltji^ 
ibe moriiing until Ifae nif(ht of t])c anmc dur, r.xcepl it be 
time afore Appointee] fur breakfast and dinner, iipou pain 
forfeit one penay fur everj- bour'* abtwoce to be deducted s/iiX% 
hiN wage*. 

X. (PcBnltT on nrtificei^, &c brealdng eoDtnct with 
ployeie, imprigonmeDt and fiti« ufiCs,] 

XI. Aud for the deoluratioa what waffru iiervnute, 
Nod urtifiecre, either br tlic vear or day or otberwiae, 
receive, bo it enacted, That the jnsticee of the peace of < 

tdiin . . . withiu the timita of theii- eeveraJ commieiuaaa i 

the •hcrifl' of that countj if Iio convcnii'iitly tnaj, luid 
mayor, hailiff or other be-ad ofBcer within any city . . . 
ia any justice of peace, within tii« limila of the i^d city . ■ 
■liall before Uk lOtii day of Jone nest cuniinit uul oflt 
yearly at every ^leral nefsioiis first to be boldeii aSia 
or »t foine time convenient within lix weeks nest folio 
KMter, callii^ onto tbem »uch disuieet and grave penotw < 
the wA county or city ua they shiUl tliiiik meet, and coBfeRnif 
togutluT rcapectiiig the ptenty or rcaroity of the tiiM Bod <Ak 
rimimstencea i>rcc)>nry to bo comidered. have anthority oillaii 
Uie limila of their several eonuninioiiie to rate and appotnt tiw 
waitea as well of nch of the aaid artifioon ... or mny ottrn 
labourer, Mrvaiit or workman wImm wages in time peet faalh 
been by any law ratrd and appointed, as aleo the wage* of all 
otbtr labourers, artificer* [ftc] which hare aa4 been latcd. aa 
they aliall Uuuk meet, to be rated ffte.} by the year or by the 
day, week, month or olhcnvine, with meat and driuk or withoBt 
neat and driuk, and what wa^m every vorkmau or labuncr 
thall lake liy Ike gjvul fur hiowidk, reapiii); or tbnsbing [and 
otlier ajtricultural ciiiploymoutj and lor any othnr k-ind OS 
rtaaooaUo hiboor* or tervice, and shall ynrly before the 12th 
day of Julyoeit after the mud asaeaameot usde certify the aane 
. . . with the cuiuidcralione and causa thereof into the Coart 
of Chancery; wl)crcu|K>nit >hall be lawful to the Iiord ChaactUor 
vS En^nd [or) Lord Keeper upon deckritioD ILereof 


Labourers and Apprmticfs. 

QuMn'fl Majesty ... or to the Lordii and othen of Ui« Privy 
Council (» CHUM (o \vi printed Hiid «cnt down bt^foro the ist day 
of Sojitcmher ncit nftnr the said certificate ioto every county 
. . . proclaraations ci)utaii]in;( the m-veritl rates uppoiuted . . , 
with voiDinnndmcnt ... to nil prrnmiM . . . straitly to nliRcrve 
the iMinc, nnd to nil Justices [&c.] \a see the skino duly nnd 
•eveivly observed . . . ; upon receipt whereof the said Sheriff. 
Justices [&c.] shall caune the wimo proclumation to 1* uiiternl 
of n-cord . . . nnd nholl forthwith in (ijxrn markets ujion the 
market dnys before Micitnelmas then ousuing caufc the same 
procIamatioD to be proclaimed . . . and to bo fixed iu some 
couveuieut plave . , . : aud if the suid iJieriffn, juaticeH [Ac. J 
shtJi at their luiid geneml wuiDns or nt any time nftcr within 
six week* . . . think it convoniciit to r«tain for the year tlicn to 
come the rat«B of wages that Ibey certified the year before or to 
duQge tbem, then they aliall before the Mtid latb day of July 
ytarly certify into tlie »nid Court of Chancery their resolnliona, 
to the intent tbnt pcucltuuations may accordingly be renewed 
and Keut down, nud if it nhall hapjieu that tlieru lie no nenl of 
imy aheiTLtion . . . then the proclamations for the year pB«t 
thftll remain id force . , , 

Xn. [Penalty on Justices absent iVom sessioDB for rating 

XIII. [Penalty for giving wngr> higher than the rate, ten 
days' impiitooment and fine of £g ; for receiving the same, 
twenty-one days' imprisonment.] 

XIV. [Penalty on twrvautj, Ac. assaulting masters, Ac, one 
year's impri»oiiment.] 

XV- Providrd thnt in tbo time of hay or com hnrvdnt thn 
Justices of Pence and also the constable or other head officer of 
.every towiiKliip upon request , . . may cause all aueh artificers 
and prnNinn ns bn meet to labour ... to serve by the d»y for 
the mowing ... or inning of corn, grain and hay, nnd that none 
of the said persons sltsU refnse so to do, upon pnin to niiHer 
impriauimieut in the stocks by the space of two days and one 
night . . . 

XVI. [Promo for jwrsona going harvesting into other 

*IL Two justices of peace, the mayor or other Wd ofRcer 




of nny city [Ac.] and two itMnnniin or Iwo oUier 
burg«sM« ... if tkcra bo no •IdenavD, mny appoint kqt 
irom&n as is ot Itie af^ of 11 jMire aod uad^r tlfe age of 
yrim iiml niinuiTitsI an<l forth of wtrv'xee ... to be ntaiaed 
wrvg hy tlkc yi^r or hj the w<«k nr ilay for audi vagn and 
eueh rmsonable aoct as Ibcv Fhall think meet ; aiid if any 
iroauui tball tvtum »o to Mrv«, tlieu it afaall be lawfal for 
aaiil juntiu^ [&cj to commit auch woman to irard unto (be 
b« bduiiilcn to »crT« as afbiVMid. 

XVIII. And for the better advanemncot of huabandty 
tJUage and to (he iu(«nt Uiat lucli aa are fit to be 
apprenliccH to liiubaodry may Iw lwati(l«o tlierDuiito . . . 
p«reon being a bouMholdcr and baring half a ploaghlaod at lb 
leaat in tillage may neeive as an apprentice any pereoD abnt 
the a^ of lo Tean and uoder the age of iS fm% Xo ttm n 
htubaiulry until liiii age of 3i years at tlie Icaal, or nnlfl ibi 
a^ of >4 yf»n BB tlir paTiira can agree . . . 

XIX. Every per»oo being an houwhotdcr and 14 jttkn oU 
at tlie lAtt, dvrelliiiK io uny city or tuwu corponte and exenii- 
ing any art, myitiii'y or manual occupation tbute, may aft«s (ft* I 
fra«t of St John Baptist next coming . . . tvtain tbe ton of tsf 
fMoian not occapying hutWndty nor being a lalmirec aaJ 
iiihatiitiiig iu tlie same or tn auy other city or town tiicnrp»nla 
to be bouDil 01 an apprentice after tlie cnttaai and oriier of tb 
city of I^oudon for 7 yean at the IcAst, *o aa the term of tnA 
apprentice do not «xptre afore such appreatioe diall be of tbi 
age of 34 yrara at the Itaat. 

XX. Pixividrd that it sliall not lie Uvful to any prrsea 
dweUing in any city or to«-n corporate exercitiBg any of tlrf 
mysteriea or crafla of a merchant troffickiug into any patU 
beyuud the oea. mercer, draper, gotdHmth, tromnonger, r»- 
hroidprer or clothier tlut dotJi put doth to nuikiog and tale. C> 
take any apprrotice or wrvant tu be instnicled iu any of tJic 
aita [Sec] «bi«h tbey exercise, except such aeriaut or apprralkt 
b« hia ion. or elae that the fallier or niollier of aucfa apprcntwe 
or eereant ahall hare . . . laDd*. tencmcuts [Ac] of the chw 
yearly Taloe of 401. of one eauto of inheritance or freehold 4t 
the lean . . . 

XXL Fnm and after Uw aid faut at St Jolia the Baptial 

Labourtrs and Apprenfices. 


, it thall be Uwfol In ei'erjr perma Ining an bofucfaoldnr 

1 1\ j*v% oU at tlic lout and not occapying hntbaodry nor 

: * l4bciiRr dmlling in auy (own not b«iug incirrpontte 

b • ai>rk«t town . . . utiil FitfrcigiuK any urt. is]r>trry or 

wcnpatioa ... to hiTC in liku tiuniier tu afijircitl ic<« 

l^iUno of anj olhcr artiticor not occupying husbandry oor 

a Ia)>o«rvr, which Hball inhabit Ui t)i« aauio or lu any 

■adt tnarkct town witbin the waw ahire, to Mrve m 

t« aTartvnid to ony McJi nrt [&c.] n» halh b««II 

■MnuMl in any tucb market town wii«ro »icli ap- 

lilnll b« boantL 

hvnd«d that it iludi not b« lawful to any p«r«on 

to WSJ ouch iBiu-kct town cxtrcising the art of a 

tnCoking into tlie parts lieyoud (ho sens, mercer 

t« almv, \ XX] to take any nppreut^oe or iii any wine to 

; any p«r*un to the nrUr [ftc.j Uat bL-fore i«cit«d, after 

|ilMt of St John Baptist afoivoaid, axccpt cncii servant or 

> afaoll b* his aoB, or else that the Gith«r or molber of 

I ifpimtkc aliall have laoda L^^] ^^ ^* clear yearly raltu 

E3 of on* state of iiilieritonoe or frfchold at tbe IcMt , . . 

^^UI. Fram and after thr e^id fea»t it «hHlI b« Inwfnl to 

I cx«rdHng tbo art of a smith, whRlwright. plougb- 

, Billwri{(ht, nrpenler, rongli ouwou, pkiatervr, Miwyer, 

r, brickinaki^r. Uricklayt^r, tilvr, vlnter, hutyer, tilc- 

woavcr, turner, coopvr, millers, carthvu potters, 

aver wearing huuapwiccs' or household clutb only 

: otlwr, eloUi-ftilkr utlicrwine called tucker or wutker, 

r of oT« and wood onltn, thatcbor or BhtDgl«r, whercsocTor 

! dwell, to have tbe mo of any perion au upprunlioe . • • 

kit the fiufaer or niotber of any nucb apprcutice Iwve not any 

aU tw bcrvdi lament*. 

^tlT. After the firrt day of May next coming it aliall not 

livfal \o aay pervon, other than such oa now da lawfully 

: any art, mystery or nuuiual occupation, to exerci*e any 

nnl within tlio realm of England or Wales, except 

1 ban been hrt'Uglil up thrrria teven ymr* at Ibi! Ie*i(t 

in DuiuQrr aboretaid. uor to <et niiy pcnooi on 

tmA oGcupaiiou being not a vorkman nt tlua day, 

AaiX bare bien apprentice tu <■ oforeiaid, or elM 

t a 




hnving Ncnrcil as oil apprentice will become a joiiruftymau or ba 
hii'cd by the y^ar : upon pain that pvery person willingly 
olTeiuliiiK eliall forfeit for every default 4O8. for every month. 

XXV. Providei! that uo person excrciaiug tie art of a woollen 
oloth weaver, other ihnn BUcii na be inhabiting witliiii the 
anilities of Cumberland, Westmoreland. Lancenter and Walos, 
weaving friezeB, cottous or housewives' oloth only, making and 
weavinK wixilleii doth comiinmly sold by any clothier, slmll have 
ftny appmntiee or shall inatruct any person in the lU^icncn of 
weaving afon^aaid in any place (cities, towns corporate and 
market towns only except), unless such person be his son, or 
else tlmt the fatlier or motlier of such apjirentice or aervsnl 
tiball . . . have lands {&c.] to the clear yearly value of £3 of an 
estate of inheritance or freehold . . . upon pain of forfeiture of 
ao*. for every month . . . 

XXVI. Every person that sliall have tliree appreuticex iu 
any of the said crafts of a cloth maker, fuller, shearman, weaver, 
tailor or shui'inaker shiill keep one journeyman, and for every 
otlier apprentice ntiove the number of the said three apprenlii^e.i 
one other journeyman, upon ]iain of every default therein £. 10. 

XXVII. [Proviso for worsted -makers of Norwich.] 

XXVIII. If any person shall be required by any hou^holdor 
having half a ploughhuid at the least in tillage to be an 
apprentice and to serve Ju huabaiidry nr in any other kind of 
art before expressed and shall refuse so to do, then upon the 
Mtnplaiut of such housekeeper made to on« Jutitice of Peace of 
the couiity wherein the said refusal ie made, or of ench house- 
holder inhabiting in any city, town corporate, or market town 
to the mayor, bailift's or head officer of the said city [Ac] , . . 
they shall have full jiower to send for the same perfou so 
refusing ; and if the said Jnntice or head officer shall think the 
said person meet to serve as an apprentice in that art . . . the 
Muid Justice 01- head officer shall have power ... to commit him 
unto ward, there to remaiu until he Vfill be bouuden to serve , . . 
and if any aiir.h maiter nhall evil entreat his apprentice . , . 
or the apprentice do not hi* duty to his master, then the Raid 
master or apprentice l>eing grieved shall repair unto one Justice 
of Peace within the said county or to the head officer of the 
pl&ce where the aaid master dwelteth, who shall . . . tak« such 


Labourers and Apprenticts. 


order and dtt'ectiou lietweeti the said inBnter niid hia upprejitice ai 
tUe c<|uity of tlic cnse shall require ; aod if for want of good 
conformity in the said master thu enid Justice or head officer 
cannot conipuuud tlie DiutUr hetvrcen him und hi> appivntloe, 
then the naid Jontici: or luind officer shnll tnkc bond of tli<- imid 
inMt«r to appear at the next sesaions theo to be Iioldrii in the 
said eouutj' or within the said eity [&c.] . . . ^nd upou Lib appear- 
ftDce and hirnring of the mutter ... if it be thonght meet uuto 
theni to dieicbargo the said appreiilice, then the eaid Justices 
or four of them at the leaHl. whereof one to he of tlie quorum, 
or Oie Niiil heiid uffictr, with the coiiRent of tliree other of hia 
brethren or men of bort repatation within the wiid city [Ac], 
nhall have power ... to pronounce that they have diiioharged 
the aaid apprentice of his apprentiorbood . . .: and if the 
JcCiuIt » he fuuud to he ill the apprentice, then the said 
Justices or licaU ullicor, witli the aeeistaote aforcsuiil, tJiuU cause 
tuch doe puiUBhment to )>e miuistered unto him aa by their 
wiadoin and diacretiona sluill he thought metTt. 

XXi.V. Provided that no ])er80D ahalt by force of thin Statute 
be bounden to enter into uny appreutieealiip other than >uch as 
he under the a^^ "^ ^ ■ yeans. 

XXX. And to the end Ihnt thix (statute may from lime to 
time be . . ■ put in good execution ... be it enacted, That the 
JunticcH of Peace of every county, dividing tliemselvea into 
Mvcral limili', and llkewifo every maynr or bend ufFicei- of any 
city or trtwn corporate, shall yearly between tlie feort of 
St Michael the Arehnuf^t'l und Ibe Nutivlty of our I'ord, and 
between the fea^t uf the Anuuueiatiou of our Lady and the 
fnst of tlie nativity of St John Baptist . . , make a special and 
diligent inquiry of the bmnchrs and articles of thin Statute and 
of tli« good execution of ttic same, and where they sliall find any 
defaulta to aee the same severely corrected and punished without 
favonr ... or diKpU-HKure. 

XXXI. . . , E*ery Justice of Pedrc, mayor, or head officer, for 
every day that he ahall sit in the execution of this Statute, shaJI 
have allowed unto htm 5*. to be paid ... of the fines [ftc] due 
by force of this Stntulo . . . 

XXXII. [Procedure for recovery of peiittltic».] 

XXXIII. Provided always tJiut this Act shall not be prejudl- 




cial to the a\\t* of IjAmlnn aocl Norwicb, or to the lawful 
tibertirs [Ac] of the wMat ciliea for the liavini; of ajipi-calicea. 

X}(XIV. [Contract* of apprenlicetihip oontrary to ibb Act to 
Iw void, niid a penalty of £io.] 

XXXV. [Oontmct* of appntnticcship to hoM good tTiough 
made nhito tlie apprentice is uoder age.] 

5 Em. Caf. XXIX. 
An Atifortlu Coi^irmation of a .Suttadt/ granted bj/ iht Clergy. 

I. VTierethe pwlntcii tin<l clergy of the province of Canterbury 
have most lovingly anil lilierally. for certain coiidideralions, 
given and (;;T«Dted to the Queen's Mujenty a nulHtidy t,f bt, of 
the pnnnd, to he talieo aud levied of all and aingalnr the 
spiritual promotioim within the name province during the term 
of three yearn now next ensuinfiri '" "ui^h certaiu manner and 
form, and with such excpptioun niid pnivisionn, on lie upocified 
and contained in a certain iiiKtrument by them thereof inad« 
Mid delivered to the Queen's Highness, . . . which tUKtrumetit 
is DOW rxhihited in tliis present Pariiuneut to be ratiBed ; the 
tenor wliereof cnam-th in tliese words: 

The prelate* and clergy of ihr province of Canterbury, being 
lawfully congregated and iissprabled together in a Convocation 
or Synod, calling to their rememhtancd the grott and manifold 
bencfita which they have many and sundry w»y8 receivod of 
your Majeaty'a mi>»t grarioun brnnilifulness, princi]>aily for tho 
m^ttinj; forth and advancing of Go*re holy Word, his »iucnre and 
true religion, and abolishing all foreign power rnntmry to the 
Buue, . . . have given and grunted, ami by these preiienta do 
give and grant, to yonr Highness, your heirs and moetnon^ 
one dubtidy in lutiniier and form following, that ii to say : that 
every arciibi«hop. binliop, dean, nri-hdeacnn, prelieridarv. provost, 
matter of college, martcr of hospital", parson, vicar, and every 
othtT parson of what«oever name or degree he hi-, vnjoying any 
spiritnni promotion i>r other temporal [>oaRe«ions to the same 
Bpirilual promotion annexed . . . nhnll pay to your Highm-n, 
your heirs and auccepsors, for every pound tlmt he may yearljt 
dispend by rcawn of the said epiritual promatitm, the sum 
of 6*.: and for the true and certain vslne of the aaid promo- 


Clerical Subsidy. 



tioiu . . . the valuation rc-mainiug of reconl in yotir Mi^jw^a 
Qaxat or Exelicqiipr, for the tnic pnj-mnnl of tlic perpetual 
diflin^ . . . rhnll be followed . . . ; proridod always that, fura»- 
much M the teuth jiart of tlie taid valuation and rate bt-fore 
mentioned is yearly pnid ti> your nighncm for the pcrpctnnl 
diame, no b* there reniaineth only nine parU to the iticumbent 
clenr, thi« t-ubsidy of 6«. the pound fthall he undMstuiided uuly 
of th« same nine pnrts mid of no more : proviilnl alwayn, that 
no pnnu>n that in nlready promoted to Niy spiritual benefice or 
promotion since the last day of September last past, or that 
hereafter ehall be promoted to any ftpiritual heiielicn or jiromo- 
tiou on thia *idi- the lait lUy of Repti-mher 1565, by ifjison 
whereof tltey may be charged to the payment of the first fruits, 
shall be charged . . . with any part of Ihi* subsidy during the first 
year of bja mid promotion : and your s^d prelates and clergy 
uImo do grant that thU nubsidy of (i*. the pound . . . idiatl Iw paid 
tu your Majesty, your heii's or succesiiora, within three years 
next eiiHuiiif; the date hereuf. that is to say, 3». of every pound 
in every of the *aid three ycnr« ■ ■ . ; an<l to be delivered and 
paid yearly by such person and pemons a* in this prwnt grant 
shall he ap]>oiuted to have the collection thereof to the Lord 
Hi((h Treanurcr or Under- TrcSHurer of EnKlaiid for the lime 
h*ing, or to such person or pertone and in such place or places 
as it shall please your UijchueiM to appoint . - . 

Item. We your said Ornne's prelates und clergy also do gnuit, 
tliat every ])ri est ni^d all other spiritual or<ToloiiiL<ticnl persons, 
having any pension by reason of the ilissoliition of any the late 
iTiouasteriee, ... or of any otlier npirilual dlf-nity or corporation 
now dissolved within the snid province of Cnntcrhury, tiliall 
likewise pay to your UtghDees, your heirs and suecesnors, 64. 
of every pound of the said peiisione within the eaid three years, 
. . . Item, Your Miid pirlates and clergy further do frtuut tliat 
ever; srchbi shop and bishop, and thn noe being void every Di-iui 
and Chapter of that see void, shall Iw rolUctors of this nubsidy 
within their projwr iliocese during the said lliree years, other 
than of ibe jiensloners aforeeaid ; . . . and 6d. of every pound 
wlterewilh the collector fthall be charged in his account, . . . 
shall lie allowed tu the suid culleotor for his nid account for th« 
same, for the charges and collection ... of the snid subsidy : . , , 




proTiJcd alvays, that every incumbent mnlcing sucb dcfnuU of 
paymmt . • . shall forfeit ati<] loae only that his beiiffce or pro- 
Diotion for which ho nmketh dirfnuU . . . : provided always that 
DO spiritiinl piumotiuii or any lands, po^KcMiouK or reveuneii 
aiiDexed to the wimc, ... or any goodn or chdttclB growing of 
tho same or appertaining to the owners of the enid Rpiriinal 
promotion eliall be made contrihutory to any fifteen or tenth or 
ftny other nubsidy already granted to your Uigiinc^ by the 
litily or hereafter to be granted during the term of the 6aid 
three years : . . . provided nlwayii, tliat all paraoiiB and vioarn 
whoso benefices be of the valuation of £5 or under . . . shall 
not be charged with this subsidy ; provided also that every 
pricKt niid all other lat« ecclesiastical persons, having a pension 
by reason of the dissolution of the late monasteries ... or any 
oilier incorporations within the province of Canterbury, and 
being of the sum of 40«. or under, tihall not be diarged to this 
auid subsidy, . . . : and for the true nnd sure payment, of this 
aubiiidy . . . your said prelates and clergy most humbly desire 
your Highuesa that this their eaid gift . . . may be ratifiei! by 
authority of this your HighncEs' court of Parliament. 

Wherefore for the true and sure payment of the said subsidy 
... be it enacted by the Queen's Majesty with the assent of the 
Lords spiritual and t«mporaI and the Commons in this prewnt 
porliiimcut HKsembled aud by the nuthnrity of the same, That 
the said gift and grant . . . may be ratified, established and con- 
firmed by the authority nforesaid. 

IV. And 1« it further enaeted, That all Krants of all sumji 
of money which hereafter ehall he granted to the Queen's 
iUjesty by the clergy of tbe piovince of York shall he of the 
Eamc effeiil as the said grant made by the E»id province of 
Canterbury ; and shall he tiixed . . . and jiaid according to tfa« 
tenor of the present Act of Parliament! • . ■ 

-utl] Betufit of CUrgy: Treason. 


Second Parliament: Second Session. 
••pt. 90, iM»— Jw. s, am. 

8 Eu«. Cap. IV. 

*itktH»JBeoM)ag tht Urnefit of Cltrgy fnm errtain ftUmio** 

Vkra • «Trt«in kind of evil-dispocM) penou*, commoiily 

■ alU cnt-pnrae*, or |)lck-|>une«, but indeed by tbe lawn of this 

Hprf laj fdona and tliievM, do ronfrder tog«tlier, nultint; >moDg 

P^Mrfire*, M it wcro, a brotlterhood or fraternity of lui art or 

v*nj Va live idly by tbe Mcret spoil of the good apd true 

ibIjku' of tlua realm. ... Be it tliereforo enacted. That do 

|mni vtiicfa bartafter ebsll happen to he indicted or appealed 

fitUamoBS tahiag of any money, fftoAt, or cbattcU frant tbe 

^M« of any other . . . and tliereupou found guilty by v«rdict 

(flvclie men . . . tkall from facnecforth be ndinitted to bavB 

^ bcntfit of his cl«rgy, bat . . . ahall auflirr doth in auch 

r aad fonu, m lliey liioitUl if they were no clcrka . . , 

Third Parliamkst. 

ApfU S— Uajr », 1571. 

^^M 13 Elu. Cap. I. 

^^^ An JU )MUr(^ cerUiin offmee* he made Irtamm. 

H L Fanumtich sa it in of Bocne doobted. wli«tli<:r the lawi and 
^^hlai of thi* realm, remaining at tliix jircefnt iu furve are 
'w^ aad •officicot anough for tbe anrety and preeervation 
^ th« Qvaea't moat rajal person, iu whom wuaialelh all the 
^Vmen and ounruK of the wbola ittate and mibjeot* of the 
f«ta, ... be it enact«d, That if any penmn at any time 
•fttf the iaat day of Jud« nest . . . compaM ... the d«)h 
*dtctni£tioD or any bodily hann tcndiuK Iu dralh. detlructivn, 
I mt woondii^ of ... oar 8oTvrcigo Lady (^ueen Eliiabeth ; 




or to deprive or ilquu li«r of tW ttyle, booonr or kiaglr mju 
of the iuperial ctowd of lhi« wAm or of aay oUusr railni nr 
dominion to her Uajcsty belonging : or to levy wr ipint 
her Majesty within thiit reslm or wtthont: or to mon to; 
foreijiiwrx with forco lo inmde thi* realm or tbe raim <if 
Ireland or any other bor llajesty's dominiiut* .... nnd tod 
oompasMa . . . ehall . . . tifwaaij utt^r or declan by any priiiiac. 
writing ... or nringa ; or if any perwon . . . abalt . . . nj ■ • • 
tliat our waid Sov«rcigii Lady(jiie«a Elixabetli, during her lib ir 
not or ooghl not lo be ({oeea uf tliis rmlm of Engiatid aadds 
of the r««Ima of Fmoce awl Irelaiid ; or tJiat anv >>tJicT pens 
ought of right to hr king or qnten of the Miid rcnliiu . . . duiisf 
hsr Majesty's life : or fhall by writing, prinliog, ... or Mjin^ 
. . . affirm that the Que«n ... in an hen'tic, scfaicmatir. lynnt, 
infi'lcl oi- an lumrpttr of the rrotrn - . . that then all Hich oITcikm 
ohall be deemed ... to be high Iroaaon : aod that lu well tbt 
|irinc'r{MiI offender ur offpodera therein as all and every the 
abettors . . . , being thereof lawfully . . . nonvicled and atlaiiilol 
acoordiog to th« usual order of the comnran law* of thii realm 
or accondog to the Act' wade in the 35U1 of the reign cf 
tile late king . . . Henry the Kighlh . . . ontillrd uu Act coB' 
ceming the trial of treasons [*c,] .... shall htr dwmwl tr»ii 
lo the Queen and the realiu. and shall suffer paitu of death »iicl 
bI*o forfeit unto the Quern's Iklajerly, her heir* and ni' 
all Uods . . . gooda and ehattvls, as in eases of higli tmmn . 
ought to he forfeited aiid loot. 

II. And lio it bIm enacted, Tliat every penKxi . . . wl 
shall after the end of thirty dnya next after the last, day of tU« 
|>raaent KHtiion of thin parlianMrul, at any tinte in the life of 
our Sovereign Ijndy Quncn Klimbelh, in any wiao elaim . . . ta 
have right or title to - ■ . the rrown of Engbnd dnrins the life 
of our fatd ^vereigii Lady : or shall usurp the iiaiiiL> crown ur 
tho n^l <4t1c, title or dignity ... in the life of ottr Raid 
Sovereign Lady ; or »hnll nffiroi tliat our Mid Saretrigti Lady 
liatJi not right to hoU the faid crown (Ac} ; or shall not after 
any demand on our *aid Sovereign T^y's jiart . . . Ackno«l"'t" 
'Our ftiid Sovereign Lady t» br . . . lawful Queen of this rv^.^. . 
they and cvoiy of them ao offending »1ibII be utterly diaaUed . 

' 35 a. Tin. t. 

n in 





to faarc ... the crown or realm of England ... in Rucccsvion, 
iulierilnnct? or nlbi-rwiw nfu^r llie dcoenM of our taid SorereigD 
Ijuly, Bn if RDch pcmon wrrc tmlurnil^r dend ; . . . 

III. And be it further enndcd. That if any person shdU 
during the Cjueeu'a MnjeBty's lif<^ in any wiee affirm or mikintain 
any right ... in iiuccasiiiini or inheritance to tlie cr">¥n of 
Eiifchiiid iiftnr our snid .Sovcrrigii Ijiidy the Qjitvn to In- Idwfiilly 
due unto any such claimcr, pretender ... or not ncknowlc dgor, so 
lliat the Queeu shall hy jiruclamation . . . notify or declare nuoh 
cloiaiing ... or not iicknowiiMlglnff, llien every pormiu which 
after giich proplemntion! . . . affirm any right in sucncssioti 
... to he in any such claimer [ftc] »holl be a high traitor and 
Buffer and forteit a* lu eaaea of high treason is accustomed. 

IV. And be it further enacted, 't1iat if niiypomn ihall affirnt 
er mainlftln that the common lavfs of this realm not altered hy 
I'nrliament ouf^ht not to direct the rijijht of the i-rown of Eng- 
land, or that our mid Sovereign Lndy Rlixahrth . . .. with and 
hy tbc authority of the I'arliumeiit of England. i« not able to 
make laws and statutes of mifflcieut force and validity to limit 
and hind the crown of tliix realm and llie dencent . . . thereof, 
or that this present statute or any other statute to be made by 
the- authority of the Parliament of En«Iand witJi the royal 
Msent . . . for limiting of tlin rrown, or any Mainic for reeog- 
nixing the rigiit of the aaid cruwn and realm to be justly and 
lawfully in . . . our laid SovereiRU Lady the Queen, is not . . . 
of ifood and ■ulTieient force . ■ ■ ; every mich prmon so nflirming 
(luring the life of the Queen's Sf^esty shall be judged u hiph 
traitor aud suffer iind forfeit M in cmm of high treason is 
acemtoincd ; . . . 

V. .And for the aTDidifig of flontentiona and sedilions, 
spreading abroad of titles to the sutoesaion of the crown of 
this realm ... he it enacted, That wliowicvcr nhall hereafter 
during th« life of our said Sovereign Lady, hy any bool: or 
work printed or written . . . affirm at any time befure the same 
\m by Act of Parliament of tins raairn estiibHshoil, . . . that any 
person is or ought to be the right heir and aucceMor to the 
Qumd's Majesty . . . except the same be the natural iMue of 
her Ktajcsly's body, or ahall . . . puhlUh . . . any )hjo1(s or icrullR 
to tluit effect, . . . that he, their abettors [&c.j shall for the first 




offence roffer inqHisoameiit of one whole year and Ci>rftttlalf| 
bb gootk, wbereof tlx: one moiel}- to Uie Qneeu'a MbJn^, iht | 
other moicif to him or thpin thnt will sue for the tnne ... is 
any of lh« Qoecn't M^jcul/a oourtB; , . . ami if *m tb!! , 
eflttooua uffend Uiereiu, then they and their sbetton [&c.j dall 
Eneur the |iaioH and foriMturcn which tn the Statute of ProviaH] 
or Pmnunirc «r« appointed uxl limited. 

VI. I'rovided alwuy; That if it shall happen heratfier ft? I 
peer of this realm tu be indictnl of anjr offence made treaMO bf I 
thin Act, \k »h»ll have his triul by biapMn. a« inotho-mrtttj 
trenson ia accaatomed. 

VUI. Provided alao . . . That do penon shall in any «ml 
amigned Uw any of the offences mentioned in thit Ant to bel 
coiDmitted within any the Queeu'a dominion*, unlcea the udeaJcr ■ 
he thereof there indicted within six moolha iwxt afl«r the < 
cifTeDce ounimittecl ; . . . and tliat no penon shall in any wue I 
arrnigned for any the offenoM raontiotied is thiaact to he eommitl 
out of any the QaMn'e dominiona. unleaa tbeoffuMlar be tb 
indicted wiUiiii one ye«r nest after the sum offntc* eonuuttted . . . 

IX. Trovidcd alto . . . That no perton shall be bcrvaftcr 
urugned for any offence mentioned in thia Act, onlaBStfasRsrac 
offence be proved hr tlve . . . oath of two lawful and soScieot 
witucsMTir; which mill vritnewca alioll, at the time of (be 
aimignment of such person ao offending, be brought forth ia 
pcnon before the party lo arraiftued face to face, and then 
ahall avow and openly d<«lam nil they can *ay againat the pMty 
so arruigned, nnlcas the aaid party arraigDed ahall wiUis^ 
without Tiolence mnfeM the ume . . . 

13 EuE- Cap. IL 

An Act a^ifut At brifiging in and putting in «ieculi«N vfl 
and otker itutrumtnlt from Me aM 0/ Home. 

Where in the parliament holilen at Weatminster, in the 
year of the reign of oor Sovereign Lady the Queen's ^(aje 
that now is. hy one Act' and Statute then and there miide. 
iulitulrd. An Act for the a«>anaoe of the Queen'a M^jeaty'* 
fioyal Power [Ac} it is among other tlunga xvtj w«U ordained 
■ 5 Elii. I. 

wn.] Introduciion of Papal Bulis, etc. 


and pravidwl, for thf Abolt»hing of Out nMurpnl ]>i>vr«r and 
jvirifidiction of the Bishop of Itaroo . . . Th»t no peraoD aball . . . 
luaiutain, defend, or «xtol the Hftmu usurped power, or attribuM 
any nintiiier juriMdiction, Authority or j>r«einincnce to the nmim 
to be ti8cil vithin ihia rralm . . . upon psin to incur lb« 
peoattlea provided bjr the Statute of Provinion mid I'nemn- 
uiro . , . : qiuI yet neverthelesn, divers seditious und very t-vil- 
di>po(ird people . . . mtiiding, an it FihouUt »eem, very mditioiisly 
Ktid minnturally not only to bring this realm and the imperisl 
crowii thereof (beiuf; iu very deed of itself most free) into the 
thrtildotTi nud subjection of that foreign, usurped, and unlawful 
jurisdiction \fiti.~\ clnimcd by the naid sec of Rome; but also to 
entrnnge and nlieimte the minds and hearts of sundry her 
Hajeety's subjects fi-otu their dutiful ubedieace, aud to raise aud 
stir eeditiuu and rcbnllion within this realm . . . buve lutuly 
pronuml and obtained to themselves frnm the said Itichnp of 
Eoiue and his Baid see, divers bullu aud wrltiiiffB, the effect 
whereof bath bevn und is to itbRoIrn and rrcontriln all tboie that 
will bo ccint>>nt>'d to forsiilce their due obedience to our most 
gmclous Sovei-eigii Lady the Queen's Mnjesty, and to yield aud 
subject tbeniselvc^ to the Enid feigned, unlawful and usurpei) 
authority; and by colour of th« wd bulls and wrlliugs, the 
aaJd wickeil (letnons very secretly and most aeJitiously, in such 
jiarta of tliin realm when the people for want of good insti-uction 
are most weak, simple and ignorant, and thereby farthest from 
tU« good uuderstandiug of their duties towards God and the 
Qae«n*ii Majesty, have by tlieir lewd aud subtle pmdiccs and 
pcrsuajiione, ao fur forth wrought, tlwt sundry simple and 
ignorant persons have been couteinted to be reconciled to the 
aaid UHuri>ed authority of the see of Kome, and to take absolution 
at the Imndii of the said naughty and aubtle proctiaeni, whereby 
hath grown gr<*iLt diEolwdienoe and boldnens in many, not only 
to withdmw and absent themnelvcs from all divino service . . . 
but also have tiiought themselven diiicharged of all oliedience to 
hor Miijcuty, whereby moHt wicked und unnatural n^Iicllioii biith 
ensued, and to the further danger of this realm is hereafter very 
like to bo renewed, if the ungodly and wioked attempts in that 
briitif he not by neverily of Inws in time rottruiticd und bridled : 
¥i>t remedy aud redress whereof, end to prevent the great 




minchiitfii And tncnnvonicnccs that thcrobj* mAj rosu«, b« it 
cnnclcd . . . That if atiy person, after the ftnit day of July 
next couiiti^;, t'hii]] uvo or |>ut in are in niiy pLucu yrithia tliin 
rculiii . . . UDV >ucb 1>ult, writing, nr inrtnimcnt ... of nl)u- 
lution or tvi^oncilintion . . . , or if auy person ofur the snid 
fint day of July shall lake upou hiiii. by colour of any »uoh 
bull . . . <ir authority, tu ubsolvo or reconcile any person .... 
or if any pt-nxiu within thiti rrulm, . . . nft^^r tho mid tir^t day 
of July, phwll willingly rrceire any such absolution or rccou- 
ciliation ; or eW, if auy pvniou huve obtained aiace tlie lust day 
of the pai'IiauiFut holdeu in the Bnl yenr of the Qurcn'i 
MajcKty's rrigii, or nftrr the said liret day of July shall obtain 
from tlio said Bishop of ltoni« . . . auy uiauuer of buU ... or 
iiiBtrumunt .... or Khull publish or hy wiy wnyj or nifans 
put iu ure any kucIi hull . . . , Thiit then every midi act . . . shall 
he dciTned hy the autbonty of thie Act to be high trcasoa, and 
the offenders therein, tbirir jirocurera [&c.] . . . shall he deemed 
high traitors to the tfuecn and the n-alm ; and being lliciwif 
lawfully indicted and attainted according to the course of t)i« 
laws of this reultn, shall nulfcr puiim of detitli, and also forfeit 
aU their landa [&c.] as in coms of high treason by the laws of 
this i-e.ilm ought to be forfeited. 

II. And ho it further enacted, That all aiden [&e.] of any 
the siiid offendcr.i, after tho committing of any the said ads . , . 
iihall incur tho penalties contained in tho Statute of Pneinu- 
nire . . . 

m. Provided always . . . That if any puwn to wlioni any 
such absolution ... or instrument as ia nforeeaid ehall, alter the 
euid fir^t day of July, bo offered . . . ehall conceal the mmc . . . 
and not discluae and iiiguify the aaine . . . within six week* then 
next following, to some of the Queen's Majesty's IVivy OouncU, 
or else to the President or Vice President of the Qtieeu's 
MaJL-jity's Council established in the north pnrtit, or in tho 
uurcbcs of WdIl-s . . . that then the same person ho concealing 
. . tlie Eaid offer . . . shall incur the penalty of miepriaion 
of high treason. 

I\'. And he it further enacted, That if any person aliall at 
any time after the said 6rBt day of July bring into this realm of 
England . . . any . . . thing called by the name of an Agnui 

Jntroductimt €/ Papal Bulls, etc. 


1 1 niw n. piduivti, l>c«da or such-lilco Tain uid 
MftntiuoB* lltu^s, fntin the Ruliop at vet oi Konie . . . and 
. £>m pudoDs, immtinities and txrtniittoiK granted liy Die 
H/ of tlie (aid see, to euck sa shall rtvcirc and »m the: 
i; and that tf the taine |ier»ou 6u briuinug ui as is afbre- 
meh Agnni I>d Mid otbcr like tilings as lie h«fore 
d»11 iIcliTcr ... the nine to nny «nIijrGt gf lhi« 
I. . . to be worn or lUcd in any wise: Hiat thvn aa well 
pentMt >o (lotDg, OH »Im> ev«ry other pereon which 
BTv the aania, to the intent to um: nr wvu- tbu mmc 
rtbmof lawfally convicted and attainted by tbe order of 
UwB of tJuH Roln, aliall iueur into the peiiAltiei 
. bj tlie Statute of Pneinnniru and PniviMon . . . 
' VL And be it fiiilfaer «Bacted, Tbnt all pt^rsons vhich at any 
ttH wnce tlie U'|,'iiiniii^ of tbe Grat }'ear of the Queen's 
Vi^ya rcigii hare bronght . . . into tlm reabu any HUch 
Mi [Ae^] ■ • . and now havo any of Uw nme bullM fftc.j in 
fler cMtody, and slull within tbe »paco of three laontba iinct 
lAir tke end of nuy mmiuo or dUaolution of this pnrarat 
IMiMBaBt deliver all (Uoh btdla [fto-J ... to thn biibop of tbo 
Ikimtt wbcn each abeolatMa hadi been given and rFccircd . . . 
mA iImU pmblidy befoov nicli biaitop oonless their ofTcDce 
tetia and Lnmbly deatre to be rtalored ... to tbe Church of 
Kagla^, dHtl be clunrly paitloBed and discbai^^ of all 
rfbovdone in any matter eoBcening any of the said balls [ftc] 
aaeh abeolutiOD or rwconcilialioii only; and that nil 
wUdi havT rcceircd any abeolatioo from the said 
IU«y «f Bone . . . ance the said first year of tbe reiitn of oar 
■d Seterai^ I^y the Qnceii, and ohall within the said space 
■f line BMOtlti nrxt after any trwon or diraolalion of this 
(nan pariiaaieBl, come before tbe bishop of th« •liocese of 
wh pUte where such abcolution or reouocUlstiuu wbh bud or 
a«^. ^d shall pablifly before the bbdm bishop confess . . . 
dor sfinra tbenin, and humbly denrs to be re»tore<l, and 
iJ mUsiI la tW Cfasrch u( EmgUnd, aball be clearly pordotied 
Mi iisAMpd of all ofileooes oooiautted in nuy matter con- 
■oiif tke said bull* l&c] louehing only reccivuig eocli 
■hwi sti e M a nmncilistion . . . 
, VUL [IVen to he tried by Peers.] 




■3 Eus. Cat. XIL 

An Ael to rt/orm etrlatn diMordtr* loucAtn^ Minitlfrt oflhe 

I. That tho cbui-ches of the Queeo's Haj(>8tj''H dominions 
may he served with paslom of kouuiI rtliMion, Be it enacted . . . 
Tliat fvery person uudnr the dcgmn of > Binliop, whii^h doth 
or shnll pretend to bo k priest or miuister of God's Holy Word 
ftud HacrameDts, by reasoD of any other form of institution, 
coiiaecratioii or i>rd«riDK, tli»u the forni eet forth by purliii- 
mriit tu (lie tiui« of the Intc luug nf tno^t worthy mcDiory. 
King Edwnrd \\w Siitb. or now twed in tho reign of our most 
gracious Sovereign Lady, before the feast of the Nativity of 
Ciiriat nest folIowiuK, thai), in tho pnmence of tlie Bishop or 
giinrdinti of Hw vpiritunlitifF of aotne one dioceae where he 
hath ecL'lesiaslieal living, declare hix tutseut tuid Buhscrilw to ail 
the Article* of Religion which only oouet^rti the cotili'mion of 
the true Chrtrtiim fiiith »i>d the doclrine of the 8ncnim<ints. 
comprised in a Ixwk imprinted, intituled, Arliclea whereupon 
it woi agreed by the srohhiiihops utid hiihopa of hulli provtncM 
and the whole clerfiy in the Convocntion holdcn nt London in 
. , . 156J .... upon pain that every such person which shall 
not before the suid feaet do as is above upiHtinted, shall be ipta 
fueto deprived, and all htti ecclesiutical proui>tiona hIiaU he 
Tind, ati if he vere thi-n naturally dead. 

IL Add that if any person ecclesiastical, or whieh shall have 
ecclesiaitical living, shall advtuedly maintain or alfiriu any 
doctrine directly eontrury to any of tho said HrtiL-lcs, and being 
eoiivt-ntod before the bishop of the diocese or tho ordinary, or 
before the Queen's HighncBs' Commissioners in causes eccle- 
aiastical, shall persist therein, . . . such tnaiiituining . . . shall 
Im juiit cause to deprive such person of his eccleaiurtiral pn»- 
motions; and it shall be lawful to the bishop of the dioceiie 
or the ordiiiarj' or the faid conuuiBsionera to deprive Hich 
person so ]]erusting. . . . ttnd upon bucIi seiitunce of deprivation 
pronounced he shall he indeed deprived. 

III. And that no person shall hereafter ho admitted to Kay 
lieneBce with car*, except h« then be of the age of tWc and 


RtMlion and Conspiracy. 


dt jtiu* at the leut, Bud a deaooo, and shall lir*l have 
nbed tha «td Articlw in presenoe of the unliiiair, and 
ilidj n«*l the same ia Uw paniih diurcb of ibnt beocGce, 
I dKlaration td his unfeigned oMcnt to tbo sama . . . 
\Vi. Aad that Doac ahall be mode miairier or admitted to 
: <ar mUlUitT tltc Mcram«Dt8, bting uader the age »f toar 
Itwtaty 7>an, nor uulcu he tmit ht'ia^ to the bishop of that 
, bvra Rieii knuwn to the bikbop to be uf tound religion, 
botli of his honest life, and of his profeaBiog tbe 
' axpnaMd in the said Articles : nor auleia be be aUe 
' aad render to the ordinary an account of his Esith in 
, •ecoIdll^; to tbe aatd Articles, or have tprcial gift and 
' to be a prcaclicr: nor shall be admitted to the order of 
or ministry, unless be shall Snt lubMribe to the mid 

r Aid that none hereaflcr shall be admitted to any bcnefioe 
«i« of or abore the nloe of iCjo yearly . . . unlcta he 
&«<n be a bachelor of ditinity, or a preacher lawfully 
by anano bi^op withiD this realm or by one of the 
I of Cambridge or Oxford. 

Fourth Pabuament: First Session. 

Hajr S—Juna 30, lOTS. 

14 Buz. Cat. L 

■ Ae /MitisAmftil ofnuh a* Aail r^UiotuHy laJct or 
or aimjnrt to laJtt or drlain from Oi« Queen't J/o^l*f 

L I'or tlie better a voidini; of all such onlavful practices... as 
been stirred and moved by nooie evil disposed 
Eagainft dot most gracious Sovereign Lady tha Queen, 
' h m etad . , . Tint if any pcraoos whstaoevur st any 
Wrcaftar do, within this realm or elsewhere, unlawfalty 
CSM^re . . . maliciously and rebelliously to take or to 
frcn our nid Sorcreign I^dy the Queen any of her 




caitlos . . ^ or miltcioosly a.Dd rebelHoiuly to raze, barn or 
(Iffttroy any castle . . . haritiK any moiiitiou or onlnjinc* of 
t(i« Qufen'H Mttjcsty'ii thfivin or npp«int«il t« Iw gimnlcl with 
nuy noldierii for ilcfcncp thereof within this realm .... and the 
,Mme . ..conspiracies sball ndvis^dly . . . eitpresa. utter or Oeclnre 
for any the maliciouii nud rchi?llion<i JutrntH afon-iiaid, that thnn 
every luoh jmrnon no hprnnfttr offending, their aiders r&D.I 
knowing thrrrnf, being thiToof lawfully convicted acoordtng to 
tho laws of this reidra, tihalt be judged felons . . . , and the 
offenders theiein, their »nid iiidrm L&c.j. bring theroof lawfully 
oonvictud, iihidi RiifTcr pninn of dcnth a* in caeca of felony, 
without linking any benefit of clergy or enncttiary . . . 

n. And be it further enncled, That if luiy jwrson do ut mny 
time bertatliT with fmco nmliciously nnd rplietlioii»ly . . . with- 
hold from tho Queen's MojeMy any of her cnstles . , . witbin 
this realm . . . or do . . . withhold from her Majesty any of her 
■hips, ordnance, artillery or othor mnnilionN or fortifications 
of wars ... or shall . . . born or destroy . . . any of the Queen'n 
HhipK, or . , . Imr any haven within any of tha Qui'en'ii Majesty's 
dominiouA, that then every lunh ]ienoii to oAcnding, their 
aiders [&e.], being thereof lawfully connct according to th« 
Inws of this realm, shall be adjudged traitoi-H, and thoir ofiencm 
in any of tho premises iJmll be tukeu for high trenaon, and the 
oBeiidrm therein . . . ihnll suffer such pninn of dcntb. and alim 
shall forfeit and lose, as in coses of high treason is limited And 

ni. This Act to endure during the Queen's Majesty's life that 
now is only. 

14 Elk!. Cap. II. 

An Act againnt mteh as ihaU oatpirr. erpraetiH the mttar^fontnt 
cf amf pritffMr enmmitudfor high trranon. 

I, Forasmuch as great daiifn^r may ensue to the Queen's 
Majealy's person and gri-at trouble to the statu of the realm 1^ 
unlawful conspiracies ... to eet at liberty such persons w be 
comniilted to any custody for any treason touching the royal 
pi^rifon of our snid Sovereign Lady ; against which couHpiracien 
Buflicicnt remedy by the laws of this realm hath not bMo 


Treason: fagabonds attd Poor. 



imA, nttlen Ibe tame cotiNpimcic* . . . w(tr« ei«cut«d 

bt tu etkti : W it t)i«rerore ruacted . . . Tint if any 

»X U)j UiDC nrter ^^» etid of ihis prcwnt kmioh of 

■IiaI] rontpire . . . ti> *H at Itlwrty auy penmn com- 

i ki %nj ciutudy by bi-r Highnm' etixcial cmninuidmieDt, 

or wsfiicioQ of trcuon cooceming Ihe penon 

\fK ml SijT«n)gii Lady the Queeu. before aiiy indictmeiit 

pvnoKi .... and tbp mmo cauNjiiruciei . . . iJihII . . . 

M- <iecUr«, that th^^ rvpiy person no nfTeodiag shall 

r At |>«mlly and foifcilitre of mispriHon of trcoMn . . . 

Aad be it aim caa<1«d, Tlat if auy person . . . nfaall . . . 

! . . . tn set At lihefty auy pcnon uoinrnttlfd tn niiy 

y, being indicted of any (n«»on in any witc c«ncemiiig 

■■■ of ovr uid Sovereign LjhIv tite (jue«n, and IhL* 

in«|>ina<a . . ■ iliall utivr m- declure, thut tlwn Evcry 

i prnoa lO offeodiuK il;all be deemed n felon ... 

Aad be it farthm- roasted, That if aoy perFon . , . shall 
Wfin ... to wt at liberty auy penoo h«iug ooiomitt«d 
I wj entody, after the aanic iwraon shall b« attainted or 
Mnictrd of any ti«AaoD in any wim conoerninj; ibe royal 
•t tmt aaid Sorereij^ L*dy the Queen, oud iba nuiw 
I . . . than . . . utter or deelare, tlut then every auch 
M cffrcHing riiall be deemml nn high trnitor and shall 
oife L«i sail foeftit as in cases of high Ireaton by the laws 
mi fUlstM <rf this mlm. 

tV. 1%ia Act to eudore during the Qnctn's Jtlajcvty's life 
<te ao* ia only. 


14 Euz. C*p. V. 

Am Mttfiir At pumiAment ^vaffabondt, and fir rtiit/of 
tAe paor tuut impctttit. 

L VhM* an the parts of this tvalra of fc'nglaud and Wales 
• I n mi [It witli rognea, vaKaboodji and atiirdy lie)r,;DTH ex- 
otfinriy pertcnil, by nesna whereof diuly happenatb in tlw 
Mae nalm banibk mutitn, thefts and other great oulrBLK«a, 
I* tW Uffa ilJjptesSTT t£ Almighty God, and t^ the great 
itoij -d tbc eomHonweal ; oimI fee avoiding oonfnnon by 
^mm •( Boasbsra. of laws concerning the preaiscs ttaoding in 

F I 




farce together; be it (nactfsl. That [certain ocla* raeHMJi 
bo . . . void kiid of none effect. 

n. Be it aleo eitactiNl . . . Rmt. That nil persons KtMrt ' 
age of fourlceu yean, being bertAfter tct forth by tlib Ad 
Pariiunrnt to be rogti««, TagabomlB «r cturclf Ixggan and . 
takeo b«f(ging in any jwrt of tbis r«alm, or Uken 
wandering end miaor^eriog tbeuiMilveii uoutnuy to Orn \ 
of tbiH praaent Act of Parlisnent . . . , ebnil upon Ibcir 
bcomoa be broof^t before one of tbe ja«ti<«8 of llie 
mayor or chief oflicer of cities, Uurougba sod towns oer 
. . . and ... be pr»wnllf oommittcd to the oummon Bul-| 
there to remain witbont bail until the itrxt amiam of | 
peace or ^'eiienl gaol dellTerj . . . ; at which aeasijaiu or i 
deliver; if >uch jieraon In; iluly convict of bis or her 
or i»gd)0D(l traija of life, citb«r b; iwiuert of office or farl 
testimony of two bonest and crodibia witnusas iipoD tha 
uaths, that then immcdinlely be or she shall be adjudi,-vd to. 
be grinvoiisiy whipped and bamt tliningb the griitle of the 
right cnr with a hot iroti rjf the compMs of an inch abovt . . .ii 
which juilgiuctit Hhall alno jirtaviitly he eiecutcd, except ecMll 
houeat perwHi, ralord at the last xuhMdy next before that tiac 
to £5 in goods or tat. in lauds, or else some mch bonrvt fao«a^ 
bolder as by the juslioM of p«ace . . . shall be allowed, viU <{ 
hia diarity he eontcntcd prvseotly to take such oBeader . . . inM 
bis service for one wliole jrear next following : . . . and tf each 
rogue or vngabon^I m taken into service di-port within the wd 
year Irom the said service agaiust the will of liim tliat bo tafcalk 
biin or her into service, that then such rogue or ragabond ibaX 
be whipped and burnt ... 04 1* afotecaid. 

IV. Aod be it fmtlicr enacted, TliBt ... if after Ifae aid 
pouiahmeut executed ... the Mid person . . . after IhiLUiue 
days next after be tlnll be so marked, . . . being of the s^ ef 
eighteaii years or above, do rttsounus fall again to any kind of 
relish or vagabond uade of life, that then the nid rogue . . . 
b« deemed a felon, and shall suiTcr and forfeit as » fdo*, excc|it 
some buimt penun valued {as above] of mere cliarily will b* 
coutonted ... to take him or htx into bis service for 
yean . . ,: and if such rogna or rsgabood so taken in 
■ tJlLTUt ti: jft4K.TI.i6:$SI>i.^ 

Vagabonds and Poor. 



wiUitn tbr Mini- two fun frum his or brr saif] service 
ibe will of liim thiit m took tiim or ber, Uiat (ii«ii Much 
•c Tagmliaiii) shall be dwmed a felon tn all niipccta and 
niBr Mid fi-iJrit u » felon . . . 

Aad for the Tull cKpnMaing «hdt penons sbali be inUuMkd 
tU> hniidi to be rogti«i!, ngsboitda and itardy begKan 
s«t furtfa . . . that all pertons that be or uttrr 
to b« proctor* or prucurulurs . . . without sufflctetit 
ilT . . . . and all tAhei idk ppn>uiu . . . uniu^ iiubtJe, cmfty 
ihvfui K^Juee or pta>i>. and (ome gf tltcm feigning them* 
to bare Icnowl^ce iii phvEici^uomy. palmistry or other 
I, . . . and all jMniuiis U-idk whole aui mighty iu 
and able to labour, having not land or m««t<T nor uiiiu;; 
mercbuodiM. craft or mystic? . . . ; and all fencers, 
ccmmon pluyen in interladcs and Diiottrels, not 
to any baron of ttiis reulin ur towunls any other 
[M-rwoa(te of •-rcater dcgn-e ; all jugglcm. ]ie<ihir«. 
■nd petty chapnwn; which said fencers [fte.iihall wonder 
•nd hare not lieenoe of two justiees of tlie peace . . ■ ; 
ni (11 conuuoD laboorers being penMMia able iu body usioK 
hihn^ and refniiiuii to work for «ieb reasonable wages as is 
taHdsadeocainoalygiren...; and all ooonlerfeiters of licences, 
pM|»tt and ait nwrs of the samu. knowiii0 tbe eaine to Iw 
tmtmtat -, and all acboUra of the oiiiverutiett of Oxford or 
ftaWidge tbat go about beggjng, not being antbori»ed under 
^B Mil of tbe said unifcr>it*na . . .; and all aliipinuu prv 
^Bfiig IcMM bjr su. othor than such as shall be hervaner 
HpnU tor; and oU ]i>m>on:* deliverI^d out of gaoU tbat 
PKlfirtbciir fH« ■ ■ ■ not fauving lieence frum two jtisUoM of 
fc f«M« , . ., shall be deemed ngnts, ragaboods and stnrdy 

XVL Aad foTUsmdi as charity would that poor, aged and 
■fstail penoDS sboold u nccenurily ho prorided fur, as the 
^t ragnee, ragabooda and sturdy be«gars reprce^ed, uiu! that 
^BMsd a^ed, impotent and pour people should have com- 
^BbI iMbttatioBs aitd abiding places ihmugbout ibis realm to 
jHle tknaeiTCa ■p'^n, to the ead that they nor any of llirm 
^MhU Iwmfln' beg or wander ahuul ; it is therefore enactod, 
• tW jaadcc* at the peace - . . msyun, aberiffs, bailiffs, and 




oUi«r i^BoeTS of cvrrr city, boroogh. ri'ling uid ftvncKiai.j 
dull at or before tbc aaid fea^t of SI Bartbiilomew ntit < 
. , . iDMke diligent Ksrch and itMiiuT^ of xll i^ed, |nor, i 
potent BDiI d(>»5-«<l porsons .... which lire . . . Iijr •)■» of I 
diarity of tli« people .... and shftU upon that aevck 
■iH]ie n register tiouk conUimti;; ttie naioeH anil •untune* of j 
iu<:h . . . poor people . . . ; niul . . . ufanll . . . nppoitrt . . . 
and cobTcnicDt places by their discntiocu to a«tt)e 'be 
poor people for tl>etr balatatioBS aod abidingly if the 
within llie wliioli ibey iihall be fonud *ball not or wiU 
provide for tWm : and (ball nlto . . . nninbrr alt the «id 
people withiu tbcir taid f^verol limits, and thcreupoa (In 
rvgard to the iiuub«r) eet doirti what jMrtioo the wcvkly < 
toward* the relief aiul tittteutatiuu of the stud poor people * 
amount unto nithin every thi-ir «id limita; ai>d that 
tbey . . . absU . . . auesa all th« iohabitanla dwelling . . . i 
tlwi Mid liniiia to such weekly chai^ aa tbey aud every of I 
»hnll weekly contribute towardit the rvliof of tlw caid p«or| 
and the namea of all inch iohsbitanta taxed shaD abo entw i| 
the taiA rogiater-book tofietber with their taxation; and 
riiall . . . ap])oint or nee coUodofH for one wbola yctr la' 
appmnted .... which shall collect the said praportion, aad mak* 
dolirery of so much thereof ... to the nid poor piH>plc, a* (he 
Hid JHStieee . . . and other oBleors »hnU appoint tbeni ; and ska 
sliall appoint the overKera of the *atd poor people by ibetr di^ 
cri'tionn, to oontlniie also for one whole yv»t ; abd if r 
refuse to be uveracer*, theo evo? of tliem m rvfuaing t< 
lea. for t^vrry Rueb delimit, 

XVII. And bo it further cnoicted. That tbe mayor of tbe I 
of London and the loayota . . . and other bead oflicen of < 

oUier city, botougb, or town ooipoiate , and the 

or tithiiig-meii of orery hundred, rape and waiwntake . . . i 
oiieo rrary mootJi . . . make a view aiid search of all the 
impolent and lame peraoiu within the pevcinet of their jn 
diolions, and . . . prcteotly mc thr *axa% poor people uut 
bom nor dwelling; within the snid thm yvare (except le|i 
people and bediiddeo people) to be oeaveyed ... to tho noxt i 
stnlite, aiid «o from coualable to conatablc the dirtctett way, I 
the said i>cr«oa» be brought to the place where he or tha I 


Vagabends and Poor. 




. coBTcnuit liy tlie >pBcv of tbrce years nrxt Wore, 
I tUn to ho pat in ■ . . om of ibo nbt[)iug-pkc«« in tiiat 
liT ippoiDted . . . 

And be it rimh^mMeted, Tbat if ui]roCtIi««Md poor 

I , . . Rftue to ix.- biutowtfd in onj of ttie aaid ■biiUog> 

I ... or aJUr tbsy tic onco bertowrd . . . ilu (l«|x>rl ani) 

', iha tiM wid penon so offending for the 6ret ofituicc ... to 

r ■* a rogue or vn^bood iu the fimt il«Kr^ "^ puuiilmwut 

I hrtk hj tkis Act, sod if be do the aKond lime oAcnd, tlirn 

wdStr M « TOfpw or vkgabond in iJm last degree of 

,Mt fortii by tliis Act. 
And Im it fuithcT (^nnctcd. That if tuiy ftnoa being 
I n further this charitable work will obstinately nintu la 
p<a«trda tho rvUef of tlie nid |KH>r ixojile or do willullv 
othma . . . the nid obttinsto perMo . . . aliall prc- 
I Whrotigfal before two justices of the pence ... to show 
le of hia o|j«tlaat« refuiuJ ur wilful di^scooni^iueut and 
: math order therein oa the mid justices nhull appoint ; if 
> whit to to do, then to be committed to the next gaol . . . 
Ikr* |» mnain nniil be be contented with tli«ir said onler and 
\fKfam the aame. 

And it ia alto fmtbcr enacted, Tliat if any of the oaid 
I aad impotent persons, not being so . . . impotent but that 
I May work in mnie ni«uii«r of work, shall be by tlu.- ovc neers 
rf tktr wd abiding-pl(K« appointed to work, if they refnw, 
An in farat aibrtaaid to be whipp«id and stocked for thtir Rrrt 
ntetL and Ibr the eecuiid rcfuwJ to be pfuusbed ax in ciur of 
nfkbonda ia the Mid firtt drgrrc of punishment. 

XXIU. Ftorided . . . thai three justices of peace ... of and 
nh the nrpluaagea of tiu! wud oolli'ctioRV and forfeitarex, (the 
■1 peor and impotent people aatisfied uid provided for,) ihdll 
faMch OMvenient yUcrt within their said shires as they shall 
Ank meet, pUce and Kttle to work the rugutH and Tagnbonds 
■fat aball be ditpoted to work, born within their aaid coontHa 
IT there abidii^ for tbe moet part witliin Ibe said three yeare, 
flst to Im hutdon to work by the ovcrsigfat of the Niid oTer> 
■n^ to get their livings and to lire and to be sustaiiwd only 
9«a their Uhoor and travail. 
EXIV. ^Bc^gBia' children may be bound out to Mrvlce.] 




XXV. [Forfi'itiiren under tbia Act to be applied to the relirf 
of the poor.] 

XXVI. And he it further ennctexl, TJint three justices of peaoe 
witJiin oil the shires of this renin), whereof one to he of the 
quonuD, nhnll have full power ... to henr aod determine sll 
cuUBefl (except forfeitures of junticeK of |)eiice) that ahall come in 
(jiiestion hy reueuii of this prcxrnt Art. 

XXXVITI. Provided bIwhjr, that whereas hy rcaieoD of thw 
Act the coiiiinon gaoU ... are like to he Rreiitly pesti-red with 
a more niitnher of prisoners tliun herctoforu liath hern ... it 
shuH he lawful for the jnetices of pence of every iihire, at their 
general quarter mmiods . . . , f o rate nod tas every parish 
vritbin the «aid shires at such rcasouahle auma of niutiey for tlie 
relief of the said prisoners uk they kIiuII Ihitik convriilcnt, no 
that t^e said tnxntion doth not exceed nbovc fiii. or 8<f. by tho 
week out of every parish ; and that the churchwardeoB of every, 
parish sliall every Sunday levy the same . . . 

Fourth Parliament: Second Session. 

Feb. S— Uaroh 15, 1576. 

i8 Elk. Cap. IIL 

An Aet for the Httinij of the }>oot on mork, attd far thf avoiding 
of idUnt4s. 

I. For some betler explnnntion end for some needful addition 
to the statutr [14 Eliz. 5] he it ordained . . . 

IV. . . . That iu eveiy city and town corporate within this 
realm a tumpeteiit store and rtock of wool, hemp, flax, iron or 
Other stuff Iiy order of the mayor ... or other heod officer* . , . 
shall be provided ; and that likewiiiu in everj- other market- 
town or other jihice where (to the justices of peace in their 
general gessions yearly next after Easter ahatl he thought rnont 
meet) a like conii«tent store and stock of wool \&c. ] or other 
stuff ns the country is most meet for . , . tludi ho pmvidcd. the 
snid stores aud stocloi in such cities nnd towns corporate to be 
committed to the cutody of such persons as shall by the mayor 



\fthn httA oBicen in erety rooli ^ty or towo corpornt* he 

aikd in othtr town* and pbcw lo ewib p«noiu us b; 

land JB>ttc«a of prare in ihcir fniil gtn«ral sobobs . . . thftll 

1 )7 Uem ft|ipoiiil«d ; which said pcraons . ■ ■ thuU rrotn 

I ht raiivd the ooUectorH aud jtuvcrnors of the ponr, to 

E iMtat vTVTT such poor aad n«o(Ij peRon . . . able to do 

' writ . . - <hi>l] not for want of worii go nhru*d either 

or commiltin^ [lilferiiigH or other miedcroeMnimn . . . ; 

iceUccton trrna Ume to time (u nose r«qaircUi) >hall, of 

I rtock ttflil store, ctsliwr lo >ndi pour and needy peraon 

iMit [lurtioDlu be vrtfught into jam or othiT matter.... 

rrtidi they shall miike {wjiQeiit lo them which work tko 

I •coonltng to thn drtrMt iif tbit work . . . ; irhi«h h«mp [ftc] 

^dWctuir, wrought froiii timr to timt!, iliall be Kild by the 

1 cxUecton . . . Biid wilh tlie ruooe; comiog of the tale to 

' non rtnff . . . ; and if henmfter any inch pereon ahln to do 

nch worfc aliall rrfnw to work ... or takiiiR »ucfa work 

■poil or mboxle the udm . . . ho, ?^« or ihty AM be 

into ftich botue of oorr«ctiua, tlicra to be itratghtly 

, ■• wrJl ID diet as in work, and alm> ptiniilied froDi time 


[f. And mortorer h« it enacted. Tlat within every county of 
I Rals fMw, two or more nbiiliag bouwa or places con> 
• in Bocoe raarkettowa or corporate town or ulhrr place. 
• ..otder of the justioea of peace in their niit general 
■hall he provided, and calM hooseB of eotrediim. 
I «1m ctenk and iitore and iraplcnicnta be prorided for xrtting 
: and ponialiing not only of thoM which by the oollectors 
gOveiBun of the poor fin- cansea afonsaiil to the niii 
I of CT U T Kli oii (hall bo faravght, bat aba of tock aa be 
in no {uriali, or be taken es rojnies ... or for any 
eu^t to be obidiutj aud kept within the Bauw 

And bi H aln fintiMr eaactcd. That the Mid jiutiee* of 

, m tketr Baid |;eii*nl Manooa, shall appoint frnin timo to 

rtnc«n of erery Rich houM of correctioD. wliieb >ud 

■fcall ha taiM the cmtora and waHuua of the kouaea 

. . : and rfiall atw> appoint otben for the 

of Mteh BMoey aa thall be taxed upon any peraona 




witbui tlidr several juried iotions towards tlio mninUnftnce of 
Die isviil LouBM of torrection, wbiub ehall be called the 
<'ollectors for the hoUHcH of correction ; and if any person 
refuse to be collector and goTcrnor of Ihc poor or censor nmi 
ivarili^ii or culkctor for any tbo bouaen of cotrectiou, that 
i-vurj* jicnMii Ko rofuaiiig >Jiull furfuit tli« niun of ^5 . . . 

18 Eliz. Cap. VII. 

An Au to taJcf. atnaij elrnjy from ilie offettden in rapa and frur- 
^lary, and an order for tht delivery ojdttht eovmet wUfitml 

I. For the reprwBing of . . . mpcs . . . and of relouimis 
burglaries, atid for tlie avoiding of sundry peijurii's and other 
■buHB in and about the purgation o( cLtrks couvict ilelh'on.-d 
to the ordiuanes; be it enacted . . . That if any person Hhall 
fortUDo ... to commit rape or burglary, and to be found 
guilty • . . , that in cvt^ry Nich cngo every person fo being fouod 
guilty . , . ehall suffer paiua of death and forfeit as in cases of 
felony hulb bt^en accustomed by tlic common lanrs of this realm, 
without any allowance of ihe privilege or beii«tit of clergy . . . 

Fourth Parliament : Third Session. 

Jan. 16— Karob IB, ISSL 

33 Elus. Cap. I. 

An Act to mtain the Qtuen'i Majetti/'t tubjrctt in their dve 

I. ViTien! aiuce the statute [13 Elin. a] divers evil-affecltd 
peraoiiK linve piactiwil rontniry to tlio iiicaiiiug of tJie said 
Btatute. by other meana than by Uults or instruments written or 
printed, to withdraw divore the Queen's Majesty's subjects 
ti\na thctr natural obedience to lier Majesty, to obey tlie said 
unirpcd authority of lk>me . . .: i'or relbmiatioii whereof, and 
to declare tbe true meaning of the said law, bo it enacted, 

Treason, &c. 


■n pvnons wkiUMTrr, vr)ii<:h . . . shall br aaj wayi or 
pal io (mctin tn . . . nritii<lmir may uf th« (^uecD's 
•T** tubjtcU . . . from their natoral obedtvnce to her 
ij, sr to withilnw them fur tiMt iulent from tba raUgion 
' faf ber IItgliii«u' auithonif cstnblialied ... to the Hooiisli 
or to movB theat to |in>nii)e way ottedicoce to any 
■ntlioritf o( tha Sw of Uomc, or of an; other prioM, 
tttU er pot«nt4Uc, to b« ua«il witblu her iloniiDioiic, or shall dit 
Mf vmt Mck to tlifet intent or ptir|)oae, . . . aliall be aitjnilged 
> h tikiloni, and bring thcrrof Uwfiilljr eonricted i>hull . . . 
' ami forfeit at in oiae of bixb tr«aMu : aoil if any parvoa 
be willinclj abfolvcd or witbdnurn as afonitaiid, or 
plj be rveoticilcd, or shall prnmisc any obedience to any 
: | g *endwd asthnrity [ict.\ that then erwy aocb penwn, 
' ffontran and t«unMllon thereunto, baag tlieroof laW' 
r ceaviictMl , . . aliaU nSvT u in cn»cii of high trcaiou. 
U. And be it likeiriM vnacted. That all peraoua that ahall 
*«liady be aidcn or niaiiitaiiicni of aucb penotu no offending 
' - . . or whMli afakll conocal any oStmct afoscnid, aad nhall not 
wkn twenty daya . . . disclcwa the MUtM to aoine jnttica of 
|M(t M- other bi^w ofiter . . . ahall inffin- and fuvfeit M 
An^n in miafRnan of tmwon. 

in. Acd be it likewiaB enacted. That e»«ry pcraon which 
•Ul AT or kins mtm, fatiBg ther«of bwfoUy convicted, ahall 
hte tbe nuD of soo naiks aud be camnuttod to priaon in the 
*»* CaU, thn« to nnun by the cpac* of one y»ar. and from 
iMofanb tin be ba*e paid tba md aoni oJ loo marka: and 
<W envy petmm wUA tfaall willingly bear mam ihall forfeit 
V Ma of leo oMrb, and tuBer impriaoninent for a yor. 

IV- Be it alan fnither cnactad, l^t eTorj- peraou above tlw 
■p rf ttxUan yean, wbkh tliall not t«p«ur to lomi: clioreh, 
*Vl « a^wl l4a« ct eooBinoa pnyer, . , . aud being tliereof 
It^ly CMticlad. ibaU forfeit tu th« (jnccn** Majesty, for cxerj 
wbU be or aba ahaU ao EDrbaar. Xio of lawfnl 
r; awl that m-cr and beaidea tba aatd foHcilnrM, 
*^- pccMBi ae bfAemm^ by the apace of IwcKe montlM m 
linH^ ^^ &» Ua or ber ofaadnacr. after wrtifieaU tbenof 
a«miBVM>deiat«tbaKing'i B*neh. by the ordimry of the 

and ga<il-d«liTrfy, or a jnatice of 



pmce of tho caunty wbera snch oflVixlpr tliAll dwell, b« (owJ 
with two «uffici«Bt snrMaes in tl>e eam of ^loo »t the Inut tv 
good behariour, and m contioae bound until «ach tira* u lb j 
penoDi K» Ifounil (la cnnfono tbeoiMlTfa . . . 

V. And be it farther eract«d, Tlutt ir nnj peraoa, boJf j 
politic or corpont« . . . sball keep any school mastar, vliAJ 
AM not repair to ctmrdi a* i« afoRMii], or be allomd by I 
bitliep or onlinnry of tfae dtoc«ee whvro socb tM!lvooliDHter Mil 
bo m kept [ttteh pereon, tec], shall forfeit for vvety nwnth ( 
keepiiiK bim Xio; ... and eucb (tchooltnaalM* w Mckffj 
preiumin^ to tcacb contrary to thia Act . . . iibaU Im 
to be • teacher of yoBth, aod shall BoSer impriwument witi 
bail for oue year. 

VI. And bn it lil(ewtiii> <Dsct(«l, Thnt all oScncc* ag*'^ ' 
Act. or ngainst the Acts' of the tirtt, fifth or Uiirtwnth 
of her M^esl/s reign, tovcbiuf; aclinowlMlgiBg of her Mtjmtj^ 
■ti])iTieT»e goveramrnt in cruiPM ccoleauwtical. or other 
touching tbc sorTioe of Ood, or coming tn diurch, or edah 
meat of trae rvligiou in thu r«alia. >haU be inquirable at mO ' 
belbra jUKtices of peace lu oth«r jnjiticea oamed iu the 
Btatntcj, within one year and a day after enry mch 
oommitted , . . 

Vn. Be it likcwiM finnctml. Thai jnttiecs of Oyrr 
Tn-minvr and jiuiticea of awiie uid of gaol -<I<'Ii very 
Ii«ve [mirer to benr and determine all offiBDces ag&iiut 
Blatnte, and jtisliocR of pcncn tn tbeir open qunricr tcmoiit 
of pence ahall have power to inquire, bear and delrrraiue all 
o&ncca agunst tbie Act, except treaeoo and mi<]>riHNCi of 
trrasoD . . . 

Vrn. And be it likcwitc CMict«<l, llial nil foiiVitaref of anv 
Hums of money limited by this Act shall be divided iu three 
equal parU, wbvteuf one third part aball be tv llie (jnem** 
Sl^jeffly to her own u*e, one other third part to the (joeeo'a 
Uajesty for relief of the poor in the parish where tlie offence 
■lull lir committed . . ., uid the other lUrd pait to aodi pmWj 
ai will Hue for tfae *uno . . . 

* I ISia. I a>d * : 3 Elia t : i) Klii. t. 


Stdilious words, &c. 


>3 Euz. Cap. U- 

An Act agahut tfdttiout wordt and rufnmtri utteni agaiiut At 
Qtum't motl <CK(lle'il Majr.ttif. 

L Whereas Ly (Jie luwd niid •tnluUfl of tliia rralni, iilrendy 
made Bgunrt MiditiouK ward* ami rumours uttered ngninst tile 
Qumd'* moat excellent Majesty, tliero is oot nilTiuietil and 
muAa^u puninliiucnt provided for to suppress the umlice of 
Huch as be evil affected towardj her Highness: be it tlinrclbre 
enacted, That if any penon . . . sbal) ndvJKdly Aud with 
t> malicioua intent ■ . . sp«iik auy fuUe, eedilious and tilaudrrouN 
tiuwfl, rumuunt, iinyiij|,'a or titU's uguitmt our wud luont tiiitiii-nl 
Sovrrrign Likdy the Quern's Majesty tlint now ia. t.hnt then 
every Huch pci'BOD, beii>g thei'eof iawl'utly convicted or attainted 
in form herciifter iu this preiwut Act expreteed, afaall for emy 
Bucb 6nt ofTeno!! cither ho in itomo marknt i3l»c« within the 
shire, city or borough where the stiid words were Kpokeu, »et 
op«nly npou the jiillory ... if it sliali fortune to he without 
any city or town corponite, and if it shall hnppnn to be withio 
any city or town corporate ... to have both his eare cat off; 
or at the election <if tlie offender pay X200 to th(! Quocn'a 
Highncaa' a«<! . . . and also shall suffer imprisoiiaient by tin; 
epUM of six montlia . . . 

II. And be it furthiir cnnctcd, TImt all jierson* which shall 
Bdvisodjy and with malicious intent against our aaid Suveretgn 
Lady report any false, seditious and slanderous ii«w». rumoim 
or tMtcii, to the nluudcr and defomutiou of our i^id Sovereign 
I^dy the Queen's Maji?sty that now ih, of the speaking or 
mpurtioK of uny otbi-r, tliat then all persons so I'eporlinKt being 
thereof convicted nnd attainted in form horuafler in thii Act 
expresiied. *hall for every «uch fimt offence cither be in some 
murket place within the shire ... or town where the taid words 
were repttrtcd Kit openly upon the pillory ... if it sliall fortune 
to be without any city or town corpomlo, and if it ahnll hnjipcii 
to bo witJiin »ny city or town corporate ... to have one of hia 
ears cut off; or nt the election of the offender pay 200 marks 
to the Queen's Highness' use . - ■ , and sliall also suffer impri&oti- 

at by the npiaue of three months . , . 



ITL Aod be it fnttlier enacted. That if noj penoo on* | 
bwfully oonvtcted for anr of tbo offinncu aforewiid, do a^ I 
vnirds eftmoDM off«ud in koj of Uie offeiiGe0 aforeaud, tW to | 
tterf Hudi eecuiid ufliuic« to lie deenMHl felony, nnd llie < 
to rnxSer lucrti [iBiii-i of denlh and forfeiture m in raae of icioif, | 
withoat anj' benefit of rlvrgy or sun^tuiiry . . . 

IV. Aud be it furt)i«r eoaded, Thnt if any pcnoa fhbfrl 
withia this rcalta ... or in xay otW plice out of tfe Qafl^j 
doBiinioiu, shall a^riaedly &nd witL n toAUciotia intent 
our mi) Soveragn litdy, derive bdi] write, print or Mt ' 
any manner of book ... or irriling, containing any 
^ediltuna and sUnderona matter to Iba defanution of 
Quoon's Majesty tlint now in, or to tlio enconrsging . . . «f ■> 
inturreclioo or rcb«llion within Ihia realm . . .; or if ! 
p«rton . . . nther witliin this realm ... or in any otht-T 
out of tlio Qufitto'a dominions, ahall adriwdly nud with 
malicious intCDt againat our aud Sovereign Lady cante 
Ruch book ... or wnting to be wrillen. printed, poblislied 
Ht forth, and the anid offence not being piininhnblr by lb 
Statute' made in tb« sgtb year of the rvign of King Ednvd 
the Tliinl concerning treason [&o.] or by any other statu!* 
whereby any aflcDoe la mmit treaiaan, tbit then vtctt 
offence nhull lie denmed felony, and the oFfrodrra tl>«roiD . 
shall BufTer luch paiDa of death and forfeituie as in caae 
felony ia used, witliout any beui-fit of cld^ oi- Muctnary . . . 

V. And for thnt diver* pcntonn wtelcedlr diirpoted and 
getting their daty aixl allegiance have of Inle not only wifbeill 
her Mf^ecty's death, but also by direra ineaiM practised and 
soa^t to know bow long her Higlinrtf ahoold lire, ami who, 
should reign all^r her decenae, nnd wlutt chaogra and oltenstioM 
nbuuld thereby happen ; ... be it also caacled, That if ai^ 
|>ei>on . . . during the life of our mid Sorereign I^dy the 
Qneeo'a Uajesty that now i*, tither witliin Iter llighneaaf 
doTOtnMDS or without, aliall by totting or erecliug any fi|{urv or 
by eaatJng of nativities or by calculation or b%- any pro(^iceyin£ . 
witdieraft, conjurations, or otlxr like Dplavful means wiu 
Boever. seek to know, and sball net lorth by express wc 
deeds or wriliugx, how long ber Majesty sball live, or who ahal 

' »f E. in. ;() t. 

ffdHiotis teords, &C. 


np ft fciog or (|u«eii of thin rcnlm of E(iKtuii<l after her 
IflnM* dncckw, or elic ahall adviKdly and with « nulicrau* 
iMt afiatiMt her Ui^uMui, utter auf nunner of direct 
p^fkton to BUT tmeh intent, or thitll muliciotulr bj any 
fni^wtitiDg or printing drsiTv Ibe dnth w dcpii ration of 
«8am«i|pi I^y tl>« Qur«n'3 Majwty that dow i* . . . that 
An nenr audi oiffenco nholl be felouy, and cveiy offender 
Ihniii. ud »l» all hii aidert [Ac], ilwU ba judged u f«loa* 
ud AaU nfer pains of d(«th and forfeit m in com of fdony is 
Mi, vitbont uijr benefit of elerg; or Mnctuary. 

n. Aad )m it further enactol. That thn jaiticM of King'i 

BbeL j«itie«a of Oy«r aoil Termiaer, jofCicts of asgizM . , . 

atLnirrreml cirenibi, and jintioei of geiteml gBol-deltrery . . . 

il have fall poirer to inquire of and to hcnr and determine 

l^lfl ft* offencee aforeaud; and that the [oirtj iodicled and 

li^Md of any thr offence* nfonriiaid atiuU buve advantafre 

[if ifl nuiner of challenge* to the Jury an in tn&l vt feUiny is 

ti; KoA also ihat all Justices of peace ... in tboir general 

' fnrter aeeiciooo ihiil have full power to inqnire of all the 

bun aforesaid and to caiuw the offmdert therein to be 

fa£dcd <rtthoat any farther procee'ling thnrrin ; and that alw 

(ictT jsstiee of p««ce . . . nhall havo full power to commit any 

■90 briitg vehemently raspectod of any the said oiEBBDe* la 

ivvd, oatev be do pat in eoreties to make hia penumal appear- 

laoa at tbe next quarter aenioas or gaol -deli ve ry ; and in 

^Afaah tX ftoding «uch iiiretic!>. then to commit him to prison. 

Ifart to rtanaiD unlil be »h«ll find MirrtiM for hi* appeannee 


VU. And bo it further eiiactc<l, That all offeticea made felony 
[if tUi Act, which liemfter shall he commiltcd out of ibis 
laot Englatiil, ahall be from henceforth in((uired of, heard 
'«d tictenBucJ befon the Qut-eu's Mujeely's jwiicc* of bir 
imA lot pleas to be holdon bofom herulf, \>y f,-ood and lawful 
ata of Ibe same county where the lame brocli *liall he kept, iu 
3a macoB aa if llie unic ofllBDcea had been coniinittetl within 
the mmm emnty . . . 

Tin. FrorNlvd that no manner of pereon shall be mole«tcd 
m iiaiwiilwd for any of the offi-iicei . . . aforesaid, unless he be 
tbRwf aecttSMl vithin one month next af^er suob words ea 




njioWcn or rnported l>ef<ire enmc one jiietice nf pnice . . . ; and 
nnlcBB MicI) ofTender also be indicted within cue ycAT n«xt after 
liift offHiice eo supposed to bo coiiimitt«(l. 

IX, Provided ulso thnt every aiicb mnynr ... or olhi-r bead 
(ifficnr of cilieH, Iwroiighfl ami towns coi-pwatc, wbich have 
jurisdiction ... to hold and keep seseions as juiitices of the 
jwace, sliaU as well arrent and coininit to ward or bail , . . every 
jieniuii v<-li(!nicully KUspoctcid of siny the ofTitticrH aforrjnid, n« 
also to inquire of all the ofTences aforecAid. and to proceed tit 
the ludiutbig of every such ufTeuiler without auy further pru- 
cetding tiierein ... 

XIII. Provided that no person shall be hereafter indicted 
or attainted for auy offeriie as ururesaid unless the bjuub offence 
be provi'd by . . . two nnlhcicul witriesiiee at tlic tiuio of Iur 
tndictment; which said witnesBes . . . shall be brought forth io 
person before the party eo arraigued face to face, and there nh&ll 
openly declare all they can say aKaiust the taid pnrty *,a iudictm], 
unlees the snid party shall willingly sjid without riolcnce coofess 
tlie tame. 

XV. And be it likewise euai!t«d, That tliis Act iior anything 
llicrein contained ehatl ... be in force for any longer Uiue tbail 
uuly during the natural life of our said Sovereign Lady the 
Queen's most excellent Mfyesty that now is; whoui God long 
preserve to his glury, her Highness' honour and iiafcty, and to 
the common wealth of nil her Mujesly's dominions. Aiu«u, 

Fifth Parliament. 

Sov. as, U84— March 29, 1S8A. 
17 Eliz. Cap. L 

An Ael for provinon to be made /or the turflij of lli^ Qw.rWg 
Majtatj/ 1 most royal ^rrton and (Im tontmuaTtvc o/tiU rtaim 
in ftaet. 

I. Forasmuch as the good felicity and comfort of the whnlo 
estate of lliia reulin cuniiiiit«th (only next undej' (Jod) in the 
Burety and preMrvation of th« (Jueen's most excellent Mt^jesty ; 
and for that tt hath manifestly appeared thnt sundry wicked 

Surety of iht Quern's person. 



hare of Ut« beeo d«via«d ami kid, u wcU tn 

pwts bejODd Ui« hhu m oIm within this Fcnlm, to the 

toduigrrit^ of ber HighiMca' tnott r«y&l pc^wrn, and to 

Is raio of \3m wbole conunon west, if bj Clod'a mercifnl 

tbc mno lutd not been remled: UxTcfore for 

or auch gnat periU . . . ba it msctrd. \i at any time 

tiw cud of Uiia ptweent eeasiOB of Parliau«nt. any open 

or rebdlion aball be mad* into or wilbio anj of bar 

'• domiuioDii, or anj net nttcii)]itcd tending to tba hurt 

T liaJMly'a moat rofal pereoa. bv or for aaj p«raoo that 

pttcnd any (itl^ to tbi' cmvru of iIuh fmIdi after Ii«r 

a Jewae ; or if aajtliiog ilintl be c«ni]ias*ed or iinB^ii«d 

Id tbe bun of licr Mnj«t7-'B royal }>ereon by any fwnon 

tb* privity of anj- person that may pretend title to tba 

af tbia rekJni ; Hmt (ben, by ber Majesty's commiesion 

W Great Seal, tJie Lord* and otliem of bi-r Hi|;lit><«H' 

ComeU and audi other Lords of I'arlianieRt to bn niimcil 

r M^jntjr aa with tbe uid Ttiry Cotineil thall mDko up 

M»ber of twenty-foor at tho Icnat, haviuK '*'>tb tbem for 

in that behalT tach of tho judges of the Conrls 

at WestmiiiiBter aa lier Higbneea ahall for that purpcM 

, «bal] by virtae of tbi« Act haw authority to exanjne 

A (he eJwcM aforeaaid and all circanistaiKea thereof, and 
A nwp BB to pee Mntenee or judgmeut aa upon good proof 
Iht MaUer ihall appear unto them : and that after auch «euteiK« 
« jalpMOt giT«ii and docUration thereof nnde and pu)>1i«ilie<l 
^brM^eaty'a Proclamation uuder tbe Oreat Seal of England, 
al faneaa agaioit wliom micb iirnt«nec or jwlgment aball \te to 
^Lpn uA pnhlisbed ahidl be excluded and diasbled for ever to 
^^^n m dain . . . the crown of tbta realm . . . : and that there- 
^nM aB her Bi^uieei' mibject* may lawfully ... by all foitjUe 
^^rfyeitle meAU paraue to death every auch wicked pvraon, 
^ akea or by wLote meaua, uaent or priTity any anch 
■naiis or rebellion ihall be in form aforcratd denoonoed to 
hn bem naAe, or taA wicked act attrmpted, or other thing 
^■pUMd or imagined against her Miijeety's ponmi, and all 
^m aiden [Ac] : and if any anch deti-stablc act shall be 
n<c«tni af^iaat bor IlighncM* motl royat pcrran, wfaenb)' lier 
■0 Ic talien away (which Qod of bia great 





(iirrcy fortitd), lli*t then evtry rncb perton bf or for wbon i 
such act thaU be execnted anil their tsrac*. being wij 
naaenUog or privy lo tlie Uiue, tJiall be ezdodrd And 
Tor I'Ter Ui luive or clnim . . . tlte uwl crowu at thu nuloi ..J 
nixl that all tlio BubjcvU of thb realm at^y lAwfnlly, Vt ' 
forcible and poenble wi-iuib, j>iiKtie to death ey-ery BOeh 
Itcrnon by whom or hy whovo mcuui nnj such ddealAble : 
vhnll bo in fona bcmiUr exprmcd ditwancfld to Imvc 
coiuDiii.te(I, and also their iuua being aoy v»y 
privy to the nuip, end all tlteimiidera [See] 

II. And to the ciid that tbo iotviitton uf Ibi* liiw amj^ 
HTortually execated, if b<T Mi^csty* life «h&ll bo t«kcD •■ 
by any violent or unnataral nMaas (wluch God defend): bt j 
further crincted, Tbut the Lord* and otiien wbtcb thoU bll 
her Uajcsty's Privy Council at the time of miefa her deeean J 
joining niilo tbcn for tJieir bett«r aniitancc five «itliCT 
tiud Mveo otiier Lords of Jhirlianunt at tbe least (for 
tlul Duueoftbe taid Earb, LonU or council be known tn] 
penouN tliat inuke any title to the crowrn), tboau pvrtoiu wi 
wuru Chi«f JuKtioM of vvery BeDcb. MmUt of thn Holb wl 
Cliicf Bnron of the Eicheqiifr at the time of b^r Majwty'i 
death, or in default of (he said Justices, >tu»l>;r oi the lUli 
and Chief Uaroo, some otlier uf thoM which wrre Jiuttoet rf 
■ame uf the Coutta of Record at WntiniuMcr at the ttnw afhcr 
Uighnua*' decMM to mpply their ptacee, or any twenty-CMr 
or more of tbcm, wtirmof eight to be Lords of rariiament sot 
being of the I'riry Council, shall . . . examine tlie caiue and 
nuintier of such her Mnjesty'ri death, and wliat pcrmnt shall l>e 
nny way guilty tbereuf, uud all circumstAnces concerning tlv 
(■una...; and tlwreupoo ahall 1^ open proclamation pnUiik 
the tUDO, and without any delay, by all forcible and |Ki;ailiIa 
meatw, proeecute to death all euck aa aliall be found to Iw 
offeudcrs tlierein, aiid all th«ir aider* luid abettors; and fnc 
the doing then.'ol'aDd for tli« wilbstanding and sappnasing ■f 
all Mioh power ami force aa iJiall any way be levied or vlimd 
in dtdurbance of tlie doo execution of this law. iib&ll haw |ii 
mit only to raise and use such forces s« aliall in tliat behalf 
nordful, but bIm to uce all otlier means and things 
and m.'ccsHU-y for the mainteuanee of (Im aaUM 

l] Jesuits, semmaiy priests, &c. 


of Xbn wid oSeDiIcn; aad if nnj such power aiiJ 

ikU be levied ur atbrt^l iu dislurliaiice uf (lio due esc* 

I *( thii law bj KDj pcnon lluit mar pictrnd ony titk to 

I <nva of tliiii rcftlm .... thnt Uten cTerj* such per»>n shall 

j thntot excJnded and dimblcd for «vcr to hA>« or dtuin 

l-tWcnnrB of tMii raalm. 

And be it funbcT emctcd, Tltat all tltn mbjocls of all 

tje*tj'« dominions tball lo tlie uttermoit of their power 

ItWaud CoaDcil [&cj in all tiiiu^a tu L« done »ccurdiu(; to 

' kw; and that no nibjuct uf tbtx n.-uliu nkoll in niiy viae 

(Mfp M t tw d in bndjr, lands or gootln at any timei bcmftcr 

jitipg to be dooc snordiug to this law. . . . 

A&d wbereas of late taauy of ber Msjetily's good and 

•objccttf have, in the iiame of God and with tlie lesli- 

!ef guod OMiMicrico*, hy one uniform manDcr of writing 

MMr Itaada and fpals and b; their Mveral oaths Tolun- 

lafeo, joined ibeiuoelvea together iu oi>« bond and 

iniilaiu, te (rithttand aod revenge to ibc nttennoRt all auch 

^■tdoNB actiooa and attempts s^osC her Majesty's most 

^m1 jmoo i ... be it enaciMl, That the nine asaociaiiou and 

^Kf article and eeuteuce thereiu contained, a* well ouncenJiis 

l^k diaMtng of aiiy penon thut niay pretend any title to come 

k U> aown of this rvniro, and also for tho pnming ... of 

' (n fwnen for aDj such winked set or attotnpt as is mentioned 

it tW wa acMciaiion, Bhall be in all things expounded and 

Bblgrd aeoonling to (he troe meaning of tliLi Act) and not 

^Bgiie BV agaioat any other penon. 

^^^ 37 Zux. Cap. II. 

^^a Am mgmi»tt Jematt, ttminarjf priatt ami Mith otlt^ litt 
^K ditobedimt ptrtong, 

^B. VWreaa dtren pcraoiti oaJlFd or profcMciUmuits, seminary 

^Bab and other prieats, which hnve been and from time to 

Hk an nade in tlic parts bfyond the teas, accunlii^ to the 

^ivaad rites of the ftomish Church, have of late yearn come 

-■-aadiia3yilu««e .. . into thin reuhn of England and other 

i^ V**)'* lfaj»lf 'a dumiiiioDR, of purpofe (a* iiath appcar«d 

■■ V«U by madiy of their own examjuationa and cnnfeasions, 





M b; (ttTvn otber iniuiif«st mean* Mid proofit) not wAj to ' 
dntw \ttr f lighnen' mhje<!ta fmni tlwir Aaa obcrfjtnea In \ 
Majettr. I>ut also to Mir up aod more Hulilioo, rahririoii 
open IiimtUlty vitliiD Wr HirIumw' dotDiuiona, to Uif 
endungrriiig of ibr mfnt; of lier moit TO}-hJ penoo and (»] 
iitt«r ruiD, deMlatioti and ovulhrow of tlie «li<ilc n-nlm, if] 
same be not tbe KKmer by totae cood inMoa foimcMi and 
rented : foi- refarrmtion wbereof be it eiiadMl . ■ 
Jeniits, Mtiiinat^' pr!<4li and uther priests whHlaoerrr i 
ardniD«d ... by miv •ntbDrity . . . derived . . . fitim tbe 
Rome, since iba feast of tbe N*tivit]r of St John Bap 
the first y<*r of her ilighuen' rwgn. shall witluo forty i 
\txl after tbe rnA of tliia preMiit Ksaiou of Pu-Uaneut, i 
out of this rvnim nf Rngland and out of all other her Hig 
mlnu and tiouiinii^ng . . . 

II. And be it further eoaclfd. That it eliall »ol be la^ 
for any Jeniit, (rminary prieit or otli«r . . . Mclmissttcal ; 
wliatsocver, being bom within thuroalm .. . and htntaton i 
(he Miid frart of th« Nativity of St John Baptist in (1m fint j 
of tier Maje^ly'ti reign . . . otdaiMd . . . by any authority d( 
. , . from tti* Se« of Rome . . . lo cone into or rvnuln in i 
put of Uiia realm . . , aner the end of the asma forty ditt, 
other than in such iqiecial case* and upon such special occaooM 
only and for such time only as is wq ii cc wd in this Art ; uJ 
if he do. that then every ndi offiesce shall be ndjodirtd tn ka 
high ircMon. and every penon an offending shall lor kal 
offiniM he adjudged a traitor and ebnl) ralTer . . . ■• in net ^ 
high treason ; and every pereon which, alt^r the end of ih 
same forty day*, . . . shall wittingly and villiogly ... sad a 
maintain any such Jceuil [&c.] a* in a/oreaaid . . . shall also fat 
snch offntoe be adjudtred a felo^i, willionl benefit of derfj, and 
suffer death and furfcil a* in case of one attainted of felonv. 

in. And be it further enacted. If any of ber Hajcsly'l 
■nhjfvts (not being a Jesuit ... or ewhiai— tii^sl peracm •* si 
before meotioned) now being or which hemUlrr shall hi 
hrooght np in any college of Je*tiits or *eniinaiy . , . ia Ik 
psirta bejood the sen* . . . shall iwt. within lix nrmtlw wd 
after ptio«latnatioo in that brhalf to be nuula n ihc dlr a 
London . , . , retnni into this mlin, and Ibe wup o te wiUda I 

Jtstiiis, seminary priests, &c. 


^ant »n<T toch return, belwe ibe luiiiop of tie iliccete or 
of p«ace of the county where he alMll arrive, 
'to hrr Majesty And bpr inwa «o>l t«ke ihu oath 
by Act in the 6r»t y«>r of h«r ivign ; Tlial tlwii 
poaon which nUall olherwite return, come 'mtu or 
I Ihii mdiB . . - shaJI nUo be itdjndf(nl a Intitor, and mffer 
I firfnt aa in caae of high trcMon. 

r, A»d fcc it further euactod, If any jwreoa under her 
r** ml^rctioD or obedience tfaall at any tine after the 
|«f the aaid forty days, by way of cxchnnge or by any otWr 
I . . . enntvy ... or caaM t« bo conveyed . . . oTcr llie 
I . . . into any fotvign porta, or ahall «th«rwite — give any 
«r other relief to or for any Jesuit ... or •cohtnastical 
, aa ia aforaiid, or for the mainleDMice or relief of any 
r o( JcMtts or temiiwry ... in any the p*rta beyoiitl the 
l.xOr of any [terwu then being of or in ihe Munc college* 
I and not iWumed into this rcalDi with lubmiaakm 
(TWt (bra every Nuch penou «o uflcudiuff fur tbe wme 
! ihall incnr Ihe |)«na)ty of prvmuuire, nientioned in the 
; of Pnentume . . . 

bs it farther enacted, TItat it akiiU ni>t b« lawful for 
■Dder her HighocMi' ubedieuce, at any time after 
'wi fony days, during her Msjeety'n life (which Uod lang 
r) to eeud Itis or her child or other |icrai>u being under 
[w Wr goTcrniDeDt into any the parta beyond the teas nut 
' Higfc w " obedieuce, without the sgiecial licence of ber 
r or of Axir of hn; Htghneaa' Privy Council . . . (exc«pt 
far toch vnXy as they aluill ruud over tlie aeaM, uuly 
■ir tiwle of Dierchandiie*, or to terve iia nmrinerB. and 
r) apMi pain to forfeit for every such tlieir offence 
luf £ioa 

Provided abo. That this Acl ■hall not in any wiw 
to aay «wh Jeenil ... or ewleaiarticol prson as is 
Winti-n'. *• ahall at any Uaie within the «aid forty 
wilbiu tiirce days aftdr that he ihall hcmftcr come 
tfcv nadn . . . aobmit hinuelf to some arclibishop or 
cf tbia realm ur to eorae justice of peace within the 
ly wli«f« be efaall arrive or Und, and do thercupuu truly 
Ely - . . take the eaid uath eel forth in muio primo, 




and b>- writing under hU hand confesi and nrknowlcJ^ and 
from thnnc^fortli coiitinue his due obedience unto tier Hii-hneas' 
lnw*. stalutM and ordinaucea , , . provided in cause? of reHgioti. 

XI. And be it i\»i further ttubcted, That every person being 
subject of tills renlm, which nfter the said fortf days shall 
koov that any such Jesait ... or ottier priest abov«-mi4 shall 
be wlthia this reulm . . . contrary to the true mfiining of this 
Act, luid ahull nut disvnvrr the unmc iinto i>c>me justice of 
peace or other higlinr offinei- within twelve days next sfter his 
Ktd knowlodgr ■ . ■ , That every such ofTeuder ehall make fine 
and he iiuprlsuneil at the Qneeu'ii pleasure , . . 

Xni. Auc] \w it iilno eiiiicted . . . That if any prrsnn so suIk 
mittiug liimsi'lt'iis nforr-«nid do, nt any time within the space of 
ten yeiira after siu'h submission made, come within ten miles of 
«ich place where ber Majerty shnll he, without eppeetal licence 
from licr Mnjeity in tlint behalf . . . i-neh person shnll tjike no 
heneiit of the said submission, bat that the said submission shall 
be void . . . 

aj Eliz. Cap' XIII. 

An Act far th* foUowing of HvA tmd Cry, 

I. Whereas by two ancient statutes [Stat. W int. 13 E,I. (l) I ; 
98 E. III. 1 1], it was for the better repreBsing of rwblieries nud 
felonies among other things enacted that if the country ilo not 
answer for the biHliesof such malefactors . . -the people dwelling 
in the couutiy shall he answerable for the robberies done .. ., no 
that the whole huiidred where flic nibheries nliuU be done . , . 

tihall answer the riibherics done ; foiu»milch bb the waid parts 

of tlio said several statutes, being of Into days moi'e commonly 
put iu execution than heretofore they have been, are found by 
experience to be very l>ard and cxti-eme to many of llm Queen's 
Majesty's good sahjccts, because by the dime Klatutc they do 
rvraain diargeil witli the penalties therein contained, notwith- 
standing their inability to oalifify the aame, and though they 
do as much as iu reason might be required in pursuing auoh 
taalefaetorH, whereby hotli large scope of negligence is given to 
the inhabitanla in other hnnilreitx and counties not to protrcut« 
tbc hue and cry . . . , hy rcnoou they are not chargeable for any 

Hue and Cry. 



irftke pmds rolilwtl ...; and bIm gwst encounigvnient 

givra nnto Ui« affewlen to oomtnit daily mora 

hI rahlwrics, u tmiog it b maiinrr imponiHIe Tor 

ntv of ttie Mid hoadml and rrandiiM wherein tb« 

' b eooimittrd to opprdieDd tltein without the aid of tli« 

' Imdrvda and couDtie* afljoining; and for Uuit aba tlw 

having mii«dT by the aforesaid statutes for the 

of bis giyids robbed and dunagcii nf^iiut tlie ia> 

\ at the huiidrMi wliei«iii the robbery ms Mxniniltcd, t* 

I BCglipRit in proR^utinf^tbesaid mdelaclArt: otir 

Bjn* i*dy the QuecnV Mnjost; . . . doth for ronKdy 

h tlic cocwnt of the Lords [ftc] . . . enact tltat Uw 

oC any such hundred . . , wheifjn negligence , . . 

! and cry made iball lutppen to be . . . shall iiiiswer and 

tW one moiety of all micb bubib of money and damages 

1 hy form of the said stalulee be reooTcrcd or had s^iust 

' aud hundred in which any rubbery or felony ttai] be 

l(*d . . . 

Vn. fVorlded also, Tliat no pemn robbed ahalt take any 

by rinue of any tlw Mid forioer ctatutiw. to charge 

Fladred where any robbery shall bv cominilled, except he 

ace Ua rait or actioD within one year next after 

I tsbbefT «n to be committed. 

And be it further eoacted. That no hue or cry or 
I . . . ahall be takeu to be a Uwful hue and cry or punuit 
■•K^ the mac Iw tnode liy hnrnenieii and footmen . . . 
m And be it further al«o enacted, Thai no pemn . . . iliall 
. ble any benefit by virtoe of the said ttalntcf, except the 
ftnoa •ball, with a* nnich coiiTenirnt speed as mny be, 
matiet . , . unto Mine of the inhaliitaatH of some town, 
[ ot hamkt u«ar unto the phue where any sucli robbery 
I tc mmmtttcil : nor ilull bring any action by virtue of any 
lb itatBtn afaresaid, exempt he iihsll first within twenty days 
**a fa^arc titch action to be bruu;;ht, be examined upon hU 
•Wfcnl oath . . . whether he kmin the parliee that commiltol 
thr Mid n:ibb(ry; and if npnti tuch rxaminnlion il be confeiranl 
Ual he know the parties . . . that tlteu be . . . >h>lt. brfore itie 
be eomuenctd. enter into eulScient bond by re- 
. , . «Sectaally to proweuio the some pereow eo 




known to bkve conunittfd tk« raid robber; . 
the due coarse of lliu Iaw« of this mlm. 

Kcordiug to 

Sixth Parliament. 

Oel. so. use— UftTch 23, 1687. 

28 & 19 Tam. Cap. W. 

An Ah for (Ax mart upenlj/ ami <hu fixretUion ofefrtainbranditii 
of the alahUf^ made in th« (wert/y-tftircl ytar Of the Qtietn'i 
jltajftty't Ttiifn, inlituUd, An Act to rnkim th Queen's 

Majeit)/'t rubjtct* in lluir due obrdinntki. 

1. For avoidiDg of all frauds and d«b)'s heretofore practiMd 
or Iierpnftor (o be put in ure, tn tlio bimlrauo: of th« due and 
jipecdy exccutiou of tlie stntiite made ... in the tweiity-thlnl 
ycnr of the reiKU of our tuoat ({ruciou* Sovereigo Lady the 
Qugcii'h Mojcstj. iutilakd [tui above] . . . 

IV. Be it bIsu enacted, That every «ucli offender in not 
repairing to divine service ... as hereafter shall fortune to be 
ihfrtTjf ouce convicted, ahull . . . pay iutu Uia , , , Exchequer 
«ftcr thii rnte of Xio for every luonth which Khali he contnined 
in the indictment whereupon Biich conviction shall be; and 
tihall aleo for every montii after eucli cotiTiction, without a&y 
vtlicr iiidictiaont or coiivictiou, pay into the . . . Exchequer 
aforesaid, nt two times in the year, that is to say, in every 
£a8tcr 'iVriD and Michaelmas Ttnii, as njuch aa tlien shall 
rriouiii unpaid, after the rule of £;o fur every montb after 
such conviction and if default shall be mndo in any part of 
any payment aforeaaid. . . . that then the ({uceo's Mggctfty shall 
and nuiy. by procesB out of the said Exchequer, aeize and eiijc^ 
all the good* and two paiia ... of all the htndo, tcnrmenta 
[&c.] of Fuch oflcndcr . . ., leaving the third part only of the 
same lands, tenements [&c.j for the roainteuauce of the same 
otTeiider, hia wife, children and family . . . 

■ »i SIU. t. 

CoHVtHtieies, ^c. 


Seventh Paruament. 

r»b. 4- VM«b 38. 1S80. 

ErGltTII Parliauf.nt. 
r«b. »-Apri1 10, 1598. 

3S Huz. Cap. L 

^n Aet to n«im tA« Qu««i*« miitjttU in olKdienee, 

Far tlw pfweating and ftTwding of racti grtJit iBconrenirocM 

•BiJ |wnl» ■■ miglit happen aod ((row by tli« wicked and dsngeroua 

ye^cw of Hxlitioiu MccUric* nnd diilovid ptmns; l« it 

t»anrir1 . . . That if auf p«i«oD above (he ege of tixtrcn ye«ni, 

^/^uth afakll ohatiiialely reftue to r«i)«ir to M>mc church, chttpe) 

(c Bmal place ut cunnnon prajcr, to beiir divine tervice 

«iIi1i1"mIm il bj bw klsjcMy a laws aod stntulcs in th«t behalf 

^ii, mad aWI forhear to do the ume by the epooe of 

a MHilh Dfxt after witlioul luwfal c»Qa», rhtdl. at any time 

lAcT fofty daya ncxc afUr the eud of thla MtMiian of {Mrliameut, 

k« priatii^, writing w exprcw word* or t{>»cclici ... go 

AikA to pcnoade any of her Sli^jesty'a aubjects ... to deny . . . 

W Vaje^y'a power end anllwrily iu cauks eveleaiairtical . . . ; 

■ to Umi end thaW . . . pcnnadc any utber pcnon whataoerer 

■atktua from coming to church to hear diTin« Mrvicc or to 

ne>m the CoDunnnioD aooording to her il^esty's laws and 

AtaCca afitrcsatd, or to be preiKnt at tuiy uulnwful sssemblies, 

■■vMiclei or tii«cting« snder pretence of any exeroi»u uf 

nlipH^ coBtrary to her Mjgecty's taid lawn and statutes ; or if 

*^ |«rMiB whidi >)iall ubalinately refnae to r^tair to aome 

tWth (Ac.}, Aod »liall fbrbwir by tlio tpnce of a mouth to hear 

^fnm wrrice^ aa la albraaid, diall after tiie mid forty days . . . 

k |«anit at any sv^ aaaemblLrB, conTcDticles or meotinga . . . 

ottarj to the lawi and «tatoti-i of tliia naha . . .: That then 

rath iictaon . . ., being tlicrcuf hiwlnllj convicted, shall 




ly> coDimitted to priMW, tbera to r«miita witlioot bul «ri 
prucG, Quiil they duiU ennfomi and dtld ibunxrltv* to (oaci 
«MiM clmrth [ftcl ancl hear divine wrvice, occoriioj to I 
UkJMPt)^'^ laws and statutn aforenM, uiil to moke mc 
mbnuMioo mii) d»cl*r»tK>a of tbelr nid cotiforaiiiy u I 
in Ihis Act ia appciut^d. 

tL Provided «)nfa . . . Tlkit tf tatj tuch penmo which i 
oAoikI againrt this Act as is nforeasid aliall not vithia 
moolhs Dest after ibejr shall Iw eonviot<d of their mid i 
conlbrm iheinMtvea to llie obedionci! of tfaa law* aud •t*tntti> 
this realm, in coootng to the charch to hfsr dinn* tWTioci 
in makiiij; su«h public coufenion and eubmianon as 
in this Act is appointod, being tliemintn reqoircd faj Uia 1 
of the dioceM or aojr jnstice of tha peaoe of the coanty ' 
tbe same person diall bappen lo he or hj tbe tniuicter or < 
of ihn parish ; tbnt in evdiy meh caw everjr nifJi ol&nds'i 
being thereunto iranw^ or reiguired by any jnotice of tfce po" 
of the same county whn« auch offender sbaJl then be, ahaDnpKi 
hi* corporal oath befere the jostioM of the peace in iha ffM 
t)tiartrr 9i>K<aoM of the nme county or at th« ainan and gMt- 
detiveiy of the snroe county before the jnsticvs of the aac 
asaixea and ([aol-debvery ahjuru this rvalai of Eo^daud and 
ollwT the Qaeen'n Mnjcety's dominions for ever, nnlea* 
Hitjeety shall license the party (o return. . . . ; and if any i 
ofttnder, which br the lenor of thi* Act is to be abjured, i 
refu<e In make such alijnration. or nOer «Hcfa shjniatioD 
»hall not go to mch haven and within such linw a* Is 
appoiiitiMl and friHu ibenca depart out of tlii* realm 
to this prcMnt Act, or after such his drparlurt vlial) nit 
into any her Majesty's domtninnii without her Majesty's t| 
iic«Doe in that behalf first ohtain#<l. tluit liien in eve 
oase the penon so oftadiiy shall be adjadxe'l > l^^loa i 
ssifler as in case of felony, without brnrfit of rln^gy. 

III. And furtbemiore be it enacted. That if any peneo 
shall at any time hereafter offeod aAaiost this Act shall. 1 
he be so wari>cd or miaired to moke abjamtion accordtnii 
the tenor of thi> Act, njsiir to tomn poriBJi church on 
BiumUt or other fcstinl day. and then and iintn hear 
serrioei n ltd at serrice-tiiDe, before llie tennou or reading j 

Zonvmb'clfs, ^e. 


I P up i l . Dftke public and open submusiOR and dMlaration 
Flu MofertnHy to Iter )Uj«ity's Uwa and aUtut(«, fts here- 
in Una Act \% »{ipotnt»d; tknt then ibn Mme oAcntb^ 
IthcmpOD b« cimly dischargwl of the pcmltics ioipoKd 
[klhw Act for uiy of ilie ulf«noM ftforMsid: th« sanw aub- 
■■sa la be lIudl^ an ben.'kfVr followetb, tbnt is to eay : 
I A, B- do liutnbly confvs* and nckDOvlclgi? iJut I hftve 
[IMvuiIt ofiVmled God in ronttmnii^ bir ?klajc«ty'i> godir and 
gorcnuDeot uul aatkority, br abf»ntiiig myeptf from 
I oA fnm liMriog diviu« service, contrary to tlie go>lly 
r Md statnic* of thiir rea.ln), aud iii uniuK "ud fre^ueuUug 
llbde«d Mul tinUirfid conTcnttcW and BKsrinblim under 
IflLu* and ddoor of exercise of religion ; and I am bcnrtity 
ytj for the nnw. and do acknowledge and testify in my cod- 
[t rim e e . tlial bo otlier periou liatb or ought to have an; power 
r utlurity orer ber Xajeaty ; aod I do promiae aud prolmt. 
I'tiftwit auT ditninalntion or aiijr colour or meau* of miy die- 
IfMrtini. llwt fniiu benceforth I will from time to time ober 
1 (eftrm ber Maje«ty'ii lave and slatutcE, in repairing to 
ilnrdt and bearing divine service, aud do uiy uttenuoet 
' to mainlAin and dcfriid (lie aanie : 
Aid Ibat every minister or r.urnte of every parivb where 
I nboinsMta . . . abal) brreafler be to made . . . sball prut* 
r ceter th« nnui into a Imok . . . aod . . . eball eoiify Ui« 
eaw ia vritiog to the bi* hop of tho «aid dioceM. 

T. Ka& fiir tbat every pereon having Immim and family tx in 
'Mf btond tu have special regard of the good govemmrnt mid 
wJirieg of the eame, lie it mncted. That if any pentou «hall at 
i^r iMr IwnafieT relieve, moiutniu, retain or keep in bis house 
wilknrisB an}- peraon whi«b thail obatinately rcfuie ta oonM 
>• •■« ckandi [Ac] to hear divine tervico . . . tliat then crery 
pmi vkieh libiUl *o r«lirvo [Ac.J any sacli prreou offending 
*• ifcwwid. after iioti<« tbrrr^ to him given by lli« ordiuarv 
•'lb* dioteae or any justice of asnzet of tlie circuit or any 
Mr* of peace ft the county or tlte minisier, curate or chnrch* 
nriaa of the pariah where iiuch penon aliall then Iw, shall 
Wat (a the Queen's Majeety for evefy permn to relieved 
I'fa.}. . , aa afurcMid, £10 for every month that be shall ra 
Wm h . 'kel\ aay nch p«*on ao offeudiug. 




TI. PiOTided nevertheUsB, Tbat tliis Act shall not in any wise 
exteiul to puuUIi or iiuiHHicb any pnrson fur relierinj; [&c-] his 
•mifi, fiithcr. mother, child, wnnl, brother or ^st^r, or hii irifc's 
father or mother, not hnviug any certain place of habitation of 
tJi«ir own. or the huiibainia or wives of any of Ihem , . , 

X. Proriiled nlno. That every pc.rtoii that ahnll abjure by 
force of thin Act, or rcfiiw to abjure being tlirmunto K<(uiny] 
aa sforeaaid, tball forfeit to her Mnjeaty ail hia good* and 
chatlelN for ever ; ruid hIiaU furthi^r lama all hia Uuda [Ac] 
during the life only of I'lich offender, and no longor . . .; but 
tliat the heir of every such ofTeadcr . . . may after the death of 
every [auchj offender enjoy the liuida [4o.] of such offender . . . ; 
and thJH Act to eonlinue uo longer than lo the end of the next 
Mcaion of Parliameat '. 

35 Ei-TZ. Car. II. 
An Acl against PopUh Rteumnlt. 

I. For the bnttur diiicovering and avoiding of Kuch traitcroua 
and moet dnngcrous conspiracies and attrmpls, as are daily 
devised aud practised agaiuat our uto^t gracious Sovereign Lady 
the Queeu'a Mujeaty nud tlie hap{<y estate of tlila Common- 
weal by sundry wicked and seditious perKonH. who terming 
themselves Catholics and bring indeed spies nod iiitel* 
ligencers not only for iiur Miije^ty's foieigu enemies but also 
for i-einiUious anil truiterous iiulijectii horn wilhin her HigKueHii' 
dominions, and hiding their nio8t detestable and devilisli pur- 
poses under a fahe pretext of religion and couFcietici', do secretly 
wander and Hlul't from pluce to pluce within ihis realm, to 
cornipt and wducc her Klujcfsty's .suliji^cts, and to utir them to 
sedition and rebellion : Ite it ennctcd . . . That every ]>erson 
above the age of nixtecn yetus, bom within auy the Queen'a 
Mojesty'i doininionn cr mailc denizen, being a Poplili recuaant 
and before the end of this session of Parliiiment convicted for 
not repairing to somt^ church, chapel or usual pluce of common 
jn-ayer to hear divine servioe there . . . and having any certain 
plaice of aiiodc witJiiu this realm, chatl within forty day* next 
after the end of this session of Parliament (if tbey be within 
this realm, oud not reatraiued [by various specified hiodrances] 

■ t;uattiiu*d by 39 Elis. i8: 43EUX.9; I Jae. L15; at Jacs. L iS. 


Popish Recusants- 



. . .) repair to tUuir pWe of dwelling wlierp IbeT uanallT hereto- 
fore nuulc tlirir coiDmoo hIxkIi-, iicil ilull nut mij time ufler 
remoT« above fit* mile* from tlicncr . . - , upon pnia that firerj 
iwnion lluit Fhall offend agiiiiist the tenor of tltia Act in any- 
thing iK-furo-meutioned sliall forfeit iil] his f^ooAa &nd i:lMtt«lB, 
noli shnll nisi) forfeit tu the (jucrMi'i Mi^lT nil [liii] lauds 
[ftc-] during the lifr nf the snnip offcndrr. 

11. And be it nlso rnactcd. That every prroon above the age 
of aixteen ye»rs. born within &ny her Msjesty'i dominions, uofc 
haTtnft any certain place of abudu witbin this realm, ami bciog 
a ['opi»h ivcuiant, uot uxualty ri-jmirio([ to namii cliurcb [Ac], 
shall irilhin furtj <lnyii next nfter tho enil of thin ei-minn of 
Parliaroent if they be then vritblti the ri'nlm and not rt<»trnined 
[ae abovn] repair tii the pUce whwe nuoh per»on wmh boni. or 
where the fHthcr or mother of such person nhall then be dwrl- 
ling, aud shall not at any time after ri^move above five milea 
from thence, upon pain [an nb»vc]. 

IV. [Recnsante to notify their place of abod)".] 

V. [RecimantB not having lands or goods to a (^e^iaiIl amount, 
tnuugrcsHng thin Ai't, tu abjun- the r<-»lm.] 

VI. And be it further enacted, That if any person which 
fhall be JTOi^iected to be a Jesuit, aeuiiiiary or massinj; prieirt, 
being examined by any pernon linving lawful authority in that 
behalf to examine such per»on which shall be eo enspected. 
nhnl! rwftiae lo answer directly and truly whether he he * 
Jesuit or [Ac] a* is uronrsaid, ever}' ouch jierson ta refusing to 
answer shall ... be committed to prison by such as eball 
examine hiiu . . . and thereupon shall remain in prison without 
bail or maiupriiw, until he sliall make dirt^t utid truo answer 
to the said questions wbenupoa ti« shall be lo examined . . . 

Ninth Parliament, 

Oet. M, 1S97— reb. 0, IfiOS. 

39 & 40 Euz. Cai-. I, 

An Act against th» deca^iny oftotcns atid houtft of hwfkandrg. 

I. Where a good part of the etrragtb of thi« realm consinteth 

in the number of good and able subjecte, and whereas the 



(leeaya of towns unil Imbitulious lia?« boca kr tl)« ftnciMit kra 
or tku lYslm Mtwinttl ui bigb ufieDC«. and wbcni oi Iste jMi \ 
mote ibim Ep times past thom li«"i iundry tomw, iwrelut Md I 
Imumm of liusliaudry been deitroywl muI become detobte, Vj 
rocaiw wbiTBof n (tr««t utiinb«r of poor people are bm^ | 
waiMlcrnrs, idl^ and lootc, vrliicli ia tW cai»e of bfiula in- 1 
ooDveoioDccs : b« it tlimfotv etiacled . . 

II. ... Tfaat «nry Imum tUt iww bath or fae««(«r«n bik | 
luwl twt-Dty acrea af anblc Und, tncMdow owl putorr, or i 
thvmuiitu bcluHgii^. imd so occupied . . . I»y tUe *pM-e rf ti»* 
y«»r« togetbor, at any time niace Ibe beginoiBg^ of tb* (Jdhbi 
Majesty's reign tbat now \9, and wfaicb u not or baib oot Im 
tbe cssUe or dweUiiig-bonw of any oobkraau or gviitlaaa.| 
nor Uie <ibi«f maoaioo bouae of any manor, is and shafl 
adjudged a bouM of biubsndry for ever . . . 

III. And be it also ennctod, if any person or |iem>n«. 
politic or corporaU at any time einco tlw bccinniug of bcr i 
Majesty's reign, or before seren years now lart pa*!, bare . . ■ 
suflered to be decayed or wasted any soeb booMs of bs 
tliat ill every Fucb cnj« tbe c&Jiiler •bull build or repair . 
upon (omc convenient part of the titte . . • tbe one half il 
nnmWr of mcb luiu*rs m dcuytd or wasted, if tbe 
tMw Iialli or . . . sliall have in his use or oecupntion to miiA i 
the buds which betonged to tbe Hune booaea lu will cnSoe I 
lay thenof forty acres of onble land, meadow and pasture to 
every of the same boasea . . ., and sbiiU then also put to evrry 
of tbe sama houaea forty acrce of tbe same lauds at ih* 
lea*l . . . : and If any of tba saime wasting! or drcayiux* hava 
liappcood witltin Feven yeafa, tbe offender* having ... in thair 
own nse oroccupation so raoeh of tbe landa which birluo(;«d lo tba 
saive booaea . . . aa cau tnipplT every of tbe nme bouses, wbi4 
bad before beloDCiiig uutu it urnlrr fMiy acnta, wilb tvaatyaoM 
of aiaUe [fte.^ and every nicb of tbe same booses wUcb betee 
bad forty araca or above beloogiug unto it, with Ibrty aens if 
arable (ftc^ shNll bniU or repair upon some cunTcnient part 
of Ibc eiles ... tbe whole cumber of tbe boaBcs so dvcayed . - . 

SI. And be it fiirtber enacted. Tint tbe jnstiees of o»ip« 
■ball haw full puwrr lo inquire of, h|ar and determine all tbe 
said ilctkulta and i 


Husfrandry and TtUagt. 


- - . This Att to endure but to ihe rad of tbe ncvt 
I of PkrUunait '. 

39 A 40 £uz. Cap. U. 

i« Art far (A* nMintAunMe ^ husbandry and tillage, 

i VbiTM tbe alm^ftb Bcd flourisbing estate of Ibu kiugilom 
• > M grfKtif U|ibrld iiimI advaoced by ibe maiDtcD*uca of tbc 
ItWfk uid tilUgr. being tbe oc«auon of the incnsM aod 
[■AaHring of peofile bolb Tor twrnoi in tbe won and lu timM 
[■fuoc. beiiig aliMi n principal ineiui that poopio >n Mt an 
' *n Niil Utcrrbv vnthdnsB fnim idleoMe, dnmkemun^ tui- 
••M jWMs Mtd mil olber lewd pntcticee . , . ; and wbereaa by 
I AtitttBMUis . . . tbegreiit«rpiutuftbcmbjeotiiiiFO|in!iwrtiHl 
^^ cxtnme poverty . . . und tbe wtollb of (bev rcnlni in kept 
^H^ wid dutributcd tii many biodB, wbvre it i< mure 
^^^HktunrEr nil ncrcnnry cborgta, for tli« service of tba 
Vn: KD(1 whereas bIm tii« »aid bunbaiidry and tilUge is 
* wmm tkat tbe ivalm doth more Muxl upon it«el^ without 
mfa£t^ ti[)oii foTviftn cuuntnt!* citb«r for bringing in of coru 
hlfataf acmruty, or for rrat and utt^-ranca of onr own com- 
■Am beri^ in orcr dfrmt abundaDce ; and whemi from tJui 
'>M5-«ev«ntii year of King Henry tbe £if(btb uutJI the thirty- 
)W j«ar of b«r MaJMty'a must happy reigu tboro vas alwaya 
(* tans anme law which did ordain a cauveniou and con- 
>WMoi of m crrtAin qnantily and proportion of loud in tillago 
M k ba ahvird ; and that in ibc last Pailiameiit .... partly 
^fmmm cf the gmt plenty and Ghe«pn«<s of gnun . . . and 
■Vllykf rcaaon of tbe imperfectian and obacurity of the law 
M^ LB that esse, the s*me waa diaoontinaed ; aince which time 
W h*e grown tuany more dvpofiolatkoii by tnniii^: tilla^ 
^ film II. thso at any time for tbe like tiumbcr of yeara 
Be it enacted . . . Tlmt wbcTKUi any Iaud« ninee the 
%,{ Norember in tii« fimt jenr «( lier iiajraly's reign 
coo«rerted to shwp-paatarcs or to iImi fatliug or 
_bU1», tho same laads haTing hcwi taiable luoda . . . 
■lyrr uf twclre yean together at tbe least next before 
rmnvexcioa . . . , all anch lands »hall before tli« Gnt day 
1 Coalnoed by 4J Blii. jii I Jac I. 15. 




of Usy. 1599, be mtorcd tv tlO^e — and m iWI be i 
ttnuei} for ever. 

II. And h> it further enactMl. That aU Ltnds wUch ani 
uMd in tillage, tinviiig beeu tillable Unds ... bj- the ifKi < 
twelve yean together nt tbc ImhI . . . , sliall not be coorntril 
auy efafep-pBatiira or to tlie grazing or Gtttiui; of Mttle ... 1 
eball . . . mntinue to be lued b tillage (or corn uul grua i 
nol for irood. 

IX. And b« it furtbrr rnncted, Thnt tbe joaticn oT i 
or jueticea of the peace in every oaunty at tbe uaisea or • 
or general mmioiu aliaU have full power lo tu(|iure. beM i 
determine ell tbe debulu and offeocea committed caotn(f | 
tbi« Act . . . 

XV. Ibis Act lo endure to tlw end of tbe next 
Parliaweul '. 

39 & 40 ELtz. Cap. IIL 

An Aet for (A« rdi^ of tht Poor. 

I. Be it enacted, Tlut tbe cborcbvardeDB of every pariifc 1 
four snlNrtantial bouecbolder* (here beioff aubeidy D>en, at p 
want of mbeidy men) four otbar avbebinttal buu»<J»>lden < 
vaA parish, wboatull be nominated yearly in 1-lutcr week oiAit 
tbe hand and seal of two or n>on JasUcea of ilie prace id IM 
■ame eoonty, whereof one to be of tb« qoorum. dwelling ia vt 
near tbe same parnb, shall bt eall'^d awnttn of tbe |mar ef 
tbe nemc parish ; and they . . . shall t«ki- nrdar from ttne ti 
time with the consent of two or more such justices of pMce te 
setting to work of the childreti uf all such {vie] wbon pamttt 
aliall not by tbe laid pcntaiu be thought ablv tt> keep ud 
maintAJn their children, and also ail eo^ pcnons, married er 
uoniarried. as. having no nMaua to muntain them, lue M 
urdiuarif a>id daily trade of life to get their liviuR by ; and sIm 
to raise ... by taxation of every iuhahitont and every oocii|atf 
of lands in the Mid paiich ... a connnient ntoch of flax, bnspk 
wool, Ibmd, iran and other atnff to set the pom- on WOifc. 
and also competent rubs of nteoMy for tbe ameemmrj 
of tba Ume. impotent, old, blind and eoefa other amn^ 
being poor and not able to wnrlc, and also Cor tbe 
■CoaliBncdby43BU.9: 1 J*c 1. jj. 


Relief of Ote Poor, &c. 


of Buch chiMien to be uppi-entrces . . , uid to do all otter Uuugs 
. . . oonoeruiiig tlie promiFCs u to tlinn tball toem CL>iiv«iii«ut : 
which Mid cliiii chwardciis aud overwers w to be nominatud . . . 
ehall iDCct together st Die least uuce every month in th« church 
of the tiatd parish, ti}H>n tlic Kniiilny in thct uFtemooD after 
divine service, tlicrc to consider of some good course to bn 
taken ... in the pnimiscH ; and ishuU within four days after 
the end of their yeiir, und afti-r other orerseera nouiiuHited as 
aforewid, make and yii-hl up to nuch two juetic«a of peace 
a true and [lerfi-ct account of all sums of money by them 
rocoived, or rated and ceiaed and not reecired, and alio of all 
such fetock , . . aud of all other IliiiiKH cuiieeriiiii;! tlieir aaid 
office, and miub «iiniM of money as Hv.M be in their band* dull 
jiay and deliver over to tho said churchwardens and oi'crsi'em 
newly nominated and apjioiuted aa afon^d ; upon paiu that 
every one of them ahattutin^ tlieinitelvcii without lawful eauee 
as aforesaid from such monthly meeting or being negligrnt in 
tbeir offiee ... to forfeit fur every gucli default 30j. 

II. Aud be it atno i-iiiictiHl, TImt if the aiud juiticev of |>eace 
do perceive tlint thr iiilmiiitnntii of any parish are not able to 
Isvy among tliemsclvcH sulHcient eama of money for the purpnse-o 
aforeaaid, that tJien the tudd juHtiuea nhull tax . . . any other of 
other pHriNhee . . . witliin tlir hundretl whei^ the Bnid parinh is. 
to piiy tiueh xaatf. of money ... as the said jurticcs sb.ill think 
fit, according to the int«nt of thiH law ; aud if the said hunditd 
shall not be thought to tlie Kuid justices able to relieve tlie said 
■eveml purishcH . . . tlicn the justices of peace at tlieir geiient 
i^uartt^r scisions shall rate and assess as aforesaid any otlier 
of otbtr parishes . . . wlthiu the eatd county for the purposes 
iifureiULid aw in thetr diecrettou slutU avem fit. 

III. And that it shall be lawful for the said char&hwanlena 
and OT«rseera or any of them by warrant from any such two 
joatiom of peace to levy as well tlie said sums of money of 
erety one tlutt shall refujie to contribute ... by dinlreis aud aale 
of the ofTonder'a goods, as the sums of money or stock which 
shall be behind upon any accouut to bo made as aforesaid . . . ; 
and in ilefect of audi di«ti-esH it sliall be hiwful for any tnieb 
ttro jnstiees of the peace to commil him to prison, there to 
renuin . . . till payment of the said sum or stock ; and the said 




jueticCH of ppnce or Miy one of them to wnd to the boiwc of 
correction such &i- (ball not employ ihemselvt's to work being 
apptmited tLereuuto tu nroretaid ; and *t»o auj two such 
jnctieu of ptocc to ennainit to priisoti «vrr/ one of the uid 
chare)] wftiYkns and overseers vliicli shal) refUM to Recount, 
there to ivmaiti ... till lii> liave made a true account luid paid 
to inucli OS npon tlio said sceount »hul] Ite rcniaioing in his 

IV. And be it further eunded, Thnt it shall ho lawful for 
the aaid chuich wardens aiid ovei'seen by the AMent of aDy two 
justices of the yvMt to hind vay euch cliildivn u afureaaid to 
be apprentice when they ilial) sec eoiiveiiinDt, till nuch mnn- 
child ehnll come to the age of 14 years and hicIi womon-child 
to the age of 31 years . . . 

V. And tu the intent thut necesEnry plncen uf tiubilution may 
iiioro conveniently 1>» provided for such poor impntt-nt people, 
... it sliull lie bwfiil for the siiil el lurcli wardens and m-emenra 
by the h-nve of the lord or lords of the manor wlirreof any 
WMta or common within their parish ia pnivel ... to erect in 
fit and convenient plitces of hnLitxtioti in such waate or 
cumoioti, at the Kt^D^ral cliarges of tlie imriJi or othcrwiae of 
tbe hunitn<(t or ouutity n" nfort^nid . ..(Convenient bouses of 
dwelling for the said imjiotent poor . . . 

VI. Providetl that if any i»enioii» nbull find theniKelvM 
grieved with any cesa or tax or otlurr net done by the said 
cburchn-nrdena and other peniong or by the said justices of 
peace, that then it shall be lawful for the JuBtices of peace 
at tlieir (leucml quarter stensions to take *uch order therein as 
to them shnll be thouBht convenient . . . 

VII. And be it furtlier enacted, That the parents or children 
of ev*ry poor . . . and impotent person . . . , Wm^ of euffioient 
nliility, ahall at their own charges relie<*c and mntntnin eveiy 
siirb poor person in ihat mannT and according to that rale 
as by the jiietircK of pence , . . fchall be a8t>es*ed : upon pain that 
every one of tliem to forfeit 30». for every mouth irhioh they 
ehutl fail thereLn. 

Vlli. [Mayom fte. to esocute thia Act in corporal ions.] 

IX. [Provi&ion wberc a {)ari8)i extends inio two countiee, fto.J 

X. And he it furllter enacted. That . . 






: attfwd uid tieg in aoy piac« wbntmnTcr, by Iirmih 
, «poa peio to be t«k«ii and puatslted na a rogns : 
I alvkj* ikat Ibw pnaent Act slutJI not extend to any 
rfMfie wbtcli •JiaII wk relief of rictiwb only in tlie nine 
vtKre nich |ioor p<>opl« do dwell, #o the aame !>• . . . 
to andi order es aliaU be made by tie L-burobw>nIeiM 
ifneen of tbe poor of ibe mme parub . . . 
And be it further eoacttd, That all penaltie* and for- 
bcfora mmtioiiM! in this Act hha\\ be empb>yed to the 
F ibe poor of tb« nktnt ponsb, uud lomnlx a etoek and faabi- 
I far tbem and oUirr necttaoay iimi and relief > . . 
L And Kmcmuch b« all boggiog ia torbiddefl by tbui 
: Ad ... the jinticeo of poice . . . ahall rete every pariali 
la weekly Mim of inatMT' as tbrytiball tbinit convenient, lo 
»pari*Ii \m Tktnl aboTC the ram offii/.oorniKlcrthemmof J<f. 
dr, ftod CO aa tbe lulal nnu of tocli taxHtion of the pariabes 
eouuly anoant not abore tbe rate of id. for vwty 
I tlir Hud county ; wbi«b siimt mi laxnt alull bi: rearly 
' by tbe Apr«4inent of tbe paTubioncr* within IbeoitdTrs, 
«in4(&Hlt tiieteof by the cbnnibwatdena and eonstablee . . . , 
pin^Aalt of tbrir ugrermmt by the order of such justice or 
I of |w»ce u ■hall dneli in tbe n«ie pariiJi — or in the 
I Hnt »dl)ointuf[ ; aud if aoy pert»n dial] refoae cir nogloci 
>pyany n*ch pirtinn of moony lo taxed, it abnll be lawful 
fcrtlM »id chore h wardens and eoottablea, or in their defimlls 
y Ike joalicaB of the peace, le levy tbe same by distrcaa and 
■le of the good* of the party w> refuting or neglecting . , .; and 
adrfanhof aacb distreaa it shall be lawAil to anyjnitice of 
fct Unit to commit amb penooa to pnwn ... till be baTt- 
|vd tlir rsme. 

Xni. And be it aln eoBcted, That the aid joatlM* of Ibe 
ptaet at their general qoarter se^siona . . . »b«ll »rt down what 
■aprtcnt turn of moiipj diall be >ent (jwnrterly out of erery 
•■Dty or pUee corporate for thr relief ol the pi-nr pri«>ner« of 
*• Kinx-a Btneb and Maitbalaea. and alao of a«cb bwpiUla 
■d alM^MoM M ahall be in tbe aaid county . . . »o aa there be 
Wert Of ewrjeoonlY «wIt .' tbe le-9» to the priaonei* 
rftb* Ki*f*< Beoeh aid!.e« : wbi<-ti ""M". tat«»'ly to 
1 npoa Vftry parish, tbe cbnrd.wardena of everj- pariJi 
B 2 







sUall tntlr collect and pay over to (he Ugli cc n sU hW in i 
divuion rdcIi {wriafa shall be aitaate . . . qnuterijr . ■ 
evL-ry auvb ooiMUUe . . . sliatl pft; over tlie nsic Iq t«a i 
JDBtices of tbc pnM«. or to one of then, aa shall \>e bf i 
|)art of the jiuticca of peaov of the mtuit^ elated 
treuuren . . . ; which tnvMirers . . . skBll ooDUnoe W im\ 
apace of one whole year . . . ; which said trrMann . . . i 
|Mf over the wunc to the Lord Chief Jiutioe of Eaglaai i 
Knight Marihal for the time bong, eqtuJt; to be divided tat 
u»e ofarwutil . . . 

XIV. And be it fortbLT enacted. Thai all the rnxjituHf < 
moncj' which chall be remninii^ in the suUl stock of ao; < 
ffaall by . . . tiie jmtices of peace in their quartet i 
onlered and bestowed for the relief of the poor bo^lab d 1 
ooonty, and of tbono that ahall sustain losaea hy tin . . . «( 
casuaJtice, and to endi ntWr clinritiibli: [xirpuMa . . . astal 
said Jiuticea uf peace ahall Mem convenient. 

XV. [Fine to be levied on auy one rtfusiqg to act aa t 
or to obey onlem.] 

XVI. I'roTidcd . . . tJint every aoldicr being iSaclMtgtd i 
Ilia service . . . and every M«fariiig man landi n g from 
baring wherewith to relieve himself in hia Invel fan 
haviuft a teetimotiiid under the baud of ao«ue eoe joatict I 
peaoo of llie place where Ite woe landed or wma diachargad,! 
nay, wilbool incurring tbc ptrnntty of this Act, . , . «ik 
receive such relief as sbal] be necessary for his pooage , 

XVU. Provided that this Act sliall eudun no 
to the end of the next Mssion of Pkrliatnent ', 

39 ft 40 JAjx. Cap. IV. 

An Ad fir funithtneul of rogv^M, voj/abaitdt and tlnrdg 1 


1. For the aoi^ircning of rogues, vagabond and 

bcggan, be it enacted. Tint ... all statntes heretofore nadej 

the punithnenl of rogues, ragabonda or sturdy be^^gon, or ] 

the erection or maintenance of hoonea cf oorredloa, tlwll, I 

much as cooeomcth the same, be utterly repealed ; and 

front time to time it thall be lawful for the justien of 

> TU* Act h aaiAiIml aad cootftiual by 43 A 44 Hia. >. 

JfogufS and i^agabonds. 



}tmiXj or a\j ta thtt realm Or ilominion of WbIm aMcmblcid 
■ y* ft rr aoMionii . . . In lot duwn onler (J nvct one or 
hoHM« of comrtion, wilhin t)i«ir sprrrnt <!niinli?s or 
, C)r Uw doing «li«r«ot and for the providing of.-~»hMks of 
mad kll otber thii^ ucoMBBt; far tlie Ktaae, and for 
and goTcminf^ of tbc mmf, ■nd for cnmvltofi' juul 
. of ofik-ndcn thilbor to W committtHl, «iich onlorj U 
juticn shall from lime lo time malcc in any their- 
I tfnmr aca^ona in that Itebalf diall be of force and b« 
rp«t ID execalMO. 
Bflt fnrtherraacted. That all ppraona calling thoiDartre* 
([oinit nbont be){siiif(, all veafariDi^ mrn pretending 
[Ac '] >hAlt be deemed rogut^ TapiliondR and aturd^r 
, and aliall sustain inch pnnishment iw bj- this Act is in 
I Ualf appointed. 
ITL And l<e it enacted. Tliat evefy perton which la hy this 
Act declared to lie a nijiue, Taf[sbond or tturdj beggar. 
I ibll be . . . takm lirgging, vagrant or miaorderiiip tbpin- 
f . . . afaall n]ion tli«ir a]ipi«hcn«ioD ... be stripped Ra)c<d 
Ukfr middle upwards avA iluU be o|>eutr whipped ontil 
V li«r body be bkioilr, and Khnll be fortbwith mnt fruni 
I to |«rvb ... the next stiaiglit waj' to tbo parish vrhers 
k was boni, if tbe eante may be kooim .... and if the Mtme b* 
■K LBD«n, tben lo tlie p«ridi where he laot dwelt . . . one 
•W( 5«ar, tbrn to put himself to laboar aa a true mibjcct 
9^ ta do ; or not being known where ho wa« bom nr lint 
^lA, diea to tlM parbh thruugh which be last paswd without 
(MiiAient; . . . and (lie party ta whipped and not known 
Hen ba was bnm or kit dwelt by th« ajnce of a ye*r, aliall 
lytb oBetra of tbc mhI vilbge where- he w> la*t jMnird thron|^ 
vrtient pnaiahlDent be oonreytd to the hotiM of correction . . . 
wla Um reomao gaol of lliat couuty nr place, there to remain 
■1 W rapkiynl in work nntil be Hball lie placed in wume 
■nie^ iod n to continuo by the space of one whole year, or 
W \m^ able of body, ... to remun in sodhi almsbonM in lli« 
■le cavnty at ^\aie«. 

IV. Prorided, Ibat if any of the said rognea aball appear to 
WJ M g er a wa . . . or such as will not b« reforme«l ... it shall be 
> !r<artr M b tf KHi. !, f 5. 



.' ■' Elizabeth. 


lawful U> the mid jurtices ... or any two of them ... to commit 
that K>gue to the h«u»« or conoulJuu or to the gaol or that county, 
(hfre to rLti,itiin until tbctr next <|unrter aesnou* . • . ; aikd then 
Buch df tiia *ninv Togw« to eomtnitlcd, as by th« jtullcet of the 
lientw'.',' . ehall be thought fit not to he delJTcred, thall ... be 
hnniiOi'ed out of thi« realm . . . aud at th« cliart;^ of that countj 
Khali be coiiruyed untu nui^h parbi bi^yond the «t«.H un aball be at 
'any time licrcaftcr for that pvrpoaa nK»igii(!il by the privy 
council ... or by any aix or more of tliem, whereof, the Lord 
CliDiicellor or Lord Kei^jwr of the Great Seal or the Tvord 
TrcuMirer to be one. or be judged peqietually to the galleya of 
Ibia realm, an by tbu niiuin jiutices ihnll lie tbuiig^lit fit ; and if 
Kiiy HUch rogue xo liani«hcd as aforesaid dliall rvturn again into 
toy pert of tUix realm or dominion of Wulei wtlbuut Lawful 
licence . - - Mich ofienrn nlinit be felony, tiiid the party offending 
therein euHcr death as in care of felony . . . 

Xll. And be it also enacted, Tliat nny Ivo or more joaticH 
of the peace . . . , whereof one to lie of the qiionim, shall liare 
full power to hear and determine all cauaea that ahall come in 
qucetion by reason of thia Act. 

XIV. iVovided, That erery seafaring man nufTrringahipwrcelc, 
not Imviug wherewith to relieve luniaelf in hia travels homo- 
wardi). but liaving a teitimoni&l under the baud of some on< 
juatice of the ])eace of the place where he Inudod, . . . may with- 
out incurring the penalty of thi* Act . . . ask to i-eceive xuch 
relief an ahall be neceetary for hia pnssuge. 

XVI. Be it further eoacted. That thia preiieiit Act shall be 
proclaimed in the next quarter icesionB in every county, and lu 
such other niarket'town> or placcn as by the juaticeR of the 
peace . . . siiatl be ap{>oiiited. This Act to endure to the end of 
the ilrBt aeeaion of the next Parliament '. 

39 & 40 Elu. Cap. V. 

An Att for erecting ofhoipitalt or abiding and v:orking houttt 

for th« poor. 

I, Whereas at the last Beeaiou of parliament provision was 

made' ax well as for maimed soldiers, by collection in every 

CuDlinuo! by 4J Elit. 9 ; taaeuitA by 1 Jac. I. 7 : and conliaucd \f] 

I Jae^ I. ij -, it Jtus. J, 18. 


fVoH^Hses, &e. 


u far otbor poor, that it ahoiUd be bwfal far cv«rjr 
, duRDg twantjr )'ean ii«xt mtu^- tha md pariisBieiit .... 
tfn and tmiwaali in Tcc-viiniik, as well fo tbo nse of Uie 
mfar tiw proTisioo or maintenaDce of any booM of corrcc- 
L V abKCag-bouwa, or of any stocks or aloro, all or any 
Itf Ua kad* [Ac.] ', her meat excellent Majrity nndcretand- 
[ttat tin nid g«iud law hntii not taken sach cfTecl aa was 
hM, bj rvudii tlut no pi>rson can cr«ct or iDcorporat* any 
[&«.] but tier Miyctity or by Iter UtglincKs' xpcctal 
I. . . , i« of ker prinosly oan ... for tli« n-licf of maiiocd 
, maiiiiirrs an>l olbor poor and impotant peopla pleaiwil 
it ht enacted . . . and be it «UMted, That all pcnwiia 
et an calats iu fee-simple, Ibcir bi-irx, cxrculont or 
I . . . ahall bavc full pourer, ... at any time during llie 
of twsntj- jeara next raining, by de«d enrolled id tbe 
I Court of CbaBoerj, to fouud and utaUiiih one or more 
niaiioiiB do dim, abiiiing-placea or lioua«) of cor- 
I ... to bare cnntinuaucc for ever, and from time to time 
fffaea IkereiB such head and members and avcb number of 
par m to bun [ftc.J shall seem coorani«nt . . . 

V. Pravidcd, That no ancli huapila) [Ac] aball bo (Tcct^d, 
fanrfed ur incorporaltHl by force of this Act, nnlna upon Uie 
tiwfalion or erection thereof the fame be endowed fvr ever 
nft lands, teneuent* or berediUmeuls of tiie dear yearly raloe 

Texth Parliament. 

Oel.t7-Dao.lB. IDOL 

43 ft 44 Elk. Cap. II. 

An Jet /or the ntif/' of lit j»or. 

1 1 Ba it conelad That Uie i-hurchwardeua of every parish. 

I faer, tiam, tm two substantial bouwboMcrs lliere, as vball 
tikoaitlit nMl.bavicg re8[<ct to the proportion anil grcst- 
Mm rf Ibe saoM! pniisb or parisliea, to be nominated yearly in 
t«ink or within on* mouth aflrr Raster, under tlic haml 
Bc*md and mad* perpotual by 11 Jan. L 1. 




nnd «rftl of two or more justices of the peucv in tbe tune 
county, whereof on? to be of the qiiorura, ilwelliiig in or npiir 
tlte same purisli or dirieioii where the e»rae parish shall lie, 
Khali \k cnlleil OrcrseprE of tlie Poor of Ihe Kime puritJi ; an! 
th<'y . . . shdll tdke order [&c, as in 8t*t. 39 mid 40 Eli«. 4 
J I, down to file worda 'to ^vi their living by,' proceeding 
thus] and iilso to rnite . . . liy tjuuitioii of evcQ- inhabitant, 
parson, vicar and other, and of effry ociMi]>icr of IniuU. 
houses, tithes impropriate or propriations of titbrs, coal iniiMi* 
or Bnleiible underwood la the said parish ... a cuurenient 
t-tonk \&c. as in the iibove-nieiitioncd Act, § l]. 

n. [A* in the aliovr Act, §{ 3 and 3.] 

ni. [As in the above .\ct, f 4. adding, after the words 
' 31 years,* the words • ir the time of her marriage.' 

TV. [As in the above Act, J Si Jown to llw words ' impo- 
tent pnor.'with the following addition] 'wlueh eotti^^sand place* 
for inmates shnll not at any time after be used fur aiiy otlier 
hnhihilion.bilt only for impotent ami poor of the snmu parish. . .' 

V. [As in the above .\i;t. § 6.] 

VI. [As in the above Act. § 7, with the substitution of 'the 
father and grandfather, and the mother and gnutdinothei" ' foe 
' parents.'] 

Vtt. [As in the alwve Act, § 8, with additional pemtisHon 
to evrn,' Aldermnii of ihe City of London to •xercisc within hi« 
wnrtl the powers conferred by this Act ou one or two justices 
of the peace.] 

VIII. [As in the above Act, § 9, with soni« additional 

[X. [Penalty of £5 on justices, &c., failing to nominate orer- 
seers '.] 

Z. [As in the shove Act, § i r.j 

XT, [As in the above \vi, 5 I *> omitting the words ' foras- 
much as all begging ia forbidden by this present Act.'] 

XII, [Ab in the above \ct. J 13. except that tha treasurers 
may lie eitljer justii-ea of the pence or persons rated for subsidy 
at £5 lands or £10 good?.] 

XIII. [As in the above Act. 5 >*-] 

' Thi> •wtion is not tn tb« Act of 1593 : f| 10 & 16 of the A«t of ■$93 
■ra oinilW Id Ihii AoL 

i] Govemmntl of the North Parts. 


XTV. (A* ta Uie aliore Act, f 15, wMing that the fine i* Id 
nX. Prvriddd tliat this Act shall pailare do loDg«r than to 
I ihadof the next Mmon of Poriismcnt '. 

43 « 14 Eliz. Cap. XIII. 

[iiidjW (An m>T* i^aefthlf yfrtminntt of the jKtrU o/Ctunf/tir- 
Imd, yorlittmhirUmit, WtstmorrJanJ, and iht Jfuho/me of 

t TtmmuaA u now of Ul« yeora very tn«nr athtr ysjnty's 
■Jwdling wiihm the enuDtiM of CnmherUnd, Noftlt- 
■nd, Weetmoreluxl and the Bitibu|iric ot DarhMO, 
}MTr hetB ... oarHed out of the lome counties or to aonw 
Ictiir plan* within tome of thv Miid counties ns prinoners. aixl 
l^thulKrassl; nnd cnieUy. until th«j have l>e»n reileemtd bv 
Rat muoiB*; and where dow of tate lini« tli«re hare htm 
•uj iBcnniMnf, raids, mbboira, ajid bunting and «i>(iilii>g of 
tane. WIlA^e* uid buutes within the iwid eountiM, that divon 
■ ■. «tthin the mid countici . . . have been enforced to paj u 
■ttaiii nte of moDej, com, cattle or othi-r eontidirnition, 
tnmmlj there called blackuiail. unto divcn inhabiting near 
ttihmlmi, bring men of name and allied with diven in those 
fttti who are comni'Mily known to bo great robber*, ... to the 
MJ tWnb^ to be by tliem |(Tvlcctwl . . .; bj reoon whrrvof 
•Ufoflbe inbabifanU . . .are mnch imgioTeri'hpd, and th«ft 
nl toUicij macb Jocreaaed, . . . and the service of lltoee 
Miti BBDch weakened tnd decaycti, nnd divers towns there- 
ifaui aucfa dinpeoplcd and Uid wa*te, and her Iktajuntj-'a own 
Ixtrae greatljr dimiuiiihed ; ... be it euactvd, TItat wbosoerrr 
■Ul at any time hereafter, without good and luwfnl wnmnt 
(•ii aaj of hrr MaJMtjr'a mbjcels . . . or . . , imprison them 

igiinit tliair wills, to niwom them or to make a prej* or 
^ t4 tfceir p*Tw>n or goods, upon deadly feud or ollierwise. 
V «bM*«nrr shall he ftitj . . . unto any mch taking .... or 
*tin>i shall take . . . or . ■ . give any >aeh moiivj, com, 
Mlt or other eoDiidrntion csll<wl blnckroatl . . ., or ahall 
*3Uly or of Bailee bom . . . any bani or stack of corn or 
ffn . . . withb ear the said coonties . . ., and ihall be . . . 
' TUs Act is cDnttsaed b? t Jao. L 15 ; it Jac I. 18. 



indicted and Inwfo% cout-iebsd . . . before tite jiutioa ofuaM 
(^ft«.] or juntitrs of peace within an; or llw Mid nniitia d 
aonte of tb«ir general s«a«ioiu . . ..eWlI lie Uken lob« wUm i 
and bh*ll i<uir«r ]xiins o{ deittti. without nuy benefit of idti|I^ 
, unollUUT'Qr alijDrnliun, ami xliiill forfrit u ill cue of fidanf.-. 

43 A 44 Euz. Cap. XVIII. 

An Act fifr tht grant of four entirt tuhndia anJ ttfit^flt't 
and Unth* granttd by tMe tfmpomfily. 

L Mo»t rxcvlknt owl mod fcncious Sorareign, . . . CnuaRkl 
as in tlii* time of oar ndviwed and mntare dclibcnUkni mt h^] 
nufficieullf imveiroU how greet oixl iitestimable chugci 
M^eaty bath siutained many yesra, in atekioK Ov *■} "^ 
Tcntion) to hinder all neti fiavign attemjrls m . . . might 1 
since have proved pcriloaa to the whole Mtatc cf this ' 
wvullb; and where it is apparent to all the world thai if; 
Maji'dty IuhI not exhamttd tin; gn-ntcnt portion of your pcitK 
traMurce, beHdea all other mean* derived &om onr 
afiectioDH, as wvU in muking timely provision of all 
ue««Hwr}' for your uavy and urmy royal, as in miuotaiiiin|i i 
tiling tl)« NUine at tiiniMi cunveuient, that we nbould long 
thin dny Iwve licen ixpowid to the danger of many sodden i 
dangeioaa attempis of oar enmiics and failed in all tlMae b>| 
Buoceases which have acvompaiiied your rojral action* tiJuii 
liaod for tlie defence of tliia urtale . . . ; foruoKicli aa wv da 
•eriooaly coiuadtT that your M^sty and w« your laitMol sad 
obedient itubjrcta are bui oii« body politic, and thut your Hi^ 
iiess is ihc head and wc the m«tmben, sad tlMt no gcud or 
felicity, peril or adversity cad conw to the one bgl tlM othtf 
(hall partake Ibercuf . . . ; beiug fully nvolved to Intvc bath 
lands, goods and whntaiiever elw that i» dearat uoto ns, f m, 
and this wuMai life, rather tban w« would auSer your royal 
estate to be in any part diminiiibed, or tlie imperial crown al this 
realm deprived of any honour, title, right or iutercat tbcratain 
iMlonging .... we have thought meet not only to make K on* 
of ear first works to consult of that matter, whii:b lu tjOmt 
•••uona of parliameut hath usually encceeded 'inaay other acts 
and oofuultatioBik but so to enlarge and improve the neasw 

Veen's Marriage, &e^ 

If tltb ohhilen wiiicii we •faftll i>ffer to yom rojal penon, u it 
Mf pTv jtigr li.MJfaXs mb aamrwl todinionjr uf our iii(«rDal 
mk toA (lutJM ... in a nwiuwr fnr sxcccding any fonneT 
innhm, iwcaaae no ag« ettWr liaili or can produc* the lik* 
pwdnt of w nradi li«p]Mnea« niuler any prince's reign, uor uf 
nartioBkl gracjoni cart for our piMtmtioD u joar Majcoty 
U ibftved IB hU your netiona, faaving Barer stack to iiasord 
« ndcnwjitect for our prcNerTnlioii any part of thoee worldly 
Hniingi wherewith Almighty Ood hath *o plentifulty muIowu<1 
JIB b thb tiBM of your moat happy govrrnniMit : sn<l therefore 
mia aitk all iloty and hiunble affdcttMU that heart can (x>n- 
amvln^aa can utter prvacut to your saeml Mujenty four 
alan aubtiiliea and right fifivent and tenths toward your 
ffr|bi«i' grnt cikW^ies for our dofancv . . . 



[L Fttiti<m vjthe I/cvm of Comnotw for tht Qvfett't m^xrriajt 
ttNtf lX« tvecusion, 18 January, IJ63. 

. . . Wc mot* hDin>ile BDhjacts. knowiDg the prawrviition of 
, and all our posterity, to depend upon (fie safety of 
'~fl^ M^jiBlj'i moat roj-ul peraon, have must carvl'ully and 
JBpifttly eoaaidtrvd, how tb« want of lieir* of your body and 
GniUtioa of siioceauMi after you ia nattt prtilous to 
' Bi^wm. whom God long preaerve anougsi ua. We Itavo 
f:^*a*it^ of the groat malioe of your fonigu enemies, 
vUdi ami is your tifrtime have lought to transfer tbc dignity 
aad right of your crown to a stranger ', we hate notol llieir 
dady Bteai daageivfia practicea against your life and reign ; ve 
ban bwd of mine mlijecta uf thii land, muet utiiiaturAUy 
lOaiederalcd with your etictoics, to alt^impt the dcstructiuo of 
yvor Mj ^aity . and us all tb«t live t>y yoa ; «r fear a fsction of 
haavtJGS ia your realm, coalcntious and toalicious I'apiste, 
laal thajr mwt aD&atnrally againiit their eotuUry, moat madly 
their own nfcty, and most trcacboransly against your 


niglineBlv not only bopo for tbe wofal dny of vimr <I«Ui. W 
abo Uy in wait lo u^lruice (toma tUIr, nutkr which tU; wf 
nvive thrir Intit unHprakftbls crndly, lo tbe dcotrndita <* 
goodi), pOMcmion* and bodies, and Uusldom of lli« Kiolt >>' 
oonscimcM of your liutlifal and Christtan mibjiuM; «» «• 
nothing lo irltbutand tboir drairc, hut your only lift ! tl^ 
uukiudDi-ss and cru«lly we bavo tnMcd ; wu Tear mach to At 
Httruipt tlie bnpe of aoch owwrtonily (notbing withalaadi^ 
thitm Init Toor life) will mora them ; w« find how nLiUuirjft 
is for yowr piwerration, tliat tbore he more boondl art brtWW 
yonr Majest)-'* life and tbairdtMn:; we »«•, on tbe otbtriik 
Ikiw there tan 1>« no auch danger to your M^esly by nmHtim 
of any ajipftreut heir (atabliabed by yowr benc6t ami adnaec 
mcnt.for want of iM\i« of yoor M^eaty"* royal body. aajntR 
now Kuhjfct unto. V- reason of thotr dctire and hope; webvri 
not how many prrtftml ttllee end irrut to roewfd you, wbM« 
aerrct dcnre w« ra ranch mure fear, hecauw neither tMr. 
tiumber, fare«, zt'T likelihood of diapoiition is lutown avto 
and 80 we can the leei beware of them for ycnr [itvaervatiOB . - 
80, ax your Majealy of your stngular cure for as, and 
postrrity, lialh at thia tlrac a*KcmMtd as, for eataUi^iDg 
great am! only ^y of our lafctie* : I ', in tbe uaiue of all 
moat loving, nntunil and obedient sabject*, do {initcsl unU> yw 
our nio»( lowly >uit and petition, Tlat ... it may plra*e ymir 
mn»t ocoellent Majeaty for our wakea, for oor preserralion and 
comforta and at our mt^iit humbtn luit, lo take to yourself tone 
boDounble bosbnitd, whom it shall pItaM yon to jo!n nuta in 
nMimge; whom, whalnoever he be that your Majoaty iliall 
choofe, we protcat and pmmi», wit]i all humility and rever 
to Honour, love and aerre, aa to oar DU«t bounded doty 
appeilain . . ■ And where hy tlie statute ' whj^'h your mott 1 
talher uteuled onto . . . fur tbe limilati»D of the mcceaaioii 
tile snmn of thie realm, your Miyestyia tlie lait ezpreratynaBiri 
within the body nf tbe aaid Act; and for tint yow « 
cannot jn^-, nor do know anything of the form iw iralidtly 
any further limitationa. left Incertain for want of bean of 
body. irlK-reby some gmat daiigeroaa doubt remaineth in ti 
heart*, to ibi-ir great grief, peril and uniinietnew : it amf 


ion all 


ftMH jmtT U^jeMjr by procliunBtioD of certaioty alrr-ady pri>- 

nM, if kh}- sudi be, or due tn- luuitatiuiis of c«i-taint}-, if uone 

k. U> praridc • n)i)«t gmciutu remedy In this great n^cewitj 

.Aod jDnr sabjccta, on their belinirti, fur your MujeMy'a 

' hrtW wammtKK. wbenapoo their onii prMervuttoa whoUy 

I i^ndeth, ibsU employ Uieir utIkiIc ewI«kTOur« and wita and 

if, to rencv, dcriM and cxtubtich the molt struoft umI 

tatfitial Kti and laws of preiwnrstioD and iurely of your 

lly< j i tod or yvor laaw, in Uic imperial crown of this naim ; 

Inl iiit moat penal, nhiirp and terrible Btatuted, to all that 

I <U1 but ooco pncluc and altcnipt or cooceire againut your 

lit Qnttn't atuwtr U> (Ac tAom futition, lo April, 1563. 

...Sutee there can be no duer debt thnn priucet>' words, 

[■lidi I wooM obaerve, therefure I anHwer to the MUe. Thus 

Eil'ii; lh« two pet!liona trhicli yon made onto me do coutain 

is* mag», my Marriage, and SuDceMiou aAer mc For the 

fnt, if I had let slip too rondi time, or if my etreogtli bad been 

ixMjti, y<Mi ntigfat the better bare npi^e (liereia; or if auy 

AU 1 ncTtv meant to tn- that life, tbey be deccaved ; but if 

I asy henaftcr bend my mind thcrvanto. tbe nilhcr for ful- 

fllcny TOOT re^innt. I shall be (herewith T«ry wvll content. 

Fv the aecottd, the ftneatuctt thereof maketh nie to eay and 

^y, that I may linKer here in this vale of misery tor yoar 

CHiiiBn, wbcinn I have witncM of my aindy and iravail fur 

ytnr asnty : and I cannot, with ' nuiic dimitlis,' end my lift', 

nlkoot I see some fbuudaliou of your surety alter my gnire- 

J/Siem JmrnaU, pp. 7$-Si. 

^_ t. Pttitien 0/ PaHivtntnt tattMng Mary, Qnem ofSeoU, 
^H 32 A'uMmirr, 1586. 

^M stay it please your most excellent M^esty, Vt'e. ymir 

^^BKhfe, kiriog and &ithful aabjccta, the Lords and Comntous 

in this present {larliainent aSMBiMeii, hnviiig of long tiino, (o 

oar tnlaioKUe grief, wen by bow manifold, muot daugerons 

cSMnbIa pnelicvs, Mary , . . caminonly cnllnl tlie Qac«u 

hath conpasaed the dettniction of your Majec^'s 

and iBOsI njti person . , . , and thereby not only to 




berMTfi tM of the sincere and (rue religion of Almiftbty Ood, 
bringin;; us and tbln tiuliln rrown bncic aftnin into lli« thrnldom 
of (lie Homirh tyrnnny, tint nlnii utterly ta ruinnte linij over- 
throw the happy state and commonweal of this realm : oiiil 
seeing alao vrlmt iumik-ut boldnea* in Krovm in tlie beart 
of the eam<!. Qiii-en, through your Majeety's former excivdin^ 
favours towardE her ; nnd themipoti weighjngt with bMTy and 
eorrowftil hearts, iu what coiitiuuiil ]>erU of meUikt dcapeittte 
conepiiucies mid prncticrit your Mftjr(ty'i> moiil roynl and Hii^red 
penon and life (more dfar nnto o* than our own) is and sball 
be still, irithout any possihle means to prevent it, bo long as 
the caid Scottish Queen kIiuII Ih.' snffi-red to eonl.lime, ruul tihaU 
not receive that due piiniBliinent whirh. by justice mid thn laws 
of this your renlm, she hnth so often and so niuiiy ways, fat 
her moBt wicked and detestable offeucHs, deserved i therefore . . . 
We do mart humbly beseech your most escellent Majerty tU«t. 
an well in respect of the contiiiunnee uf the true relifriun 
now profL-tisi'd amongst us and of the nafcty of your mo«t royal 
penon and citate, ns in rrgnrd of the prcwrTation and defence 
of OS your moat loving, dutiful and faithful subjects and the 
whole commonweal of this n-idni. it may pk-ase your Higbuess 
to lake speedy order, that dectnration of the auuit? aeiitciioe aiid 
judgmeul be made nod pnbliahed by pniclnmation, and Uiat 
therrnjioii direction lie giren for further proceedings against 
the snid Srottish Queen, according to the effect and true mean- 
ing of the said statute ' : because, upon advised and great «on- 
Bullaliun, we cannot find thnt thei'e is any powible ro*ans to 
provide for your Majesty's safety, but by the just and speedy 
execution of the ioiA Queen : . . . aud if tlie fOMtt Iw not 
put in present ejccution, we your most loving and dutiful 
subjects, shall thereby (»o far as man's renson can r«Bcb) be 
brought into ntter despair of the continuance amongst us of 
the true religion of Almighty Ood, and of yoor Majesty's life, 
and the tufety uf nil your faithful subjects, and the good estste 
of t)ii> niDitt flourishing commonweal. 

■ Eitat. s; Bill, 1. 1 I. 



Tht QutfW* fnuHtr, i^ Swfabtr. 1586. 
Ihl her HigtuuM, tnoved with mtie commiMrHtioa W the 
^)ar*n, 10 rogpcct of li«ir foriacr tl^itv untl grckt 
ia bcr younger yean, her DearneM of kiixlrcd (o her 
ty »aA also of li«r wx. coiild b« well pinued to forbmr the 
[<f her btood, if, by any other nKoni to be devined by her 
•' Gnat Cooticil of tbb mtlrn, tbn luifctv of hrr 
y» person Bnd goTemmieiit mi^ht he pmei'ved, withoat 
ol rsio aiwl drMrocUaa, and el(« not; thertiii leuving 
till nererlhclets to tlwir own free liberty aikI dinpoMlifltii 
tpvcMding othrmisc ut their choicr. 

To whitk tht Bemw mwU reptg. 
IW Iwtuig oftvn oonferred maA debfttcd oa that queiUoO) 
|MHlia; to her Ili^ese' command me nt, Ihey could find na 
ihr«kf ihui was set down in Ibeir (Wtitiou. 

Tke Quftn'i atcond wuvtr. 
If I tboolil MT auto you that I mean not to Rmiit your 
n, bj tnj faitli I alivold uy unto you more tbiut perhnp* 
I tiiia And if I tlioald tay niito you I mean to grant your 
P>>Imb, I shoald tlirn tril yoo mom tliAn !• lit for jou to 
bar. And thus 1 moM delirer yoQ an answer answerln*. 

jySKtt' Jotirmalt, pp. 380-401^ 

1 Ato tf Ml /*aWi(>iiKni on a BUI ayaitut Motwpoiitt. and tie 
Qmtm't meatajK Ivueifing the tame. A'oiVMlW, l6or. 

[Ur.IjiannceRidelMTiogon loN'ovenber, 1601. broag^ht in 
* BS entitled ' An Act for the explauatioo of tlie Common 
U*in (Mtaiu COBM of Letti^n PnteiiU,') 

Jfr. frmneu Bacm mid : . . . I confiis the bill, ■■ it is, ia ib 
** «ar>liv b«t yet ponderous and weighty. For the pre* 
•^ptire tnyal ol the prince, for my own jwrt 1 ercT allowed 
^ iL waA it ia tudi ai I bopr ihnll uercr he ditcnswid. The ^ 
^OV ai thi^ i> rniT u>verriirn. hath both an unlsrgiug and 
■■amng tilxrty of her ptvruj^atiTe ; that i«. bIw bath power 
W her paileiita to set at lihvrty thinfp reslratued by Malute 
,h* or otbervijw; and, liy her prerogative iibR may reairain 




thmgB Uiftt ai-e at lilwrly. For Ute liist. alie muy gnnt 
oI«(a>Ue« ccntntrj: to the petul law*, wtidi tnilf. in mji 
COBMicmv, nm m hateful to the sDbJMt aa uoik^niImi. Pw| 
second, ir arif man out of his own wit, indostry or en 
&xA out auflLiug beueficjul fur (Jw conuuuuumllh ... la 
Majciity i* pl«Med per1ia)iii to grant him a [irivilcge t« cv tk 
MDMoii^ hs himself or his depulioB foraoutus Ume: tlkbii 
oi>» kind of nionopoljr. Soawtiniea thvre b * glut of Ihipp 
wbeo Ui«y be in cxcM»ivc qntintitic*, aa of com, and p«)i^ , 
her M^erty gives licence to oue man of tromportatioo ; ikak' 
aiiotlier kind of mooopol}-. Somelinwa tlien: it a Mnmt* a 
suull qiiantiljr : and tbo like i> gmnted altu. The** and liimt 
of this nature have hem in trial, botli in the ComsioB V\m, 
ufiou aoliuua of trtH{MUS, (vrhera, if the jiulgra do 6nii lb 
pririlegc good fur the oommonwieattli, (bey Uien will aUov i^ 
otbcnrUc diulUiw it), and also I know that tirr Uiitcr 
herself hath gireo commandment to li«r attomer-gfaaal, to' 
briug diven of tliem, aiuoe tli« luat pntlianeot, la trial b III 
Exdicquer; since wluch lime at lca*t fifleeu or nst«en, to ttf 
liDowkdge, have been ropcal«l ; aooir upon her Uajcitj'i un 
expreaa command, u|>oa tomiilaint made unto her br petitiaB, 
and auaie by ^uo warranto m the exchequer. But, Ur SjMakn^ 
(uud h«, pointing to the biU) tim U no atnui^r in thi* f^^e^, 
but a stranger in this veatiiWDt: the n» hath been em 
bjr pelitiou to buiuble oureelves unto her M^jeaty and Ij 
petiliun to dtnie to have our grieviutce* ndreuej, B>{icaa!)j 
when the remtdj' toucbeth her so nigh in prerof^lin. H 
cannot be done at once, neither was it poBkiUe stuoe the hi 
IMrliament to repeal all. If lirr M^jeaty make a patent tf 
a monopoly unto aay of her scnntRta, lliat wc must go and a? 
out against: bat if she giunt it to a nuuiber of hait|f^ 
or a coq)0»tioii, Ibst ranst stand, and (W bnoeth b w 
monopoly. 1 nay, ttod 1 any again, tliat «e ou^t not ta dat 
or raeddlo with or juilgc of bee Majnty'a prcn^liw . . . 

Vr. SeimO. Ue that will go about to deUte her ^t^f* 
prerogative royal, muvt walk warily. In reaitcd of a pienaat 
out of tliat city Ci>r which I nervp, I tlunk tnytclf boond U 
■peak that now which 1 had not latadtd to speak bchn; 
J mean a monopoly of salt. It ia au old proverl^ 'Sal 

Debale on Monopolies. 

I '3 

i' ; Hi« and wstcr are not more nccc^fwry. But W olbcr 

of osHa (nt trhkli word Sir iViilt«r lUwItigh 

din, March, ftc, tbry Are, becidM raonopolies. I mu&t 

, m7 fastHal, tboagh oot to hiirtftil. T koixw ibere b 

Aflnvitce in them: ond I think, if <Ii« ubnae id thb 

ef Mlt were pvticalarized, this would w»lk in the 

£«wmww Hid4. I ooDfcm, Mr Spoiker, tbat I ove 

rta Ood aod loyalt}- to xaj prince. And ivr the bill itarlf 

I it, «ad I think [ underetond it : and far be it from this 

: ef miae to think, this tongue to speak, or thix hiuid 

[nit* anftliiiig. cither in pt^udice or derogation of bcr 

I't prmfative roj-al and the tlste Anil, Ur f^ieaker. 

: it i> no d^nfrnlimi to tlie omiii potency of Ood, to WJ 
I do BO ill. 90 I thiok, it la ik> demgstion to tlie per»OD 
of the Queen, to aair ao . . . Yet, becanso two eyi.-* 
than ooe, [ humUy pray that Ibere tony be 
had of tbia bill, left unmeUiiiig may be therein 
■7 prave the bMie and ovcrthniw tlxreof at the time 
■iDK ... 
Kir FnateU Uoort. Mr ?![)«iker. I know tlie t^tioen a pre- 
itt b a thing cnrioiu to be dealt withal, jel all grieranCM 
[ art eDtn|«rmhle. I cannot utter with id; toagne or eoo- 
wHh tBf heart the gnat (rrieTonoeB that the town and 
J, for which I ■rrve. noflcr by aome of tbe»e moDopoUes. 
. the general profit into a private hoiid, and the end 
I if b«ffar7 oud bondage to the subjects. Wc haTC a law 
ftU trwe and faithfn) currying of iMtber : there is a patent 
I «U at libertir, notwilbHtaiiding that atatnte. And to 
1 ^|Mj ee is il to do anything In- act of parliament, when 
rfjecin will undo the mmc by her prcn^tive I Out of the 
■pirit of bsiBtlity, Mr Speaker, I do speak it : there i* no act 
•f Wn tbat hath been or is iaor» derogatory to her own 
MqMy, or tnore odioun to the Kubject. or more dangeroas to 
dtt MMiBEMiwealth than the granting of these tnoKipolies . . . 

b Otatgt M«on. 1 makii no qncntion hat that thtn bill 
Aretk ||«(m1 matter, and I do winh that the matter may in 
*Br iBTt he ptoMCUtcd. niid tlie bill rejected . . . We know 
pnrer of her Majttty cannot be mirsined by any 




Act; wbf, tJiciTvfore, Bhoald w« thus Ullc t Adnit ve 
nulu! Ifaie tit«tut« with » non o&«ta«Xf, yd tli« Queen n*; | 
* patent witli a nvn ohtUttUt, to crnca tlua mom obitanf*. I < 
tbenion, tlut it agroetli mnrr with ibe wudaa uid 
thit hmue to procnd witli «11 humblaneM bj petitWD 

Mr Winfi/ittd. I would but put tbe hooae iu aind of I 
proc«odtngi w« had in thin matter the lut pHrlUiMot, ta 
eud whemof our Sp(«lt«r moved ber Uajesty hy way of | 
that the ({rief touchioj; lh«w luoaopoliiM ought be 
Bud the grioTatkco coming uf )hem miKht be redraacd. 
Ustjes^ answered liy the Lard Keeper : that (He voaU 
care of theee nwDopoliea; and our grtefe aliould be 
if nnt, (he would f[ive ua free liberty to {trooeed in 
a Uw the next parliainent. Tlie wound. Mr SpcMker, i> ' 
bttMHiiug. and we g^rieve under the Mm and arv without i 
It ma mv hap the last paiUaaMut to cncooiiter with the i 
Prerogative: but aa then, so now 1 do it with all 
and wiHb all happineM both onto H and her Majeatf. 1 1 
iDdiffereul (ouchiag our proceedtuga, whether bj biU or | 
beruuae titat therein our gticvnnce ma; follow, wberahl 
Mgjcatr maj epecially understfind them . . . 

[The Mlowing paasfM occurred t& Committee, Ne 

Sir Edward StanAojx informed the Houm of the great . 
by the pateut«« for salt in hia ooontry, that betwiit Uicli 
aod St Andrew's tide, where eall waa wont (before the pab 
to be sold fur 1611. a butliel, it in now void for t^M. and 1] 
a buahel: but, aAcr the Lord Pnaident had ucKh^ratood It 
lu) oonunttted the palentM, who caoaed it to be 
before ... To L;an there ii every ^ear brought at te 
weight of hH ; and every weight, aijiee this patent, u 1 
aC4. ; and where the bvahoJ wa* wont to be Stf. it ia now || 
Awl I dare holdty eay it, if thin patent were called in, there 1 
well be £3000 a year aaved iu the port4 of Lyan, Boatoo, 1 
Hall. I iipcBic tJii( iif white tall. 

Jkfr fiVandi Bacon. The bill is vecy iiguriaua and 
colous ; usurious, in that it talnith or rathar •we«p«Ul a< 
her MaieMy'* pnrogaUve ; awl ridicnloos, in that there 
proriio, that thla statute ifaall dM eitcnd to giant* B»dcj 

Debate on Monopolies. 



Out is a 1^1 to >we«t«n tlie bill withnl ; H io only 

'. twi)* food. All men of Ibe law know that a bill wkidi 

txyetaXar}, to uputuMl the L-omnion luw, doUi «ii*ct 

Btliir !• nnv pntviM good therein . . . Tbtvcfore 

: tha btil onfit, and our |>roM«din^ to br by p«titioK. 

■£ihr« ITrofll . . . Tben luTe be«a dircrt pateota granl«<1 

tb laaA pnrli*ment ; tbtwe ore now in beiii|i, vis. tlw 

br caiTttnta, iron, powdnr, oardt, bomK, ox-ihin )iait«», 

, tt«a>f>ort*t>on of Irotbcr, liau of doth, asbcs, bottleM. 

, ba|t>. ^r«ds of gloTct, anisoed, viueKar, M*-coali^ atoe), 

itttc, InalMM, i>otB, Mlt, talt-i>etre, IvkI, acoedvace, oil, 

■tonr, oil of blnblwr, fiunatluMi, or dried [nlcLera in 

•. and div«T* otbcr*. 

rading of tlic polanta afortoaid, Mr Uadaodk uf 
n* Ido ituod np and atlced tliiu : U not bread tbcn I 
' kad, <]«olb another ; Tbid voio! Hocmx atrange, qnulb m third. 
Vfaaiii Mr UackwcU, but >f order W. not taken Ear thewe, 
bkd ndl X* there bofon iba nest jiarliaiaent. 
[On Sfanaober 33, Um debate waa renewed.] 
Xr "miiaiji CteiL If iheie lind nut bwn aome murlahijig 
•reMfiHNO in tlw coranitttee, I woald not now liave ipulceu. 
Da ijMalimi wu, of the mort convenient my to rernrm tbrae 
pinwKcn of manopoliea : bat after disj>utation. of that labour 
w kare not received tbe expected fruit . . . Thu dia|Nit« drava 
lwgn»t llitBga in ijoestian ; fint, the prinoe'a power ; Kcondly. 
fc freadOMi of EogKibman. I am l)om an KngliBhrnno, umI 
i Mh^ -awttfaer of thia Honao ; 1 wonU deeire to live no dajr, 
■ vrlada I ahould detract from either. I am aervant to the 
(^a; and before I would apeak or {[ive my ooiucnt to a caiw 
Alt ifaMld drbaao ber prerogative or abridge it, I wonld wtih 
^ teagM c«t ooi of niy baad. 1 am vum tbcro were law- 
m4ri lirfbwi tkere were iawa ... If ]raa «luud upon law, and 
^(«t« cf Ibe |>nnv|n>liie. bark wbai Braoton uitb. ' TreroKa- 
'.niM oaatiBM iicaio ondeai diipuHLTv.' For my own part, I like 
*■ UwK oo nnta abonld be taken. And you, Mr Speaker. 
■^hU pi ttor a B the rharge her Majcaty gave nnto yon at the 
hpwiiig of tfau |nrltament not to rMeive bills of this nature : 
^ W Majpeity's t%n be open to all {iricvaocea, ami ber liaixl 
taldwd oat to every mun's petttioo. For tbc matter of aoc<*a 

1 I 



I like it wkW, m it be fiiH moved uid the irey yn^AttA. 1 1 
rather &U the patenta wer« burnt thuD h«r ilBJe«tj ^uIJ I 
tlie IiMrts of CO mauy subjects &s is pivt«i>d«d «ha «ilt . . . 

[On Nuveinber 35, the Speaker broogiit the foUowing me 
to t]i« bouiM.j 

It pIcuKnl her ^TtijpBtj' to commani] ine to nllvnd u|ion I 
j'ostcniay in the afternooD, from vbotn I am to di^livt-r ooto] 
>ll livr Majnty'a moat trnicious lUMsa^-e. wnt hy injr nn* 
self ... It pl«a>»ed li«r Uajeily tu tmy uiito ime, That if ibr \ 
au buodred tm^un she could not exprrn nnr benrly good-i 
And further abe aaid, That ai At bad orcr hvld par good 1 
df*r, ao the Ia«t daj of our or her Uf« ahotild witncn B; 1 
that if the tuast of her Hubjrcit ii*Tt grieTcd. and li«ndf I 
touubed, die ft]^>eakd to the Ihrune of Almi^ttj Ood. 
car«fttl she baUi been, and will be, to drfctid hrr peopla fn 
All opimuions. Sbo said. That partly by intinatioo oF I 
council, and partly by div«rs petilioita thai have httn deliv 
unto her both going to cbupel njid alM wnlkiitg abroad, 1 
understood that divcn [xitrnta, tlut alie bud {^ranted, 
grievous to her subjecLi ; and that the aubntitntw of 
palenteed had u»ed gmtt opprMNon. But. kIm iiaid, >hn 
assented to grant nnylhin^ wbidi vraa malum m m. And 
tlie abuae of her grant there be anytbiitg evil, which ahc I 
Imowled^ there una, the faenelf would take pteaent 
nfoinadon Iheieof. leannot expraa onto yon the a| 
indignation of her Majeaty (ownidn tlw-w nb«i*e«. She tud 1 
kii^ly prerc^tive wna tendor; and thrrcforo dasirelh aa 1 
spaak or doubt of her careful reformation ; for, she wd, { 
comiDftndment given a little before the late trouUra (n 
the (lari of Easex's matter*) by the Qufortnnate event of 
was uot so biiHlrrtd, but that aince that limou even in I 
of her mod greiit and weighty occnMoBii, »hc thoug 
tbrm. And that thii ehouhl not niffioe. but that fuither 1 
aboold bo taken prrseotly, and not lit futttro {fat that 
was another word which ] lake it her Bd^eaty nacrf), udj 
some »hauld be ]>mrittlj repealed, some Hmpendcd, 
{Mit in execution Nit mfb aa abonlii fint have a trial 
(o tlie law fur the goad of the [laople. A^inst the abuaeil 
winth was m> incensed, that ibc said, that abe neither co<ald 

PriviUges: customary demattii. 117 

•oeh to Mcapa with iropuntt;. So to mj nn&]M«k- 
t abe tialli nudo nc tlie meoenger of Um Ler 
tbuikfalncM and («rc 

Tvtntmit Jtmr*ali, pf^ »3»-H9- 

a. Puru-Eosg or pAiatAMKXT. 


. Roiiier, I UB to bv « Huilor to j-our Iklajriftf that, when 

t at itaporUmc* rhali ariw irhoronpoR it ^hall be necǤtAry 

tjnsr Uishnras' opinion, tb*t then I m»y have fit« aooeu 

I far the Mm«; aad tJie like to tlie Loids of tbu I'pper 

&Madl7, tltal Lu repairing from tbn Xethrr Honsn to yoor 

tj or ibr Lurds of tli« I'pper Hoow, to declare their 

mai I miitaliing or altering the »ame cuutrarjr to 

Bg, that then my fault or iinbecility io decliiring 

rbe Bot [irejudic'ud to tlie Hoiue, but tliat I may again 

■ ta than, the better to uodcrstand their mnminga atid so 

I to nfortn tbe ame. 

Tlinllf, (hat the aaMmbU- of iti« Lower House may have 

bak aad fivp liberties to apealc their tniiids witlxiut any cod- 

a>hM«t, blame, grange, mcnaoca or di«plea(arc, aceonting to 

^tii aaeient order. 

TimOj, tlutt tbe old privilege of tbe Houae be obeerved, 
*Ucik b Ibxt tbey and tfaetra might be at lilicriy, frank aiiil 
bw, vitboKt urmt, molcatation, troable or other damagr- to 
Aat Uim; landi, goods or serrant*. with alt other tb«r 
fcrtiu, daring tbe time of tbe mid partiameni, whereby they 
MM tbe better attend and do tbcir duly; all which privile^oa 
I i t m n may- be enrolled, as at other time* it hath boen 

D'Btrrt Jvamalt, jip. 6j-A6. 


^{i} I* ^ onlered that Vt Conplroller [aud 9 otlwra] shall ex- 
EMck matlen of privilege a« «balt hnpp<:n in thia prraent 
1 1/ parUamtat to come in tjueition, and to ntake reiwrta 



Uicreof nolo this Hoom, for the further oidcr sad 

of this Uoasc in erery of the Mine cues as sball spprrtsii- 

IfKittJ JmtniaU, p. 419 (BBdar ilaW 7 Pkb. itl)'. 

(b) Otdered. Thftt all the m«iob«n of this Boom beiug afbir 
Mi|)c«t]r'B Privy Council [bmI 30 others] AmO during iB tUi 
prcMOt ttcHioii of parliament nxnmine maA make ivport otdl 
such cases loaching the vImIimis snd ratums of aay the knigbk 
rilixVDS. burt;;«s8es and bai-ooa of this Houae, and ■!» all flA 
ciun for imrileye sb in anj wi>e amy ooenr or Ml oat darof 
all tbo Miii« MMton of psrliament . . . D'Emm' Jtrnt^h.^.^;! 




3. FlaxKDoit OP Srum. 
(■) DAat* 0N lA« QicMn's mam'iijr* cnu^ Ms ntaeeMNqi, 

NoTsmber 9. 1556. Mr Vtce-Chamlierlain declartd 
Queen's Mtgtat;'* exprnts coramandmeiit In thin House, IM 
they aitould no fnitlMr proceed in their suit, but to lali^ 
thomseltea with her HighDeacT pronStt of marriage . . . 

NovcmlxT II. I'sul Wcntworth, one of the he tgu aa, 
moved whether the Quiwn'a c omm andment waa not agunit l^ 
liberties: nh«reu|K>ti nnwc divers argumanta, «ontioniiig Ittn 
uine of the cloch till two after noon . . . 

November 11. Mr Speaker, being sent for to attend ttpn 
the tjnrcn'* Uajeity st the cDurt, ... at hi* coming afler tmt^ 
the clock, began to rhow ihat he hnd received a spedal ms- 
mauilmeat from her Ifighness to this IIoum, nolwithslsndiH i 
Iter firrt commaDdment, that there should iiot be farther ulti 
of tliat mnttcr: and if atir person tlMiught himself iMt atiifitd; 
but bad further rea«ins, let him come before iha Privy CmoeSJ 
there to show ihem. 

Novunlier 15. &lr Speaker, coming from the Qottifl, 
Uajeaty, declared her Higbnet*' plowire to he that, for ber goal 
wiU to the House, iha did revoke ber two former eonmaov 
meiita, requiring the House no further at this time to proeeM 
in the matter : which revocation was taken of all the HooM 
most jo}-fiilly with moat hearty prajer and thank* for iH 

Priviltges: freedom of speech. 


(b) ^wcA o/lJW Lord Kirftr, 4 Ayril, 1571. 

...Ibr Uit}mt]r, baring esperience of lat«of sddiv diaorder and 
bbIm Adcca (wUdt Ihoagli ttiev w«re uut puoMAed j«t wet« 
lllf ffcaoft »till nad co munt be aeoountcd), tlierefure tnid, 
ti* rfioiild ifi well to mtxtdlc with tw nutter* of ft.ife bnt 
•^ u •houM be |>roponiKl«d onto thrai, and to oceiip; tbom- 

S"*— nlh other tnatlfn coDceniing tli« commoQ wealth. 
ITKuftt' JounuU, p. I41. 
\ BiiaU am Mr Slrieltimfft iitAiUtion. ao April. 1571. 
C W fc W w. A mnnber of the Huum ttm iletaiued from 
(■miiiig Ur fkricklanJ^ by wliofu: cummaii'JmMit or for 
*w ana* h« knew nnl. Bat forMmaeb ns be wa« not now 
i fanu nut. but to supplj* the room, person and place of 
(aitJUulr *p«ial]]r ehoaiHi uid llierefore »eat. he tbought that 
■dW ta rtgard of the country, which wu not to b« wronged, 
Mrfar thi* libvrtj of the hont^, which wu not to hn infringed, 
•liliniilil permit him to be detained from nt; but, whateo- 
fv the intendinent of thia offence might be, that he diould 
W NBt for to the bar of that Umue, there lu he heard anil 
As* to answer. 

Sir Fntrndt f noRcf. The man that is meant is neither 
4lucd nor mbtued, hut ou con iJJe rations is required to 
Hful th> Qo«ra'« plramtn: upon certain apMial pointit : 
<%Kua, he (aid. be durat to &»ure that the man iihoutil neither 
Uat anw to di*1ihe or complain, i>iiice no modi favour was 
■NMurto him aa he reasonably oould wish. Ue further said. 
ttsl hr w«a in no sort vtaynl for any word or Speech by hiru in 
^ pbcv offrred. bat for llie cxhiliiting of a hill into the 
B«n s$ainat the prcngativa of tha Queen, which waa not 

Mr TAmrm*. First, he taiil, the precedent was perilous. 
Ml Iheaigb IB this happj time of lemtjr, among ao ^wd nud 
t — fah i a pafionagF*, under no graetmia a princo, nothing of 
Btnaulf or uqht; was 10 be feared ; jret the times might be 
ilkred,aad what now is |iermilted hereafter might be ooDstraed 
•f iatj and enforced even on tfab ground of the present 
. . . He rliowcd, it was lit lor prinoii lo ba^-e their 
hut yet the same lo ba straitened within 




raaaoDBlilc limits. Tli« pnncc, lie slioirtM], eoald oat of 
make lain, DcitW might she bjr Unc nmc nuaa brtdt U«s'.| 

IfBi'm' Jomrmab, pp. t}^ 1/ 



Mtttag* fma tht Qmmn, aa May, 1573- 

yav 11, 157a . . . Upan dedtmdoD made imlo Urn 
t>y ^(r Speaker from Ute Qscen'a Va^vAy, tli*t ber Hi, 
plcMarc i* thtt ^m boncrforlliMio bilk coMcrnigg 
■hall bo prererred or received iuto this Hoosr, iu)k« (kci 
shouUI be firHl cuuMdered ur liked by tbe c ltjur ; anil I 
that Ih^ Miiji!!it}''i( piciuare in lo mm' tlie two uit bilJK tt^it 
this Uouec loudiing Itile« and Ceremonies; il is 
That the aatne bills shall be dcliT«riii] unto her Mfyeatj .. . 

(0) Spitth ofPtt«r WeiUKCrih, 8 /«*, isj6. 

I wo* never of parliament but llw l»*t, and tl>c liut 1 
at both whidi tinw* I f»vr tli« liberty of fret speech , the < 
is (he only ealre to henl all tli« sores of (his eommonweaUk, I 
mudi aud M many vrayv infringed, und to nuny kbntes oB 
to (his honourable council, as Imtli much grieved me ens 1 
very conscieocc anil love to my prince and stat«. Wber 
to arniil the like, I do think it expedient (o open Ihe 
nwdities tliat ^-oii \o the piiuce kqiI wl>ale date by 
speech used in this place . . . AuMngit other, Mr Spatkcr,' 
two things do great hurt in tlus plsec, i>f the vbich I do tamt 
\o speak : the one is a nunosr which rUDnctli ahoot the Boosi^ 
mnd this it is, ' Tftke heed what you do, the Qoeen Ukvtk Ml 
»uch u matter: wboeoaver prefeneth It, she will be iiffiniW 
vrith him ; or tbe contrary-, her Mnjesty likcth of mch a matter: 
irboBOever speakelii against it, she will be much oSisnded 
bin.' The other: comotimeB a mesaage is bno^t ism 
bmiiie, cttlier of eomnaandiug or inhibitiiig, wry injuHoitt 
the fr««doni of qieech and oonraltAtiMi. I weald to Ood, 
Mr Zenker, th«t them two were buried in belt, I mean ragiapn 
and meeasgc* ' 

This grievous runionr. What i> it fiirsoothl WWm«^| 

■ Tim laUblllaD on Ur Stridklaari'i sUeniiMn vm tekra of ae« day, 
April 11. 

I.] Privileges: freedom of speeeM. 


l&oa ut that proixKUiccst it, tboo dost prouoance thy own 
im^i. Why w I rvr Uut Uwu doM wbat lielh in lliee to 
pWMULL' the priuM tu be perjtmd . . . For Ibu Qut«ti'a 
lifalj i> Uu) Iwm] of tliG Uw, and muKt of nrtMntx nuintnin 
i* U«; for h; the lair lier Majesty ie made jastly our 
^cn, and by it abe is moU chiefly maintained . . . Tlie 
&| m^iO. not to be under miui, liut niwler God and uud«r 
>W k», becaoM tbe law nmkcth him ■ King ... I pny jou 
Mtktfc* na»on why my authonly* mtth, 'The King ought 
jlhiadierUie law. ' for, suth he, ' He ia God's nceRereut upon 
Mih,' that b, hb lieotenant lo execute and do hit ttiW., tlte 
*blt ia law or justice ; and tberenuto waa her Majesty vvorn 
u lar coronation, ax I have heard teamed men in Ihia ptnce 
mirt tim« affirm ; nnto the which I doubt not but her 
Kjely wiD, for her houonr and conscience sake, have s])«eial 
t^ti, Uit frrc »p««cb aad eon»dence in lliis place are granted 
^1 iptcisl taw, oa that without the which the prince oxiA 
Wt ouiaot be preaemd or maintained. 

I«r the o4her was a nesaage ', Ur Speaker, brwught the 
ht waAoa into the Rou» that we ehonld not dnal in any 
"Wtm of nJigioo, but finil t<i rrci'ive from tin- hi«hop». Surety 
llii «w a doleAU ni(«age ; For it wn» an modi as to eay, ' Sirs, 
ndaB Ht ilol in God'fe causes, no, ye shall in no wiie iscuk to 
Waace Hi* glory' . . - Certain it ia, Mr Speaker, that none is 
lilkMit tsnlt, no, uot unr noble Queen, since her Uigcsty hath 
^■ i t te J great fault, yen dangeronii fanJta to heTfelf. Lore, 
"■ pofcvt lore, TOtd of distniiilatioD, will not suffer me to 
lib IkMi to tier Ma^fnty'e peril, but to utter thoro tu her 
■■JMy's safety: and these they ttn. It i* a diingcrous tiling 
a s jsiiice unkiixlly to sbuse his or her nobility and people, 
«< it is a daagcjons thing in a priac* to oppose or bend 
'smK sffkoiat her nobility and people, ycA against most loving 
mi luihbd nobiltly and jiecple. 

• -. 1 do sorely think, before Uod Iqmk it, that the bishop s 
**t tihe cause at tint doleful message ; and I will show you 
*ht nonth me K) to tHnk. I was, amongst otlicnt, the tnti 
ptliuDcnt vent onto the buhnp of Canterbury, for the Articles 
i^biigkio that then passed this Ilouse. Heaiked us, Why we 
■ BfactoB. ■ StcaboTcp. I»(d). 




did put out qf th« book the Articlen for the HomittM, Con- 
wcrntiiig nf fliiihope, mid such tike t Sur«]y, sir, said I, because 
we were so occu).<ied iu uUi«r nintten, tliat we had do lima to 
examiire them how they nffrecd with tlie Wo«d of God. Wiat, 
(inid he, mircly yon mintook the nmttfT, yon will refer yonr- 
•rlvcs wholly to U8 therein t No, by the faith I bear to Ood, 
said I, wv will pass nothing before we understand what it 
is, for that were but to make you Popw; make you Fopen 
wild IiKt. laid r, for w<^ will makn you none . . . 

Thug I have holden you long with my rud« speech ; the 
which since it teDdt5th wholly with pure cciiacieiice to seek the 
kdvBiiceineut of 0«d'» glory, our honournble Suvcrrigii's iMfety, 
and tiic >urc defence of thi« noble i*le of Kngland, nnd all by 
maintaining of Ibo Ilbertien of this hnnonrabli? council, the 
fountain from whence all these do spring ; my huuble aud 
hearty suit nuto you nil is, to accept my ffood-will, and that 
this that 1 have hero spoken out of conitcience and great zeal 
unto my prince and state, may not be buried iu the pit of 
oblivion, and so no good come; thereof. 

D'Kvt^ Joamalt. pp. 936-141, 

(f) Sp4ech<>fSir W. Mildmay, 13 March, i5J«. 

. . . True it in, that nothing cut) be well oondnded in u 
council where Uiere is not allowed, iu debuting of causeK 
brought in, deliberation, liberty, and froedom of spe«cli ; other- 
wise, if in consultation men be either interrupted or terHIM, 
Mt aa they cannot nor dure not apeak their opinioni ^eely, 
like as that t^ouncit unnnot hut lie reputed For a servile council, 
CTen »o all tbo proocociings therein ehcll be rather to satisfy 
tl>e wills of a few. than to determine that which shall lie jurt 
and rettsouahlc. But hei-ein we may not forget to put a differ- 
ence between liWiy of speech and licentious speech; for by 
the one men deliver llieir opinions freely, and with this caution, 
that all be npoken, pertinently, modestly, reverently and dig- 
t-reolly; the other contrKriwiee utleroth all impertinently, 
rashly, arrogantly and irreverently, without respect of person, 
time or place : and though freedom of iip(«ch hath alvrayn 

' For thia ipMCh Mr Wenlworth wm <ominitt«J iu ths Tuwer, wliera 
he raoftlned lUl I* Uaitli, 1576. 


Pnviteges: freedom of speech. 

bwD used in this f^tX cmineil of iiarluuient, waA is a thing 
moot nccesxfiry U) lie jinati-rvri! sniongict no ; y^t the Bome wbs 
iwver nor ought to bo i-itcnrtrd lo far, as though a man in thin 
HoDse may rpeak what and of whom h« list. The contrary 
whmrof, hoth in our own days ami in tho days of our jire- 
docmeoi's, by the piinishniMit of such inconsidrraic and dii^- 
orderly speakera, hath a|)peiired. DEan'JomnaU.^. jgij. 

(g) SfMth of Mr ffrtitu»r(A ', I March, 1587. 

Mr Spooher, forasumch as mrh Uw» na God is to he 
honoured by, and that also tuch laws as oar noble Sovereign 
and this worthy reaha of EtiKland are to be euriched, rtrenglh- 
cncd and proai-rvcd by from nil foreign and <!om<irtic rueinieii 
and traitors, are to ha nindr by this honoarnble couDcil. I . . . 
do eariieKtly deain.'. by (juesliuti, to he fatisfied of a few <\av.i- 
tionii to be moved hyyoii, Mr Speaker, conceniiog Ui« liberty 
of this honourable council. Wherefore I pray yoii, Mr Speaker, 
eftwoona to move tliene few urtielus, by t|U(ratioa. whereby 
every one of Ibii Houoe may know bow far he may ]>roceed in 
this honourahio council, in tnattpr* that concern the glory of 
God and our true and loyal service to our piiiic« and slate. 
For I ant fully perauaded, thiit Oud cannot be bououred, neither 
our noble prinre or cnmmonwunl jinoMrvcd or maintained, 
witbiiut five sperrh and coiistiltjttion of (his honourable council, 
both which consist upon the lil>trties of this hunourable 
council, and the kuowlcddo of them alao. So here otl- tlie 
qucslioiia, Mr Speaker : T humbly and boartily beseech you lo 
give thcin reading, and God grant ua true and faithful hearts In 
answering of them ; for the true, faithful, and hearty service of 
our merciful God, our lawful prince, and this whole and 
worthy realm of Englauct, will :uucb conaUt hereoftirr upon tbe 
answer unto these questioni . . , : 

Whether thli council he not a place for any memlier of the 
same here aKsewbled, freely aud without coutrolnicnt of any 
peroon, or danger of lawn, by l»ill or apecrb, to utier any of the 
griefs of this commonwealth whatscever, touching the service of 
Ood, the safety of the prince, and thb noble realm 1 — Whether 

' It iota not appear nbelher thi* were Paul or Peter Wentworth. 




tliat grent lionour mey bo done onto God and benefit (Lod 
sarrirc unto the prince nnd 8tAt« witliout fr<« epeecli iu ihia 
CODucU. which may be doue with it t — \Vliether there be «nj 
coutici) whidh Clin make, luld to or ditniiiiali from tJie Inwa of 
the realm, but only lltU council of pnrli&ment 1 — AVhether it be 
not agaiuHt tbu orderx of Ibiei cuutwiil to make aiiy secrvt or 
uiHttur of wciglit, (vliich \* here in bnud, knovni to the prince 
or Kay other, concerning the high service of God, prince or 
sbltoi without the consent of the bouse t — Whether the Speaker 
or ad; otlier muy interrupt any member of tliis council m \»» 
qteech need in this House, tending to ujiy of the forennmed 
high serricea I — Whether the Speaker mny rise w)ieu he will, 
any matter being propounded, without consent of the Uuuse, or 
not I — Whether the S[ieukvr may overrule the House In any 
matter or caoBo there in (jucttion ; or whether he is to be ruled 
or overruled in any luntter, or not ? — WbetJier the prince and 
ntute cun continue, stand nnd be maiiituincd without thin 
c»nncit of {larliament, not altering the goverumout of the 
Btat« '. If Eva Joamalt, p. 41 1. 

(li) Mimsatff. fram tht Qw-tn to tlie LorJt, 17 F^ruary, 1589. 

My Lord Treawirer showed them that the message from her 
Majesty delivered thiti day unto the I^riU of the Upper Utjuse 
was concerning two Klls . . . the one concerning I'ui-veyora 
and the other touching process and pleadings in the Court of 
Exchequer, a tiling misliked of her Mnjeety in both thcwe onaua, 
the one binduig to the officers and ministers of her own bouse* 
hold, and the oUier to tlie oirici.<rs and ministf rt< of her ovm court 
[and] (jf her own revenues ; iu both of ivhic)i if any i^hould 
dcnieun thiMnKihvi any way unluwfully or untruly, her Migeaty 
wk« of hcncif (lie said) both utile and willing to see due nv- 
formation, and so would do to public (example of others upon 
any of the wiid officer* and ministers which at any time should 
be found to offend . . . D'Sim' JtiumaU, p. 440. 

(i) Syteeh of ike Lord Keeper, 19 Ftbruaiy, 1593. 

... To your tJiree demtiuda the Queen nnawcrctb ; liberty of 

* Tho quenUoDi vara nut [lut, and Mr Vr'oiiwatUi, Hr Copo and three 
otlier mwulwrt wtn Mot lo Uie Tvwr. 


Privil^jes: frffdom of sfxech 



*p«ccli in graiitL-d jou; hut bow far ttiia U to be tliought oti. 
there 1)0 tiro tilings of moi>t ncccfvity, nnd thoHe two ilo muit 
harm, whirh ore wit and speech : tlw ouf exfrciicd in inrcn- 
tioQ, and the other in uttei'iiig things invented. I'rivilege of 
speech is ^rallied, but you must know what pririleffe you ( 
have ; not to speak evei^- oiiu what h« bitteth, or wlial eonetU / 
in hi* bniiii to utter thnt ; but your privilege i», oye or no. ) 
Wlifivfiirc, ilr Kpcnkor, her Mnjrgty'n plt-u.^um in, That if you > 
perceive any idle heatis which will not click to ha7A]'d their / 
own eMatcE, which will lueddte with reformings the CburcU 
and tranefomung the Common wcnltJi, and do exhibit auy billti 
to »ucb purpose, that you receive them not, until they be 
viewed niid roimidercd by tho»e who it in fittiT Bhoutil conoidcr 
of Kunh things niitl con licttcr judge of them. To your persons 
all privilege i* granted, wilb th's caveat, llint under colour of 
this privilege, no nmn'a itl-doings or not performing of duUe> 
be covered unil protected. The; free acoe» \* gmnted to 
her Mujenly'x person, no that it be upon urgent and weighty 
tnUM'Hi null at times convenient, and when her Majesty may be 
at leisure from other imiortanl causes of the realm. 

fftwei JoarvMU, p. 4fc. 

(k) Metsaye from lK» Qattn to tM Commons, a; /Vft., 1593. 

[y/u! Sjfaiev.] The Mesaogc delivered me from her Majesty 
conaisletb of three things; first, the end for which iJie Par- 
liament was called : eecoudly. the speech which her Majenty 
lued by my Luid Kee[>cr: thirdly, what her pletuure nnd 
eomnuuidiiient now in. for the first, * It is in me and my 
power'(I eprnk now in her MajeMy's peinon) 'to call parlia- 
mente ; and it ia in my power to end and determine the same ; 
it is in my power to aaaent or disseat lo anything done in 
ParliHuient . . . ' 

Her Mnjcxty'* moit excellent ptuasuro beio^ llien delivered 
unto u* by tbe Ijord Kcejier, it w.ik not meant we should 
meddle with matters of state, or in causes erclostnstical (for so 
her M^eaty termed them). She wondered ' that any would be 
of eo high eommaudnient to attempt ' (I use her own words) 
'a thing contrary to that which xlie bath *o expre.iMy for- 
bidden ' ; wherefore, with this she wu» highly displeased. And 




bfcaase Ui< words tlien fpokuu by my Lord Ew^r an M 
uow [lerhaps wdl reiaeralMnd, or kkdc be now here tbu >« 
Fnot tbere, her Utyeely'e prMcnt ehargc and expren ouBntdj 
[is, 'Tbut no bills touEbmg mattfr* of Mate, or refonnalioa ia j 
Lditiw-s ecclc^UHtioftl, be rihiUtcd.' And. npon tnj •UepMAJ 
(l «m commuutod, ir ax\j sa«b bill be exhibited, not to rad it, 

I/Sm^' Jemnnl*, f. fiL ' 

4. Fregdoh rsoM Arbbt. 
(n) £oiM( of Lontt. 

[30 June, 157a] ■ ■ . Wbenu, upon complaint ftuddcekiatiaL] 
nude to tlte Mdd Laid* cpirituAl end temporal, hy Heiv; Im [ 
Cromwell, & Lonl of tlie Pnrliamsnt, that, in a g^om bet« 
ooe Juuee Tavenor egauut the «aid Lord CrooiweU dcptadiaftt J 
tbo Court oT ChuiKcrj, . . . tl>« perMO of ibe wid Lord < 
well Has by tli« iberiff of the eouaty of Norfotk attaefacd. I 
virtue of » writ of attschnwnt proceediog out «t (he eud Coirtl 
of CliancGQ-. oontnr^ bo ibe oncieul privD^ umI inmuitfi' 
time out of meiDOvy, unto the !.ord» of Pariiunent and ¥ttrH 
this reftlin in such cue used and allowed, m on (be behalf 1 
the said Lunl Cromncll was declared aad ftfl^nned; wk 
tbc aaid Lonl CrantwsU, as a J/ord ol Partiamnt, fnjd 

Forascuucb as, upon deliherute exaniinatioo of this c«um, b 
the aaid Piu-Iinmcnt-Cbmnbrr, in tbo pracnco of tbe Jodgn 
and others of the Quk^u's Majesty's learned Counsel, tbne 
attctidant in Parliament, aikd upon deelantJon of the ofdaioa 
of the said Judges and learned Coonsd, there hath been na 
matter directly produced nor declared, wbervby it did appear or 
■ecm to Uie aaid Lord* of P&rliameut thei« assembled that, hj 
the onmnMin Uw or custom of the realm, or by any statute lav, 
or by any preivdeut of the said Court of Vltuteery. it is 
warranted Ibut tbe |ienau of any Lord, haf Ing place and rata 
in Parliament, in the like case in the satd Court of ClisaccrT 
brfore thii time bath been attached : so as tbe awardina; of Ui" 
Hiid attachntent at the suit of tbe iiaid Tateruoc agaiiiBt itie 
said Lord Cromwell, for anything as yet declared unto the said 
Lotds, appeoreth to be derugattsry and pi^iodicial to the 1 

Priviltgesi frttdom from arrtst. 127 

dumcd to IwliNig to tlio tMiiil Lonl of Uiia ivalm : 

il ta . . . Onlered hy ontwut of all tbn uiil Lonlii yi 

lli«r« aaaembled. Tlmt th« pereoa of tha niti LanI 

bo from bcncefoTtb dwoliuged of aod from tii« nid 

harii Jmaitalt, L 717. 

(b) llotue of Commotu. 

(t) J/isrlin'xuw', It J/onA, 1587. 
[lEr 8fit*k«r . . . noi«d tbue qiieotioiu lo the Hoom, vis. 
, vlHtlier tb«7 mmU limit * time eerliuii or k rvftKHiable 
to aaj mnnbcr of tba IIoum for his priritrgc Tbe 
rend, A roDTeoient time. 
3j, wbether Mr Martin wbb ftrmt«d vitbin tbis 
: limn. The Hmim aiuwered. Yea. 
TUnOy, if W1ii(« iboulil be |iaiii«]i«d for arrertiDit Martin. 
HOBH uksVCTcd, No, becHUm the arrmt wiw twenty dayn 
dw beginiuQg of tbe ParliaiDent, and unknoirn to him 
I voald be token for retuonsble time . . . 

tf£a>M' Jo*TftaU, pp. 4I9'4I4. 

(a) JfeaUtam, 6 Jfarth, 1593. 
Wdilen, brar-hmrcr. luul John LtRlilburn, wrjrniat- 
«, being present at the Bar «nd charged by Ur SpMkpr 
f deeply and affifiiy with tbnr great ci^ntvuipt against tbe 
Mhirity ami jiiri*dictiou of tbi« mMt High Court of Parlia- 
Wtt, ta amctit^ of Mr Franeia Ncale, one »f thv mcmbeni of 
ttalHammUa anembly, to tba great pKJDilicc bimI dvru^ratioti 
' \it aDcieot and usual libvttiea and f>riTi)ege8 of this Jlooar 
- . h WM in tbe end re*alT«d upon tbe question, That tJiey 
^kM be cotDimittcd priaoner* to tbe Tuver by order of this 
^Ibera to rvtoain during; th« ptcoxiiie of thin IToum . . - 

U'KittM' JaurtutU. p. $■<)■ 

(3) /YtaW6«n'« MM*, 5 Jprii, 1593. 
wai refused] Fimt, because he was token in nuni' 
btfoc tbe return of tbe indenture of bi* election ; Becondly. 

I Kntin «■• *rtiia<<J jBriaf •» adjonnuDent. 

' nuhcrticrt v^ ajnaUd ea a writ «f oullaaty, tw« houn after hl> 
ita friiamrlU. 




becaiu* he bad been outl&fred at (he Quvcti'c unit, aad sn* m*] 
talcCTi in executioD for her U^jesty*a debt ; thirdly aod Udi/.i 
regard I hut be vaa so take u liy tiie sheriff, neither tntnti j 
nmto nor etimlo nor reJttmdo. IfBmtf Jogn^tt, f. jit ' 

(e) Utmber^ tertnnU. 
(0 ^g^tt' COM (ffotiM of Lori»), t Dte^ 158^. 

[DeceiuWr 1, 1584] . . . Memorandam, that vbcro Jk 
Diggea, mm of the ordinary grnUemeD of tnf I<o(d's Gnet < 
OanterbuTy. wm coniinitted to tlto Flral aiNn « RMit m i 
titrt Exclii'qaer, sitbence tHo bi-giDiitng of tbti present {«dii>'] 
nieu), Ui« Loid»,at tbc tnntion of my TiOfd'i Grmce, rlointiigtbl 
aocient pririkga of llui High Coart, gsvfi «onuauidin«flt IdiIa] 
Gentlenkan Uthw that tbe said Jame* Diggra should hf tosn^l 
before ibem; and this day the said Lonb . . . ordend,^*t| 
tbe siiid James DiggcN, Uy Ttrtue of the privilege of tbia Cowt j 
should be enlu^gcd and act at liberty. Lorit' Jemm^ Lf& 

(>) SmaUtj^a eate* {ffoute of CoofiMtu), Fth. 1576- 
[Teb. 31, 1576] . . . Report wna mads b; Mr AttoratT<i{| 
the Dnchy . . . ThaX the sail] Committees fuood no 
for iiettini;^ at 1ar|te by the mace any penoD lu arreat, b«l vAj 
by writ ; and tbnt ... it nppeiinrtb tliat eTny Icnigbt, citii 
and biu^en uf tJua Honae, wliJcli duth reqaire prrivilc^ hatb'' 
been u»ed in tliat caae to take n corpoml oath Emfon tlia LciJ 
CbaocelW . . . that the party for whom such writ is nude 
came op with him and waa hia servant at the tinM of tbe amit 

[Feb. 37] . . . After sundry reatoua, argnments and diapata- 
tiona it i* reaotred, Tliat Edward SmaUey. xrrant unto .^rtbur 
Dalle, Kaqnire, ahall be brought hither to-momw by tba 
Berj«ant, and so set at Liberty by warrant of the mace and not 
by writ, 

[Feb. iS] . . . Edward Smalley . . . b«iitg this day brougfat to 
the Bar in this House by tbe wrjeant of this Bovm ecd 
accompauitd with two sorjeants of lioadon, was ptweiifitlj 
dt'liri-nd from bin impriaonment luid cxocution, acoordiag Is 

■ Soallar. wnuit to 31r H*II. havtaj laan atmted. Um Utnm tf 
P«tnUd a OmmdIUm tu *aanli bt pt«c*deiita. 


Priviltge$ of Parliameni. 


the ivnatr judf[Tncnt of this Hoiue, twit the said wrjeants of 
XiondoD diMlinrgcil of th«ir u>id priiwiier. 


(a) Cook't eaae {»iJ>patna), 1585. 

[February 10, 1585J ... In a com of tuhixtna out of the 
Chunccry, icrvetl upon Riirhitnl CcKik, Eaquinj, ■ inember of 
thin House , . . it w»i8 ordered that Mr liecordcr of London 
[and two othf rsj shall presently repair iu tlie uanie of the whole 
House into the . . . court uf Chuiict^ry, and there to aiguify unto 
the Lord Chancellor and the Mantcr of the Roll*, that by the 
nticSent lilwrtics of this IIoii«e the members of the lamp arc 
privileged from being served with mhj'itNai . . . 

[Februarj' 11]... Mr Rtironler of Louilon . . . Iieing returned 
from the Chancery, did declare unto the House that thoy have 
been in Chancery . . . and were suBwered by the Lord Chan- 
cellur that he thought thin TToumi hud iiu Huch liboity of 
privilege for mbjKetuu as [hey pretended . . . 

D'Kiett' JonriiaU, p. 347. 

(b) &^B4th'$ COM (ruftpcBna), /«£. 1585. 

[Feb. II, 1585] - ■ ■ After sundry motions ... it was at last 
resolved by Uiie Houm) that the auid Mr Kirk ' had committed 
a Kreat cont^'mpt to thin whole House and the litiertirs and 
privilege* of the iwme . . . , snti thereupon ordered and adjudged 
by this Jfouse, Thnt the suid Anthony Kirle thall for his said 
contempt be euiuniilteO priimncr to tlie Serjeant's ward and 
custody, there to remain during the pleasure of thi« House, luid 
•hall also . . . pay unto the said Mr l^tepneth ... his cost* 
and chafges . , . DEteei' JtmmaU. p. 34S, 

(c) froeu'* MM (jwry). ^^v. 1597. 
[Nor. 31, t5(>7] . . . !>ir Edward Ilobbie moved the Home 
for privilege for 8ir John Ti-ucie, being a member of this 
HoutH! and now presently nt the Common Pleas to be put on 

* Kirle had wrved a tnbpicna oat of Uio Star-Chamber on itr SMfiacth, 

ii tneuibur. 



ft jviy. Wlimapon the Seijennt of thii HoUM wu 
Knt irith llie nuice to call the nid fnr John Traci* I* 
nttt^nilancc in tliia HooM . . . and tlir taiil Sir Jolm 
retorncd to ttii« Hoiue. D'M»a' Jatn^.p jk 


TiiK QcAUricATiox* OF Hekbebs. 
(■) Arfwnu: NorfoUe dtction^ isS6: ntoltuietu o/ tl^ Bt 

Htet, Tliat Uie first writ wu daly tnxattd mi ihg t\ttti 
good, uid Uie Mooud electuw »l»olulelj Tui<l. 

Sccooill}', Hint it wu a looct |i«ri]otu fncnlent tlut, idi 
two knight* of ■ ooutiljr wrm duljr clrrtt^d, any nrw writ 
itaoe out for a secooid dectku vithoiit ordti of tli« Hoait 
Coramottt itsdf. 

ThbdIjFi Thftt tli« ilueiusing aad sdjadging of (kit and 
like difforeuces only belonfttd lotb« atid ilouM. 

Fourlhlj', Tliat tliou^-h tlie I^nl di&Qcellor utd Judgci 
catnprtciit jadgc« in Ibeir proper oourta, jtt tlw; snt bM 

FiftUy. That it sboold be entered in tbe very Jonrail-beofc 
the Hou»e that tlie said first electiuu wu approvid to be 
ftod tb« uid kiiitflitn tlw-ii cboKii tind b«en rcrrirod a&d alkt' 
u mcmUn of tlw lloiisr, not not of aay r««pect tin 
House had or gave to the reaolotioo of the Lunl C1uu>c*jl>r 
■TudKUs tkrreiD pniaed, but mervlv by reaHon of Uia tm^i 
thu HouKC ilaelf, by which tie *«id rlectton had been 

Sixthly uid Ustly, That th«i« ebould no menage beaol 
the Lord Chancellor, not eo much aa to know what be had 
Ibcretn, beciaw! it was co<ic«iv«l to bo ■ matter dcrogatetr If 
the power nod pririlrgv of the laid Hoil*^. 


< Aa dMtiao for the eonaty of Notfdk bailay uki« ptaov, ia *MA 
then wM Hma lafon— IHy. a Mcoad vritwai im.ail aaj m xwDd «fai«M 
mitde. Tb* ChuKstlar aad Uib JBd|r» lUriilsil Ikr flnl iJtMfuo w t* 
S'ud. Tbo Hdum apjKiittUil a Coaamtiicv ^Nnv. 9, 158A) ' la kiMniivil* 
•UM B*d dramuMiiiiM* of (]■■ rMona' far Noriollt, and b MtjfiliMt 
«ith tliair npurt f trntl Uw abvr* raMluitcoa. 


Prhnleges of PaHiament. 



(b) QtialiJieativM : Smyth'i eatt {witlawry), 1559. 

[Feb. a4, 1559] . . . John Smyth, returned 11urg«u fur 
C&melford ■ . . , upon a ilecUmliou l>y Mr Murrlie itint ho IirH 
come to tliic Ilnunc being ouUftwed, and also htul deceived 
ilivrr? inei'chautB in Londoo • . . , Uiu examtnalibu whereof . . . 
was found and reporled to be true .... upon whiuli inntUrN 
couiullntiun hm! in tli« floiiEe, t\m (juration wiih nskcd by 
Mr Spfjilier, if bi' »IioiiM hnvi- priTilcge of this House or not . . . 
orderuJ, Tlwt be ahull still coutiuue 11 member of thtii Houwe. 

Ctmmoni Jonntah, I. p. $5. 

(c) Lord ItttMetrt engti: {ddeH tont ef peart), 15*6- 
[Feb. 4), 157(3]. It ia this day ordrre^ by this ilouse . . . 
that Johii Luiii RuKsell, i-uri utid heir apparent of tlie . . . Eail 
of Bedford, iK-ing a hurgcus for th« borough «f BricJport . . . 
iball coDtinue a memlier of this llonse, according to the like 
former prt-ccdent in the like cue bud hitri'tofore of tho (aid 
now Enrl hi« father. Conmant' JcurtiaU, 1. p. 104. 


Han't Raw, 1581. 

[February 14, 1581] . . - Where it was informed xuito tbii 
Honse . . . that Artlinr Hnlle. of Unuitham, in tlie ci>unty of 
Lincoln, EMiuirr, biul ailliciioe thit latt leselon of Parliament 
made, net forth in print and piibliehed a book ... in part 
greatly tending to the blander and reproach not only of Sir 
Kobert Bell . . . , late Speaker of thin Parliament, and of nundry 
the parlieular mcmbom of thin Hoaso, but oIro of the pro- 
ceedingH of th:> House in the name lust scflnion of Parliament, 
in a cuusn that concerned the said Arthur ilalle and one 
SmsUey his man: and that there nan also contained a l»ng 
discourse, tending to the diminiahment of the nncinit authnrity 
of this Uoutte . . . : Resolved aud onle rrd hy the whole House, 
without any one negative voice, ho should be committed 
to priKin ; nnd . . . that he should be committed to the pri«on 
of the Tower, as tlie prisou UBual for offendLTB to }m committed 
onto by this Houtu;; ami that ho xhuutd rF-main in the said 
{iri*oii of the Tower by Ibe space of six months . . , ; and . . , 

K a 




that a fine dioukl be auesMd hj Uiin nuuw, to tW QmhIJ 
Hiye«tv'R uiw, u|ion tbe rajid Arthur Hnlle . . .: «ud . . . dalt 
same fine thoulil be firu kuudrvd nuHca: mA . . . Uut i 
nU Aniior U«ll« shouM prcwnlly be reroovwl — from I 
Mty lunger ft member of thi* IlauM) doriuft the mntiniiMM^ 
ibis prewDt PurliuineDt ; and tbat the t^icmker . . . 
direct R WBrrunt from lUia HouM ... for • new Bargtn » 1 
ivtururd into tbi* prcwnt Purliaioeiit for tlic nid Wm^ < 
OraiitliKni, la the li«u and ttcad «f the eaid Arthur Ualle,! 
befora diMbled an; loitS'i' to br a mctnbvr of this Hoom. 

Cdbhimh' Jamm»U, L f^ lA otA 


(a) Tkt CoTfOrafioit t>f jr«(^ry. 1571. 
Ma; 10, 1571 . . . Fonuniuch at Thomas l^Dge. gntlli 
fctunied o«e of the Bwi^gwsp" forth* borough fur West boiy - . 
beiog a very Nimijle laau and of small (a|mcity lo mttc in » 
place, hath tht« day in open covrt confeafed that he (tan 
Anthony Gartande. Mayor of the naid town of Wertborr 1 
onto one Watta of the satiK town, th« mm of .£4 for tli>l ] 
And mini of borgeanhip ; it is orilervd that tbe Rud A 
UarUnde and the Mid Walta nball immediately repay anto tie < 
Thomas Looga the Miid sum of £4 ; ami aba that a fine of J 
be by this Houae afa(«»d upon the car^somtiun or inhsbin 
of the »id town of Weatbury, ... for tbrir said lewd 
alanderoos attempt . , . Conunom* Joarwlt, L ^ •>■ 

(b) WiUiaau rtue, 1576. 

February 19. 1576 . . . trpon a motioo mads by Bo 
Bayiielmcge, gentleman, one of Ibo Rarge»«i . . . againt < 
Williama, as well for sundry unfitting apeecbes pronouMadl 
the said ^Villiam*, in miiliking of tlie present slate and 1 
menl of this tralra, aa also for thr«nleniug and asmultingl 
the tatd Robert baynebrigge ; tbe Serjeant of this UoM] 
thereupon, by onler of tlua House:, pneeaUy sent (or Ihr 1 
Willianu . . . tu answer unto tins Houae of mob matttn ' 
shall he objected against him . . . 

Distraint of Knighthood. 


Fitter "Will ianu, btinfl bToUf;)it (o tlie B«r, confcriwd tli«t 
i ttrik* Ur bnyiicbriggc ■u'l that be offered to Rlriko At 

I vtlk his ifger : whereapon it ia ordered that be remain 
I Setjeut'* rati, till Ibe order af this Uouae be further 

CVmiwHu' >f (Mraeb, L p. 109. 

9. Pmyact «r Dkbatk. 

Liril 5, ti^l. TbotnM Clarke mid Anthony Boll, of the 
rTrnfiJe lu London, geDtlciDen, were by litis House coid- 
I to tJic SefjeAot'* ward until further order nliunld lie taken 
dtcin; for that lliey prcmimud 10 enter into Ihi* Huufc 
I tliMBMlves no menilxi's of the same, aa thcmKlrei at 

I Bv (snAMCd. CvmmiMt' JournaU, I. pi S^ 


1. DisTkAixT OP KncHTnooit. 
Fro Ordm* JtUiUwi rmyintdo <U nnnm«nitionibut. 

Bt^M pncdilectia et fidelibaa anie Roberto Dvmiuu iKidley, 
■sqnonm, [et qoatuor niiinl, ndnleni. Oiid ooa, tx 
loana nrprutilioa, direnn Itrcvia nmtra c>iniiil)tu et ain- 
vic(«oaiitib(ia de quotibet oomitatu, eivitate el bur^u 
n BMtri Anglia* nwndaTeriroua, [iraecipiendo ijuod (inilibnl 
viMeomce nmmoneret omntw c( tingulo* infra 
1 nuu, tam infra libertste« tgiuim extra, terras tcueniputii 
haeredilatncuta cjuMcamiine anuui ralohi qundragintn 
in DM vel pasr«*si*>iie habentea, quud compHraint ad 
dteB Ft iocoia in iiujusniodi hrevihui conlentoe, ad 
I ordinau roiUtamn juxla fonuam Uatuti in hujua- 
•diti et pmrid ; Scinli* fjuod no* . . . na»ign*vitBu« 
■ioe noetros ad Iractandotn, rommnfucaMdam et 
com utnoibua et ainf^ulia BoMitiii ncntriti qui 
faeeie vpluerint pro rioiienitioDe praedictl 
I ntitaria hoe vice : dnnte* et conoedeutet toHi, quatuor, 
dnohne vattnim, plenam aDctnritatfMn el potrflateni 
tiactaadi . , , «t coocliitleudi cum omnitiua et 




siagulJG diciiB eubdil'iH noatrtv qui fiueu tHilivcuin in Imjac 
cnni fncci* volucriiit, uecnaQ tiLxnndi et Mndcimli hii 
finM nd oortnin pecunianun n)niinom,pr(NiteuDi nibuilii : 
praedidn, qniboi iuUnet in Imc partem coDConUre itoUnti^j 
diem solalioni* tn^jnamodt finiiuu limilMirJi ct b| 
juxia uniui divcretioDca TMtrns . . . 

Teste lU^iiM apod WeslmoosatoiaiB [lo Dec ij 
Per ipniin Rejiituuii. 
Bymer, Fadera, XV. p. 4jj. 

2. LoAxa 

(a) Citvtdar iHttrfroai the Council to ihn LonU- LJmlmaat 
tie tountirt fi>r a lonn '. 

After our v«iy Iwort}' commrDdatioin to your good 
we doubt not bmt both to your lordsliip and ti»o to otben 
IiAv« bud aoT cb&rge tbi» ImI year in anv part of 
within thU n-Alm it \* nmnifcxi, bew ncccsMiy it wu ibst 
realm wu* d^'fradcd both bf Ma snd land iu aocb sort n 
bMD sern agaioal the oamiDOO pot«iit tttttay Attempting tn bcw 
Uivad«d itod made n conqneat of tb« tune : wherein the Qi 
U&jwtx with the anuriance of Ood'a ap«cial laToiir taA 
cspencrs of great IriMwum, which she bad nuist prinotly 
c«Tved for tb« mainleiiauce of the ttat« of thin hvr mlis, 
Fecvived Krt«t honour to licrwlf, to h«r poopU eiDguhir 
and Bufctf, Mid hereby licr envmies repolaed with gtrat 
ignominy and dishonour : y«t oeverlhvjcti her Uiyeaty is 
wiMiun) aitlh it must ueeesMry to make iww prrpantiou 
ttio atreugtbrniug of alt her farcuM, both by aea and hiiiil, 
iervv to wilhstuid tho new Htt«inp4« of the enony thtd 
fi>Ui>wing . . . 

And for Ihs more apctdj help to this, it b Ihonght bv 
&I:^jetly and na of her coaiicil, lliat presently m««iw 
lo jNwide Komo cnnvcnie^it sum of money by way of 
lending of her good and failbful eobje«ti. u haretorora 
been yielded unto her Majnty in tinrn of Im* nocd and da] 
and yet always folly repaid. And to this end we bave 
iDwt by her MajWly's diroctiOD lo eominend the cmv hi 
> Itaud 1 D«o«mUr, isSS (8tiy|«). 



rlordidip, hani^ chnrgt bf ber Majeftj, ns her li*Qt<n«iit 

_ ! and lioTt ; praying yoor lordship that without any delay 

^R bnUhi|i wilt («tiHitl«r, oitbttr by your own kM)wtedge or 

icccnt coDfemKciritli •onctucli i» tliat diiroa* you thtok 

veil kAKted to this «eme« and arc of knowledge to 

jour kmlahip tJi«i«iu, liuw of each particular prison, 

[ mm of buidd or of wiattli lu igoo&a, niab particular Hinu 

: be reuon^ly mjnin^ by her Majeirly'it letter* niulcr licr 

' ml ID way of loaii in that wbole county, [ai that] ber 

Ay Kiiitbt be msMi)«d apon li«r demand by her «sid letten 

limy KVcnl periou to hafc tbe total sura within Ibat sbire 

fUuilc^ or r«tlicr niun:. 

\hxA to thi» porpone wc require yoor lonlibip to consiiler if 

i nuDlicr of all such &8 are known to be of uifficieut livelihood 

wcdib tritbiu tbat sbire, of whom }-ou sball Ihiuk birr 

' may nndily have by way of loan, oulr for tlic ijoce of 

>«boU *r*r, inch patticiiiar »anu of liundr«i1« of potiiids or 

rhundrods of pouDds, or at tlie lenat not Qiwter tb« tum 

lii^ •ccurdiug aa the abilities of the people shall seem rae«t 


Afid in tbif nutter wi? require you to forbear none that hath 

Oy midcfl«e willtin tbirc. Wing in your opinton abl« to 

mij thb puipoae. And yet if ihere be any penon of ability, 

: b on ofEMr to ber Majesty in any of ber courts of reoortl 

' W ncTMittC, that Iiatli any fee or yearly profit by any 

«, we rt<)uire yoo to make u fpe^lal note of »ncl), with 

4|)luoti of the SDms to be demanded : for tbat we are 

1 tbat if the nimt nokd by rou upun tbeu tliolt not 

fas •nSdotil lor ber Majeaty's 3«rvtce, tlie nme ahall be 

■ed to fucli lunu ox we »ball think reasonable. 

1 to conclude, we rcijuire your lordabip, with all speed tbat 

Ian, (o eater into oousiderHliou bireof; uid to aevd tu us 

> VRliag tbe uunr* dimI Muntum<.-!i, with addition of tbctr 

m pUceo, of all such ne RbnII srrm meet and able to make 

M.tinjT of loan, so as the total fum above- uicn tinned, or 

' can, onty bo duty bad. 

Sirfft, AiamU, VI. p. 40. 



(b) Privg StalfoT a Icon. 
To oar trtistj and weU-liclovcd Hubm Lairl^ of 

By tlie (Jue«n. 

Ttnatjr uid wdl-lwloTMl, m griwt you weU. 'n'^rcai 
tbe better vithsbindiiig ot thr inlt^drJ invnnan of lliit \ 
npun tbe gmt preparatioiis maiio bj' tbo King of i>pwn 
by >«K Mid IadiI tlie la»t yt-&r, tbe nm« baving been nch «• I 
]ik« WA* never prcfuuvd at any ttme agkiiut thia reabn, vc i 
enforced foi- th« d»frnrc of the nnM and of oor good aeJ 
>ii1ij«i:ls to be at infinite clurges botli bj* se» and liuid. < 
for tbat tb« Huitl !ut«iMled iBTMdou tended dir«cUj to i 
quMt of tlia mlm ; and fimling alio by tw\x intclIlyeDCM I 
we daily receive tlwt tbe like pr«|)U»twtis ar* ikiw malitiiff 
Ibe tiki' iutent tli« oezt ye«ir by due said Kisg, for tbe 
standinti wbrrcof it ilull be neoenary for ns lo prepare bttbl 
teA and land, which ciunot be performed witboni gn*t eh 
We bave tbercfore ihougbt it expedient, having alviiT* 
our )[ood Bod loving subjccte most ready upon eucb like i 
to fumiiJi JIM by w»y of luan of aoiBs coureoient |iortiaia i 
moiKiy agreeable with tbeir evtatcs (wbicfa we ImTE 
mlwDVB lo repay), to havo recoorce unto tbcm in likt 
tbia present. And iberefore bavins nade cboioe iu tbe mv 
paria ol our realm of a number able to do n« tbb kind of i 
(whicb is Doi relbaod betwixt ndghboiir «nd Deigbb 
amongst this number wc bave alto puticularty niintcd n 
TfaomM L«wley, for your ability and good will you bear U <" 
and our rculin, to be oue. Wlierefom we require tM 
pay lo our use the Bum of X15 to «ucb pereon as \n *> 
lie<ut«uiu)t of tbat ooonty shnll be named to you fay faia 
writing. And these our leltets of privy veal aubecribed liy I 
party 10 named l>y our licutrniuit that rbnll receive tW »"*• 
oonfetting tliv time of the reeapt thereof, shall be suffioitat t« 
bind us, our heira and sDcceraora, duly 10 repky Ibo Mid a^ ^ 
you or (o your aN>ignes at tbe end uf one ymr fron the time ■■ 
yoat p*f Bent. 

' ni* addNM U *Bd«e*ed on ibe latUr. 




Given Diider our fnvy tvtA nt otir palace of WcBtmiostw the 
Tx"" dny of Fohrunry in the xxxi»» year of our n-ign. 

'Fiio. Kkur. 
Apud Watleiiburg« decirou uouo die Aprilis auuo regni <laiuiiie 
no«trr Rcgiav Klixabcthr tiiceatmo primo, 

Kcceired of Thomas Lnwlcj- t^gquirc Urn day and year above- 
eud JC25 uuUi lier Ui^viity's use by me, 

£. Lkihiitox. 
SmU Paptrt !.D<m.) SlU. ooxiU. ji. itS. 


(«) SfnevoUiwf o/lhe Cltrgy, 1587. 
ICoBt excelleut mid nioal ({racioua SoTcnign I^ady ; Wc, your 
prelat«a nud clerf{>' of Die province of ('uuterbury, now gatljervd 
togpUirr ID a convocntioa «r Hynod, callinf; to our miudi . . . tlie 
luaitifuld aud jfreat beuefitB tbut t-v«ry member of tkis mi\n\ . . . 
dolh daily receive, by tbu bletiatug of Almighty Ood, uudor your 
Mayiity'R moat liiippy and jvuceuble goverumeiit . . . , uiid furlber, 
seeing the iiilinile ocrtifioiiN tlint llirough tli« execrvMu innliiT 
of (be enemiei of the UoRpel of Cbrirt do daily ariar, whereby 
your Higbue^a in driveu to many extraordiuaTy and iiietlimable 
•xpenaea . . . , havti witli oue juiut ooUBeut and licurty good 
will, over and above one nubiidy of 61. in the pound nbendy 
granted . . . , do give and gnint unto your 1 1 ighncM' person only 
H beoevoIeiKie or coiitribulion of 3*, of every whole jiouud, of 
tha clt«r yearly value of a!) «cvlaua»licul and (piritunl promo- 
ttona witliin tli« Hid province of Canterbury, and of tlic laudiv 
bencficM Mid appropriationa and other poMCuxions and rrveuora 
t«the aanw belonging . . ., the tenths thereof being deducted; all 
vicani;|>rs uiidiT the value of JLlO . . . and all lauds, revenuea, 
poaicaiuooK, brueftcei und nppropriationii belonging to either of 
the Univeniitica of Cambridge or Oxford or nnlo any eollcge !n 
the same [or b«lotq[Uig to certain other colleges, or uiaifpwid for 
certuo purpoaea] only excepted : ibe eame coDtribntiou or 
beaevol«ncG ... to W made .... at three leveral p«jnienta . . 
tbt 6r«t tbcreof to be dua the Gnt of May next, and the aeeoud 
t« be due tba lint of Ifay . . . 1588, and the third (o ba due 
Uie fliat of May . . . 1589. . . . [dated 4 March. 1 jS^^.J 

Sliypr. Wkityifl. IlL pp. 19&-199 ; ef . td. L p. 497. 




^(b) Tht Qiutn't aertptanee of the BenevoUnce of the Cltrgy, 

R«(l^, «tc. cmiiitius ad quoH, etc. siilutem. 

Cum |irnrUti et rierus CniituitriensiB pr<>viQcia«, DOfitra 
sutborital:*' in »yiio(lo siio seu convocationc coiif.Tegjiti . , . ultra et 
prMter sulwulium ecx Hotidorum ginguknitn tibrarum nniiuarum, 
etiam quuidam beDevalam contributionem trtum BolMomm pro 
eiiiKutix librin aanuis omnium et siiigiilornm beiielicinrum 
■uorutii cccleniiisliconini et promoliodum spirilualiuni quoroiu- 
cumqiii' nc nmiiium poR^easioniim et rcvcntionum PtMJi-ni HiuiOS- 
arum sou quovigmocio spectantium et pcrlinmtium ilcdcriiit 
el cuuceHiieruit, prout per quoddaiu M'Ti])tum ecu in^trnmnntum 
publicum sigillo praettilutti et fidflis couaiUuiU iioatri Johannis 
iircbii^pijHCDpi Onntuurii-iisiii mimitum ct iidIus ■.■xliibituin. i^rans 
datam qutii'to die MArtii anno ilomini [15S6], plrniux liqtiet ct 
appiii'et : Sciutis igilur quod do^, od bumilem pclitioQom praoln- 
torum nc«trDraui et olori antedicturuui. praefatam beiievolM 
contribution!* conccaaioncm nccrp(amii>, npproliiuiiuii uc entidem 
conlinnainus, . . . scinsuporsciAtiaqiiwI . . . licrntiam, fnciUtat^m 
et authoritatcm praelatis noelria et clero praediclis in bac prao 
senti fayuodo cuiigregatiii dtceriiuud), ordiuaiidi et couBtituendi 
quaecuintjUB decrela, ordiniiticmcs el const ilutiuues syiiodalee. ac 
eadem idc por ij)WB decrttu ordiantn et coiislituta i-xeculioiii 
nuDdundi ot cutii efiectu esequcndt, quae aib! commoda acu 
opjH>rtuiiii vidcbuntur, pro meliori vora et jusU coUectione ct 
solutionc dictae bcnevolae conlribulioula . . . coDcedimus el 
DOnfinuamua per praeHeotee . . . 

[Dated (| Mardi, igR6-7.] 

Symer, Fadera, XVI, p. 5. 

1. TniAt or THE Duke or MonfOLK, 1571. 

Novi auui priui^ipiuiu uovum el triate spectaculutu Loiidi- 

neiMibiu tu jiiwutorig Weistuiuuast«rieiiu exbihuit; pegina uuiitt 

)if{ii«nun per medium praelorii n port* od partem mperiortm 

. et ibi tribunal Kidibus ulrinquo circmnpoeitia, ciljua 


Trial of the Duke of Norfolk. 


modi totiB ootodecim anniH ridennt nullnm. Ad hoc die 
Jauuarii xvi Tlicmiu Hownrdns, I>u> Norfolciiu-, inter Owenuui 
Hu]iti}iiuui Arnix Li>niiini I'rocfectuiu et I'etrum Cnrcw P^ijiiitc* 
Aurnlon, I'niicda gecuii acie avema {)mi;(tuetata. ducitur. In 
tribiinali scdit Ueorj-tUH Talbuttu*, coauee Salopiae, Bummua 
Angliae SenfecIiuUuH ml ilium diem caaxtitututi ; ulriuque 
prDcertH qui cu^nittiri'.i duti, t^uos pares dicimtu, Rcginoldus 
Greiav Cumun Ciintii [ntid 34 other Peers]. 

liidlcto nilendo l^gitur diptoina quo Mneschallo aathoritoa 
dcluUi ; deiiide bacillum album a Onrlerio Armorum Bege illi 
in matius traditur, 9uod ip*c [uiulo poat primario atrieosi 
porrexit; ilk juxtn n^liliLnii t»t« jiidici! tcmpure ttrectuiD teuuit. 
Deindc cumiU'a rt liorones uominatim cientur, ct nd iiuom 
quisqne nnmcii reBpondet. Sileutio ilerum iiidicto. I'rncfrnt.iis 
Arcia jul^^^tur praeteptuiu *uuui rc'dhibei* i-t Duceiii pro tribu- 
uali sisU^n:. Max nilitur; latera clnuicniiit hiuc PraefectuJt 
ArctB, illinc Petrus Careir ; proxinms sdBtitit securigcr, ado 
a I)ac« aversa. iDdictu iturum ailentio, actuarius ttd judicia 
COlvnac Duci'iu ita alliitua ot : ' Tlioma, Dux Ntrrfoliiac, uuper 
dc Krniimgbult in Comitntu Norfolciac, matniin atUillc.' Cum 
itW Qiauuiu :iiiiitulii>set, BCtuarina crimiua do qtiitiun in juilit:iiim 
erat \-ncutue clara voce le^t : acilicel, quod aimo i(ogiua« 
£lizabclhnc undei'imo et postea Dux pcrfide coualUa aKitaverit 
earn de auliu detui-bntidi et e medio tollcuilt, bclltHjuc concitalo 
et est«ruia oopiiK inductia regnum inradcndi [&c.]. liis 
pcrlccti* actuarios duceiu sciacitalur an horum crindnum sit 
rmis ? Jtl« obsccravit ut, si per legeni )icer«t, pati-ouua eibi nd 
Causam d«r«iideuda[a constitueretur. Cateliiiiu primarius jiuti> 
tiai'iun respuiidil, lioc ptr le^n minimc liccru . . . ' Edooiri 
cupio (iuduit dux) »i singula ilia slut crimina locsar mnjcs- 
tatis . . .' riura locuturum actuariuH iuteirupit clamitaus, 
'Thoma, Dux Norfulciae, reusue cb borum crimiimmr N«gavit 
ille. Bogavit it«ruin octuariuii, ' Quomodo vis judicari 1 * Rv- 
■pondit : ' Duo et Iiis pftribuM cnuKtm commondo racam . . ,' 
f TVic cbnrgrs hnving beeo stated and argurd in order :] 
Cum jam advesperasceret, Seoeiichailus ductm rogavit u quid 
aroplius haberet quod pro w. diueret ! Hcvpundit ille : - lu legum 
Mquitute Mem colluco.' Senetchallus jussit ut Fni«f«ctU8 
Aniii ducem seorgim submoverot, et tilentio iudicto ad Pai'es 




oonvcmtt inqnit : ' AoJiTUti> qiuimcdo Tltonuu Dbx Kor 
bcrae mftJMUiin pottuUin*, nee m ream «g i> o t«M » Hm 
vofau caoMiD mbioiHl. Vestmm iUque est ialer tm 
deran an reus tit pengeadiu, rt ex conscwntia tt 
wnteoliam ferre.' Suaolqiw juMit ul m seonira Mibdue 
invicnn coiualtftroot, Brcrt t4aipun: iiiUtjocla ad na| 
rercrtuDtur. Tnnc 8enMchalluf ab infima 
' Domino DeUv-»re, ntnei Tbomu Dux NorfblciM i 
UesM BuyeiUtia de quibB* in jtididam Tgeatur I ' lOe i 
gene nanuqlie id peetna appoaits rMpoodii: 'Reut.' 
ct nngnli nio ordiiM rogatl Tune tribuimli Dnx ilcona i 
^iMiii SenwduJliis ad kuoc modntn alloquiUir: 
NorflilciM, tu d« diTcrma \aitt»n msjcabtUt criminibiH 
judicium Tocatua Deo et his paribos t« aubratBieti, qui iJiigrfi < 
reum jiroDuiitiaruDt. £c<iuid babea cor Jadidum non | 
tictnr I * Dux napondct : ' Fiat Tolunlaa Dei, ijui inter mt < 
&Jso« accuaktixits judtcabit.' Bilentiboa jtun nmnibua, muM 
oeiea advena is ilium coiivierirtair- Mox Berhamui aoaiat 
Regioae Srui-Khallum ut judieinm pronuatiaret poatalat, ^iwd 
ille ill hujuaDodi verba lacriuii* oburiit «i formula fcnoiuK 
tiavit: ' Quandoquidnn tu, Tlioma Dux Nurfolciaa, cnmuim 
lacaaa majotatis po»tutn(u«, tc ream ncgnverif leqa« IVina 
jodicio, qui mum deotaramut, mbniiaerifi, hie canseaana jadkat 
te bine in Are«in rcdaeendDm, inde Ciati impositum per i 
iirbem ad furcaa Irahendnm, iU KUpendcmlam, avnii: 
dnponenduin, cviacnajMlum, capttcqne ahacinu in quatnor ] 
tliaMcaBduiu. Dc capit« rt corporia psrtihui fiat qnod Regil 
nun Aurit: anitnaa aut«ni luae miw-realnr Dana'... 
qaae praeaena audivi esquisiUu* esplkavi, cum in rdm> i 
ct niniiaa momorari potteritatia intcntt. 

" 2. TnuL OF Makt, Qducx or Scon, 1586. 

(l) CotmniniiM for tKurioi. 

Quid de Bci)loruni Re^na fierol, comiliarii non nonm td 
annerunt. Alii nihil asprriiiE in emn rialurndum rt 
ard arctL^aim« cnstodiendam, Inm quod non erimEuii aal 
ted tantsm couacia, tarn quod Taletndiuatia nee din 

cf Mary, Queen ojSet 


ktii, nt rvliponi coDSulerctttr, protiniu e nmlia 
tm et ex IciTc:. LeicMtritu vmumm m&luit, el thenloguu 
■{Bi WaininEhnniDiD hoc licere cloccnt . . . Vannlnm 
I e qa« lege in ilium ogerMar, an «x illn nnni ixv lidirsrdi 
(qoa maiMtKlu IwMe tKuetur, qui lti>gi »ut llejfinse 
I alnuarit, Iwllum in riun rcguu inoveril, nut boflttbov 
t), an ex ills anoi xsrii KlizAbctbu*, qamu disi. 
eonim teutentia qui ex tia« poelrenM maluprunt. 
•d banc rpm iinla ideoqiu! Mccamnoditnda. Ex U^e 
ilU auperiori aniifl latA, nt inquinretur ct tenleutu 
<ur Ui iiloK qui rel'dlunem cODcilsrerint, niginin 
at, kut RcginDc vim inferre tCBU*«ri»t, pluree fl Sane- 
I Coiuilia «t Angliac procerilifM diplonmte delegati sunt . . . 
! fcrnnU for«]i9) iU te tiabet: 
'EKnbatlM. I>ci grntin AnftliM, Fnmeiee et HiberruM 
¥'vin I>cfen»or, etc., irrcreDdiiBinio in f'hrirto Piitri 
Boi rant(isti«tifd Arebifpiwopo, totiae Anglisc l'rirn>ili ri 
litaiw ct uui i]e privato Consilio Doetio, ac pnedilecto 
> Udi BMtra Tbonuv Broinlvf UiUli, Cancdlariu AoKliav. 
iri it priTato CoDfiilio nmitro, nc i-tiiun praedileclo ct Gdirli 
Wjllictmo Domino Burgblfy, Dwminn Tbwnurorio 
iif&M, alteri A<t jinvuto CoDsilio uotitio [and to 43 others] ^ 
■•Uum etc' Delude ne verbatim dcMribani : poat recapitula- 
ixtrm Icgis (sire Actns ut uovtri vorant) flimo ttipirriori 
kuiai^ b>ec iN:i]uuntur: 'Cum poet finem sraaioots Parla- 
*>Mi. wtlicci pn«t priiBum diem Juuii antio re^ii nootri 
tNaioM wptimo, divenae n% eoanpamatae ct imngiiwlac fiionint. 
'fihlin ad lunioaiein |>«rsoiiae nOBtra« Regiae, tam p«r Mariaot 
Gm St hacrf^Mu Jai^olri Quinti uuper Ecotoruin Itt^gi* sc 
'Wmuiiittr vocatam llrgtitam Scotonim et DoUtiom Frnnciaf, 
|>MttadeBt«iii titulnin ad ooronam buiiis Tcgni Angl!ii«, (jubir 
fir dtrtnaa alia* {lenonaa cum acl^ntia (Aitglioe, with tli« 
pint;) «Et^dcm Mnrinc, prout datum ett nobis iutvllifp; 
(so>|«e DOB inten'limu* et d«tcrminnmuii quod Actus pncdiotoa 
a MHi&tti et per ounb fi>i«t rite et eRertaalil^r rxocuttis 
wndim tenonuu eiokUui Adun, quodque ttiunes offensionea 

' Tla fiM a ump riBw t*«Blf-atiw Lcrdi, Bin* Kalskti aad Kiqaira* 
Amt af ifca Priinr Comca), tba Lw« CbiarjuiUiMB aad (Im Chief 




mpnulictae id Acta suprniJido, itt pra^fprtur, mentionrilae et 
ci^PUtl^*^^Ult.i(l(^ eunindcin forent exnuiinntjic. i-t »rnt<tntiB «ivc 
jiidiciuiu fiuperinde detur secuuduni tenorem et eSectum Aetna 
iUin*: Vobjs et uuuori Testniin |mrti pletiam et int«'GTo<B 
poteetatem dnmus ad examinnndiiin oranM vi xinguliu m 
oonipMwitfis et imaginntan. tendentes nd tneBionptn ptT^onae 
nostme regiae, tarn per praedk-lum Marinra i)uain per qnaa* 
cunque aliati penoiiuA cum scieutin (Anglioe. with the pmity) 
eiuGdem Marine, ct onini^ circuragtiuilias enrundeni, nc omnes 
tiliae ofipnaiunr? aupradictaB qnascuDque id Actu supradicto Ut 
prai-fertur nieiitioimtas : at superiude secuiidum tcnorpin Aetiu 
prnc^dicti nd dandum aenteiitiam sive judicium pmat Riper 
hnnaiti proIwtioDem materia voliis appaiebit. Et ideo vobis 
mandamua. quod ad certoa di«B et locn quus vos vel m&ior para 
▼etitruni ud hoc proviiJerJtta, dtligenter super pmetninKa in 
fiirtiiii pruwHctji procediitis, etc.' Camden. AnnalaX pp. HiJ-*!?. 

(a) Sentenee om Mary, Quern ofSeott. 

His pernctis* Couventus iu xxv diem Octobria ad Cameram 
StellatABi Westinoiiaiterii prorogntnr . . . Dip into . . . Bpntcntia 
in Scot^inim Iteginnm prolata est et delegntorum tigillis et 
subacriptionibus ftrmata attiue in actu reluta hisce verbis ; ' Ex 
unniiimi nm^enBu i;t eunseusu stiis srnlentiam «t judiciiiiD nd 
diem ft locum ultimam rfcitatum pronuiitiant, reddunt et 
dicnut, quod po8t fitiem prtiedictae temiouia pHrlamenii in 
commissiune praediota specificala, videlicet j>o»t prucdictum 
primum diem Jiinit anno viccsimo septimo supradicta rt auto 
datum fliuadem commission is, diveraae res compassatao et 
iniagiuatae fueniut infra hoc rvgnuni Angliae per AutLouium 
BnliingI (Ilium ct alius, cum scieuIJa (Anglicc, witli tlie privity) 
dictae Marine, praet^^iidenlis titulnm ad coronam hiij'us regni 
Aogliiie, (eiideutea ad taesiouem, mortem et deatructJoDera 
rrgslis pcnionae dictae Domiuac iiuiArae Ref^iiuf. Ac acilicet, 
quod post praedictum primum dinm Jimii nnni> vici'Mmo Kcptimo 
Bupradicto «t ante datura commisMnnis pracdietae praedicta 
Muria. prnetendena tituliuu ad corunam liujus renni Auj-Uiie, 
GumjMMavit et touigiuAta fuit infru boc rcgiium Aniline diverua 

' KuMlt, •<' •>• tbi OomndMiontr) al PoUKvingay. 

rfW^r^« to a Judge. 


lea ail lAMioDem, mnrtAin et ilntrucUoDem ragnli* 
DoBtioMi ucntne Regiuse, contra formsin ststuti in 
pnnlict* «pecifii:atj.' D« )i»c (KDt«ntiii, quae ex 
fide tola {mjiriulit, iic« illi coram in lueilium 
ex lege prima anni siii ipsius Klieabctluic, plurimuR 
apod Loniinea Mnno, dum alU \\\oa Bde diguo* alii 
[UgBM vxtitimanujL C^aMit.AtmaUt, L pp. 43I-1. 

3. Gbaxt or Omcx to a Juiwi^ >584. 

httni Eilnnla Flowerdtie pro officio tercii Baroaia <1« 
: Saeeuio. 

otnnilinK lul qnoe. «tc^ nlutem. Bciiili* quod no* d« 

I priit Mtfr* epvciali ac n vera seieotia et mero motu noflris 

rt eouceaaimua ac p«r pruewntM dumus et concedimuB 

Fvltctu et fidcli noitru Edwardo Floirirrdne, MerTienti ad Icsem, 

1 4(iiia tcrni Barouit d« Scaccario noetro, Tidcticei illud officinin 

^ni JoiiaBiMS C]eitclM>, BciTieiu ad legnn, nuper haboit «t 

LOnotiL Ac ipeum Edirardnm Ftou-enlue t«rcium ISarooem 

p4t ScMXuio iMMru racimut. otiliiiamua vt coDKUtuiiuiu [nx 

pMuiIca, habrmloin tenendum et ovmptuidum officiutii ^twt- 

6taB cadffD G<lir«nlo qoamdtD *« bene geiMrit in eodem. 

it KHm damns at conocdimux pracfato Kdwnnlo Flowordaa 

imtiardtio officii praedicti nmnin et sinfpila tot tanta et talia 

■^iB et oouuniliA nda feoda regarda di-narios coiiiiiiudila(«B 

{(ditna ct emoluments <|<iut quauU quup et qualiii prai.-dictai 

MiBMc Clrndie nupcr liulwoa et eierci-u> officium illad 

Unit percepit aat habere rt pi-rcipero dcboimet aiit jiotuiMict. 

■ •-Et nlliTius, d# uberiori gratia nostra ac io coQiiderntione 

fud Edwardiu Flowcnlne e*t wrrieua ud Ic^jn et nt idem 

"SoatR tali pcrwina mngit diguuiu tut ac ut pivedictua Edwardu* 

Rwcrdne insta eetiiaationom ifiute de en bnbetur mrliu* «up- 

fWUtw, dedimiu Ct coDcrxKinia* . , . cidi'in lulnardn F'lov'erdue 

^Madam aanoiutrm vigiiiti inarcanun tcgali« monetae Aa^diac 

ikn omua pranltctB feoda et neten pra«miEaa et suppriut 

imeei^ per pnnentM. . . . Et incuper cuncT^niuii ptneEato 

Efwdo I'lowerdiM ■ . . i^nod idem EdwurdD* de (cmpnfv in 

I qnatadia erit in officio pmcdicio hahpnt ct utattir tali 

I et Xoga, nbia ct onuiibiu Kliia apparalibos suii qualiur 




infrrior Jn«ti«i>riii« de Bunco nontro vel At Cpiainimi 
Umqiwm Jtuticurio* ibulem Aetxt ant poUvt Iwbrri ft 
Ac quod apud oinnea pcraonaa et in omni loco «t Icinpan ii 
E. F. Fcputabitur . . . et erit in Mden ordine. rtmIu, 
tioue ... nil otnuM intvntiaDe* praut klirjai* iurrrior Ji 
mrioa dc qnoUbct prMdicloran BaocorotB mt aire 
de iMDpon Id tempiu. . . [non obstante c)aai«}. 

Apni] Weatm. (3 Oct a-r. it. 

4. Jinvncm ov trb Puce. 
(a) The CommiMton h*ftTt I59i>. 

EJunbrtbn, Dei gratia . . . etc. jiraoitilecto et fideli 
Cantuaricnxi Atcluepi*c(^, etc-, necnua pnedtlectu 
Bromlfy militi dotniito Cnncellono, Wiltidmo donitno Bar] 
nMsaurario [ct aliU], lalutem. 

[L] Sciatra quod asBiKuavimns tos. co^iouctiin «t diTuam,! 
pBcem noMraiD ao ad Matota eX urdiualionea apud Wia 
Mortfaaniptoii et VcftnKiiuutcriuni pro cotuerVKtioac 
qfUtdun ; DccnoD ad orrdinationRs ibidem et apud Ckwtabrigiig' 
de Tonntofiba*, opcnriia, artilicihus, srrTiloribiu, lioataJUnii 
et aliia meodicaotibns et ragabundis et aliia bominiboa iModi- 
caotiboa qui te nomioant tiwailioR laen ; et aitailitfr ai 
atatuln et ordiuutiouea apud Wt«tinontut«riuni auuu rvitiu 
Ht^nrlci Quiirti tiuptr Rc^r Ansliaa d«funcli pritnn ct accvsdo. 
At librniti^ Hgnoniin Mocirttitis milttibuf, Hrmigviis m-u fnlectu. 
•t aliii libetatis pannorum miuime damlis, nee ctB Liberalb 
ftliqualitcr uteadis : ao ad quuddani aliud «t»tuluin Hcund 
Qitinti ntipn- Kef{iH, etc., d« contrafnctum, lotura. tonmn rt 
sliu fulutura monetae terrae noatrae eutt4)dieradaB> : ac id 
omnia alia otdiuationaa at atatuta pro bono pacia aottna at 
qnieto reginiine et guberuAlione [-opuli uostri edita in eonitalu 
Doirtro Kanciae, lant iafru libertuten quaio extra, jiuta vin, 
formnm et effoctum ramndcm, outtodienda et cuModtri facMoiU; 
at ad omnn illcu qun* mnira formAin otdinatiotuiBt ct i(at«- 
toruffl pra^xfictoruin dcliuqucntes inTeneritis raatigaudM M 
puiiendoa, pruul tecuiHluni ruRnam ordinationun et »lBtot«nun 
|-ntcdictonuu fuerit Cactrodum : ct ad omuea illoa, qui alii 

Commissioti of tke Peace. 


tiflairo de corporilms mi* tcI de inceailio dotnonun 
ouoM frcnrint, ml taX^sLvtnirxa sccnriUlem de pace «t 
' gnta Rko rrp noR ct populutn mMtrum i»v<ruit<iKLiia, 
nlis veaira, rt, n faqjiiHmodi McariUUin invtrnint 
at. iDUc eo* id prieuiiia uostris, quoutiju* cjuMnotli 
tmeneriiit, mJvos ciululiri fMiivniluiD. 
LI AMigiMtimna ctinm td« ct <)no«:tii»iiu« veatmra jnstiei- 
' MMtiW *A uiqnimidDni p«r Bacramcutum prolinrnm et 
hamuitun de comttatu pra«dioto, per quos rn vnitM 
Kiri jioU-nt, de orouiiiKidiii r«loiius. Inuugresuimibas, 
nil, rrgrstariii H *stortioDibiu Iii coniiUlu praedicto 
^fsOKiuiqtH et qoAliUreuDipDe Tactis : rt rlinm de umntbuti 
,qn IB codiei'licnlis oontH pftcem DCHtram «t in pcrtnr- 
popaE aoUri am vi armata ieriot t«I eqaiUTcriot : 
de luia qm ad K'^ot*'"' noctratii niajrIieiBandani vel 
atndAtn in iitndiii jncurriiit: ct etiaia de uuinibu* iiti* 
•pitiu et litis lilicnitit dc a»ic« trata, prr canfu^den- 
c( pro nHiiat^Denti*, contn proliibiMoDcm ao ronnun 
pttm et •talutomin pmedictarum iude ante bam tern- 
bdoram, oni facriDt, ct nlii* liujumiodi lil>eratia imgioe- 
nfmtiliiu : rt ctiiun de liodelUriii ct nliit qui in nliUMi 
am eL [KMiderum ac io Tendiltone vidtmliiini, ac etiMii 
j f«1jai«um|tie opcrviit. mend icaoti but, artilkil»M, wrn- 
■ibu, boBteliariis et vB}tahuiidii>. ac uliiH qui contra ronnam 
MdiutiaDnm et (tatnlorum pmedidvruni . . . de liujiiuoodi 
<MMariliai. operariix {4c.] inde fnrtonim dcliijuBrint, »cl 
VtMlavmnl iu coiniitatn pmediclo: nc rtiam dr qiiil>iucui»<|ue 
^Wwiiililii^. mujoribiia, balliviB. MneacaJlis. con«Iat)uliirii» 
K entodilmt gsolAruni qui in execulioue oSiciorum gnoruai 
•9 hiUiumixli aitiliee* (&«■] juxia fbmiam ordiuatioDuni et 
ACntennn pcaedictorum fnciciulonini indrhitn w hnliiufriiit. 
Hi tepidi, rcnuwi vel dc^II^ihIo fucriut: et de omnibui et 
■l«l** **>'« articulii! el cin:uin).lMitii> a« sliis pnvcmiatiit 
■Mri Ibnnaiii oprlitrntiainini et HtatntAmm pnedict«nim factu\ 
inKteRUuque cuDCenienlibui plenioa veritalen. 
[ni.1 £t ad indtctAiiKsita (juaf^unijae, tain coram vnliia sen 

■fc|iitiuiiiil ant alii* iiu{«r custodihuR pacis ct jnaticiariia 

tlwiai Edvardi IV ct Edw. V. nupcr res-um Angline, nc Iti?. 
[l^er^do (acto et nan <le jure) icgii Angliae, necuMi Domini 




Henrid ouper Rpgis AiigliM VII, Hmrici VTTI. Edwtnii VIi 
Mnrine, [&c.j, uA Iiujitfmodi feloniu, tnmynwoiiw* et t 
facia in romUuto ptB<Jirto audicDtla tX tennuiMMl* a««r 
. . . I'acl* et nondiim U-rmiuata, qnant coram Tobu rt 
t«atriK uuii« ciMtodibim pscu na«tf*e «t justicwriU tua 
hnjuniMxIi . . . facta ft nondun tenuinaU, iuB{iici«iul«, 
pTDOMlcnilam iniJe ac pToowaas vrnuia drums aliott qoM i 
vohii. uni nli(|nil«a Tertrum ii>di«lart contigtril, qn 
capiaittur, redttantur «ca utlageatur, faciendM ot 

[IV.] Aasifcnavimos M'mm v<w. 79, 78, 77, Ac., •guatnor, 
et doM veHtnitn (quomm aliqnfiD TeKtrum. vo*. A. B.C.I>.4 
unnm riwu voltumw) jUBliciarioe oontros ad r«laiiias 
ac <• omnia ct (iiigulB quuu per Iiujutunodi ho«UlIarim rt I 
in abusu mfiMnmrum ct pondcruro ac iu veoditiom 
aliDm, c1 omnia alia qaii« per bajnimodi npenuioi ^ 
coutm formam onlinatiotituD ct slatnlorani prnatictoniB 1 
in cnenaliouc eorundua in aliquo praesompU tcI «tteB]il 
fiurint : ac cxtoritocuw ei regnlariua (inrdietaa, taiu ad 1 
nostnitti qnam alioram quorinncanqii* ranun vobLi pro 
•ai pro Kipsia conqaeri aut piowqat volcntiDm, anilieuilinnl 
terminandnm : nxcnon ad tnnsgrestion*! ot foraUltariw ] 
dictaa ac omnia alia gapenaa dod dc«larola det^rminaiuU 1 
aectam Do^train laulum: et omnia alia, quae TirtuU 
Itonuni rt Ktatutorum pnedictnrnm per nutodeii padb noatiMl 
jiuiiciariup no»tro« liiijutiDDdt diiculi ct tf-munari dEfanit, 1^ 
dipndn ct tcrminamla : ct nd roniLcin o]ieiBriQ«, artl&« ' 
aenitom per fin««. rMlenptionrs ot omrrdamcnla ac altD w^ ^ 
pro (lelictis eui>, proiit ante ordination^m d« {KUiitJone cocptn" 
liujuBmodi opnariia [&c.] pro delielis niia exhiVoda bctus 
fieri cnuoevit, umumo cowkm vic«cociut«a, Toafamt, balling 
•cncKclialloa, eoavtabiilariaa nc ciutoda gaolanm, TvnaUt* 
vilcllarion, hoatitlWioa, nwwlMaiitca rt vaipbandtNi, anpa ^ 
quM? contra fomam ordUiattooaiB «t itaintortun fwiwdaciora* 
attemptata rnrrlnt. ca«li^nd08 et punieadoe, areandoin It?*' 
et coum«itudin#in praedictaa ao famtaiu oidinatiooaia et ttain* 
torum piaedictorum. 

[v.] Proviao Minper quod, hi castit difficnHalU miprr iOtf 
BiinatiuL« aitortiooain biijuinodi oonm ToUa Tmira 1 

IML.] ' 

Commission oj the Peace, 


tuDC ad judicium iude redd«uduni, nisi in pracwntia nniotf 
juflliciuHoruin iioiti'urum de uuo vel do ultero Banco aut justi- 
i^iariurum nontrorum lul uteisns iii t:nRiitntii jirneilictu cajik-udBM 
uwignntoruni, coram vobia rainime proocdatur. 

[VI.] Et ideo vobis et cuilibet vestrum maDdamu*, quod 
circa cualoduini pHcis, ordiuatiuuum et atatutorum praedictornm 
dUiReutcr iiituiidatis \ «t ud vertu* diva ot lucn (\v.Qv voh «ea 
nliqui vcRlriim nd hoc provtdcritts diligeuter super prnt-uiitoa 
faciatia iuquiaitioups : et prneniissa omnia et singula Budiatin 
et tvrmiuetia, ac ca facinlis rt rxplcatis iu forma praedicta, 
' fKturi inde <|uud ad juHlitium pertiiiet seouuduiu legem «t 
coiu.u<!tuditiem rvgiu ucnlri Augliue: aulvlii Dubia auxirciameiitia 
ct uliii nd DOB indc spectnutibiu. 

[Vll.] MaudaTunUB ctiara' vicecomiti iK>rtro KnncUc ([uod, 
ftd MrtuH diM vt loca quos tos bcu aliqui veetrum oi scire 
faciatb, venire fuoiat coram vobie ecu aliqoibus vcstrum tot ot 
talM probos «l legale* lioiuincs dv bolliva BUa, tarn iufra liber- 
UU« luam cxlrs, pvr quos rei Veritas in pracmissi! mcliiM scire 
|K)l(rit tt iwjiiiri. 

[VIII. J Et von, praofati Thomas Wottou. ad dieK «t loca 
]>nu!dict«, brevia, pmeccpta, proccKHus et indictuuiciila pra«- 
dictn corant vobis et dictis fociis vcstria venire faciatiii, et ca 
insiuciatia cl debito Sue tei'minctii, sicut praedictum est. 

lu cujua ri-'i te»timiiuiam, &c. Datum aexto di« Augnsti, 
^^ Anno rcgiii uoKtri viMaiuiu priuio. 
^^L Lamharde, ElrttMieha, sd. i jSi, p. y). 



(b) Tkt Commiftion afUr 1590. 

EUxalN^tha Dei grutla 4c., predilcdo et Gdeli Johamii Cantu- 
arieniii Archirpitcopo jrinlii*] Milutem. 

[I] Sciatia quod assignav-imaa von, ronjmictim fit divimin, 
et qiwralibet reilrum, justiciarios Dostroa ad pnccm noxtran) 
in uomitjito uoHtro Kaiiciae conxerraudam, ac ad omnia ordiua- 
tionn «t xtjitiita pro bona pncia nOHtme ac pro cuutvrvatioue 
MHfdnn ct pro qui«to regimine rt giibcnutioue popnli n<wtri 
«dita in omuibua ft aingnliB suis nrttculia in dido comitatn 
nortro, t«m iufra libvrtat«a quam extra, Juxta vim, formam et 

> ' cDitn ' In icxt, 
L a 




eRectnm t'ommlem ciMittwlirndnm nt cu*loJiri fanendam ; «4 od 
ottmn ilto* (juo» [Ac. »» befoiy] . . . mIvo; custodiri fiuriondnm. 

[11.] Ag^ifninrimns rtiniu \o» et quoslilwt ditoB vel plans 
TeMiTun, (juoruni aliqueiu vciitrmii. A. B. C D. E, F. &c„ uuum 
Wt« v(/luiiius, juelioiaiios iiorfros nd inqiiiivnduin jut »iicrs- 
luectum pi-olionim et legnlium linmiiiiim dp comitAtii proedicto, 
per ijiins rei vcritns rnelias sciri potprit, de oouiibus et omni- 
inoitis feloniis. vt'neficiis. incaatnlioiiiliiiH, sort t ]<■{;>■'<. ^rtA 
ninfri'-'a. ti-aiisgrMsioiiibua, fomtullariiii, rpffrutariU, iiiKniniwniii 
et «xlurti(milms qulbum-iinqiie, uc dc oinnilmn nliiit wnli-fnciiii rt 
offciintf d(i qiiibiiK jii.-rticiHrii pnris nn^tiiw legitiroa inquhrro 
pfWMiiit nut dplieiit, per qiinscuiiqnp et qualitercunque in conu- 
tatu pi-edicto factis: ac etiam de oniuibus illia qui ia comitatu 
prnedicto tn couventiculia contn pnctMn nuiitr<ini in ptrlurbn- 
tiiHiem populi iio*lri auu vi armnta iM-iiiit vcT cqiiitATrnint '. ac 
rtinm dp Dmnitniii IiHh qui ibidrm nd );cn1ein notili'am tiiftvtra- 
tnauduD) vel iulerficieDduin in iuxidiie jafui-runt : nc etium de 
liortellnriia et nliU uuiiiibus et »iiiit»Us jieiiinniH qui in Bbtiro 
poiidiTiim vet meneumrtiiiJ Rive in vcitdifione victunliam contra 
fnrninm cirdinntinmitn et ptnliitiiitiiji inde pro cornmuni utilitat^ 
rcpiii nostri Anftliae et pitpiiH mwtri eiuBdeni editomm delique- 
runt vel altcmptaveriint in eoniitatu pnrdtcto; ae ctinm de 
quibuHcuiique viectomitibu*, bnllivis. scni'scbnlliii, ro(i>-tiihu- 
lurii«, euvtodibuB gaclai'nm et aliis officinriis qui in cxeeiitione 
ofKcionmi ehoi-iiiu circu prnciniKMi indcbite ae habuenmt aut 
tepidi. reniissi vel negligentes fuprunt: et de omuibua artieuli* 
et rircum^tanliia et nliis rcLus quiliiuseunquo pri- quoavunqac 
et qualitercuuque in comitatu pniediclo fucti*, qiinlit«'rcuDque 
pitkemiF^ciruin eonccnieiitibuii pteniui veritiiteni. 

[Ill,] Et nd indictnmctitu quaecunque sic coram vobia pen 
nliquibus veslrum capta, »iit eorsm aliia nnper juolietBritK pnei» 
in romitutu prnedicto facta aive capla et uonduni termitiiitii in* 
«pii'.irndiini, ne ud pruccKnu.i inde vertuii ornnoH mc indictntos, 
quousquc CRpinnt.iir. rciidunt Be vel ntlnpcntiir, f^euilum et 
coutiuuandum : ct ad crania ct feingola feloiuat^ veucBciti, 
incatitnliaiiea, tortileKia. ai'tea niagicna, tniiivgrcMioneii, fbr- 
»tallflrifM, regnitnrinii, in;irossaria«, extursione^ convcnticnia. 
indictamenta predicin caelcrnqne omnia prneraisra, sectindum 
leges et iitatata ivgni Bostii Aiigliae, piout in liuiiuuodi riuu 

Comitn'ssion of the Peace, 149 

fleri coDSUevit nut dcbiiU, ouiiii-ndum ct terminRncluni ; «t ad 
euKilirui jBliiiqiK'ntes [>ro dflictis suis per fines, redemptioues, 
umerriam^iitA. foriiifactuinH ui: ulio mciilo, [irout Becuuduui l(-f;t^in 
et couHiietuditicui rt-Kiii nortri Angliiie nut rai'mnm oriliiiatiniiuRi 
vcl (tiitittoruni prncdictorum fieri consuevit aut dubuit, caati- 
gandum et puuieudum. 

[r\'.] Proviso Bi-iujicr iitiod, ai oaaun difiicultntis BUper dcter- 
miiiittioni! iJiqiioniiii prncmimirum cnrum vobis vel atiquJbiiH 
daobuK vel pluribus v«ttruin eveniie rontiytrit, tuim ad jiidi> 
ciain l&c. &» befui-ej . . . miuuue pmcedulur. 

[V.} £t ideo vobii [Sx. iia belortij uili'udatiit ; et ad c«rtOB dies 
fit locft <(U]ip TDii vpI oliqiii hiijiisiiiodi duo vel pluree vestram. at 
predietum e*t, ad hoc pruvideiiliti [&c. as before] . . . apeclautibun. 

[VI.] Mandamus eliam ' ttuore pmcntium vici-cmniti noxtro 
Koucinc quod ad certuN dieit ut Iucd, ijuiic vor \v\ nliqui hvjUB- 
modi doo vcl plures vestnim ut priLodictuni eat ci ut praedictnm 
eat Kin: feoeiilis, venire facial [&c. ua before] . . . inqairi. 

[Vll.] A:!ii)(iiuviirmn dMiii|u« lo pnliituiit Kdwnriluni H> 
Tnilitcni ciMUidi-m lotulorunt pubis nostjae in divto ooiaitatu 
jiMlru. ac projiUrea tu ad dies et loca pnicdicia [&«. ua beforej 
, . . aiout pniedictuiu eat. 

In cujiu ici t cat i moil i am, &c. Datum Tic«simo die Nm^m* 
brii, anno regiii Dostri trice.simo quarto. 

Cnatflon, LCfgicr it aithority de Jiuliett dt Ftaw, ri,. II93, )i. ). 

(0) The Oath of a Jvitiu Qftht Pate*. 

Ye aliull lU-i-nr Ibal, as jiutice of tlie peace iu t&e coaoty of 
it, in all article* in thu Ijitei-n'i Cmnmisniuu to you directed, 
')« aball do equnl right to ilic poor and to the ricli alW jxiur 
GIUUUDg, wit and power, and aft«r the tawa and cusloma of th» 
realm aiid xtatuten thereof made ; aud ye shall not be of couomI 
with uiiy quarrel hiingitig before you; and that ye hold your 
Beei'ioii» after the form of vlaiutci tbcreuf made and tbo iaauea, 
fmvv and ameiceiuetits tliait shall happcii to be made aD<l all 
forfi'iturea which nhall fall before you ye ahail caute to be 
entered without any concealiuciit or cubczxling and truly aend 

* 'cnim' ia t«it. 




Jhem to the Queen's excliei^UHr. Y« tlioll nol let for gift or 
otlier I'liuie, Imt well and truly _vr »!iaII do jmur office of jnstice 
oTttie pcnr^ in tliat behalf, snd that you tsk* nothin); for your 
offica of juRlice of tli« jieuL-u to be iloue, but of tLu Qumi, and 
fees accustoiiii^d and ouili limited by tlii' nlvtule; itiicl tc iihull 
iiut dirt-ot Dur c&use lo Ix^ diroctod Any wntDiiit (by you to be 
mode) to tbc parties, but y« »ha1l direct thtm to the bailiflii of 
the Raid county or otber tbe tjuecn's olfi«ni or minirtets, vv 
other iiidiffeiviit persons lo do execution tliercof. So tiolp you 
God nnd by the contents of this book. 

hatnhoti* , Kirtnanlut, *A. ijSi, p. 39. 

C. Wbit BSTABUSHixa TUG CoDRT OP Castlb Chauber 


Conimisnio specialis pro Csmera Stellatn in Ilibomift. 

[I.] Elizabeth by ihe gnu-« of Ood. Sic. To our right trusty 
nnd well-iieloved the LonI Dppiily Lieutmnnt Juslic-o or 
■lustitcs of our renlln of IrplaTid, Lord Ohnniii'llor or Keeper 
of our groat snal there now being or that hereafter shall be, 
our Lord TreaHurer uf the Bame realm uovr being or (&c.], 
the Cliief Juatice of our hi^b bench in that our realm that 
now is ur [&c.], the Chief Juntii^e of our eomnum picas in the 
Mame realm that now ig or [ftc], the Chii>f Itnnm of our 
Exchequer there that now ig or [&C.], and the Marter of the 
Belli of our Uhancery in the aania i-ealm Uiat now ia or [ftc.], 

[ll/| Forasmuch ns by milawful mnintennnce, embrMeriei, 
confederacies, allinnccn, false bonding* and taking of money by 
the common jurors of that our realm, and also by nntruc de- 
meaning of sbcriffft in making of panels and other untrue 
returns, and by riot, routs, unlawful aaaemblieii. forcible entries 
and other tike hateful disorden . . . and olTeiioea the policy nnd 
good rule of that our realm is well nror »ubvei1i?d, and for not 
punii<htng of these ineonvpniencc" and by oofiniiion ofthepre- 
ini&»i-5 uotliiug or little is or may be found by ooqniiy ; 
whereby the laws of that our realm in execution do aud mast 
take little or no effect, to the iiivreaae of murder*, |>erjurie* and 
tiiisuretios of our eubjecta and loM of tkeir lands and goods, to 

Court of Castle Chamber. 

\u> tfn»i liiiii)ra)ic« of onr nmrice and to the digplMture of 
AliDiRhly Ood : for tic better remedy whetvof and to tlie 
intviit tlukt nich exacralilu uud {«ruicioua «vitii . . . vliull not 
wcBpc without juBt and duo ouiTuctioii »nd puniHhmmt, Vfr 
have thought meet to uppoint ihnt u pnrticulnr court for the 
Itvaring and dcttirminotion of thcxe dctmtntile cuormitkB . . . 
shall hn boldrn within our Cautic at our City of Uublin iu thai 
onr realm «f Ireland or iii aueb olh^r pluve where th« urdluuiy 
twrna shall be kept in that our realm, and thut the miiih- our 
Court fhali ho colUil the Ooatle Chamber of our Hoid ix^lai uf 

{^UI.] And having (rood «xpenineiit of your truth, oiroum- 
[qwctiou, iutegrily and knowledge and like ROud liupe of nioh 
fas iJinll by oiir appcuntincnt succeed you in your office, Wr dn 
■ thi*p jirewnts appoint and amstituti! you and such m "hull 
Ijoor oflices for the time execute, or any three of you, whereof 
he aud Lord De^iuty Lieuleaiant Justice or Jn-iticea, 
or or Krnpnr of our (aid grot seal or Lord Trcnxurrr 
I be one, our ConuniMioocrs iind Juittcon of our Raid Court of 
Imtt Cattle Qiamber, together with ^uch us by authoi-ity hereof 
ahftU bo to you aisociate iu the times of the four uidiuary 
[ terma to be liolduti within lliut our realm from time to time, 
nwo dttyH every werk of tbc Miid t«nn (that i« to fay) Wednes- 
day and Friday oi' any olher days and times wheu jou or any 
two of you [quurum as belbre] bliall think meet. 

[IV.] And further, We do give full power to the hwA Depuly 
[Lieiiteimnt Juxlicc or Juiticcs, Lord Chujic^ltor nnd Keeper of 
(oor said great sea! and l^nl Tivngurer of our »aid realm and 
to every of them for the time being, and which »lialt he present 
at auy time of nittinf; in the aaid Court, to coll ah associate 
unto him or them >urb iind »o miuiy uf the luiila spLi'itual and 
ti>Bi{>oral and such of our Privy Council or .Tustioes of any 
oar Benches iu our said realm of Ireland ax they or any of iJicin 
. . . shall think n»^et to sit and join with him or titcm in the 
hearing nnd determininft of suoh causes aiid matters aa iu our 
aaid Court xliail be heard or detcrtuined. 

[v.] Aud further, We give unto you or anrthree uf you {quorum 
IU helorej together with such of the )aid Lords Councillor* and 
xuoh a competent uuuiber of theoi or any of tbeiu 




U llien •Imll bo cntlrcl and prwent ti> sit willi yon iih nforcmid, 
full ]>owrr to receive. \\e&v anJ dcterminei all bill«. complaiiits, 
supplications iirid iiifui mHtiune to be oiude . . . iutu our Miid 
Court, eoiiet^niing (iny riots, mills, forcible i-ntrirB, uiiluwful 
lUMuiblicn, <lcccili>, pcrjiirirs. forgeriee, default*, ffll§itie8, mis- 
dcnicnnours of (heritTs and other o6Sver«, conteiDpts, dltorden, 
iDisdcmcanoure and offetices coiiinutted , . . willnn our said n-ulm 
of Irtlaud. luid [ihej ({(^[leiidcntii niid inciitent" upon tbc luimv, 
ill Kiioh like mnnncr ... as «irb like offences nre or hcrctiifore 
bnvc bet'u use<l lo be ivceived, bean], ordered, and deleii»iii«d 
in tb« Court of Star Cbumber witlitii uur rciilm of KukUekI. 

[VI.] Aud [wej do also auUiorino iiml give i'ul! pownr 
unto jon or ibn-o of you (qnoruni m I»fore] to nwiird all 
or<linary process as well upon h11 tlie snid bills wbiL'b be 
exbibited for any tiie causes or offejici-.-i jifunrsiiid ns uIho upon 
nil contcmptx to bu comniittrd in niiyof the fi\\s\ matti^rs in like 
inaniier as is used in uur Court of StarCbaiuber wlthiii our 
rt-uliu of England, tbe nianni^r nnd form whereof wc have 
bereiinto caneed to be iinncxeid ', 

[VIL] And we do also give unto yoo or any three of you 
[quorum an liefure] full power togetluT wllli iiny luob your 
asEociiitesits afoi*e is said or tlic niorc number of them toenlland 
conimand heforo you into the said Couit by all means and ways 
that you shall see to bo expedieut all the m'lsdoerii and wffcudpM 
that ebnll bo bif eoniplaiiieil upun, and to proccrd to the examina- 
tion, discuKitioti luid diitcniiinntion of the said disorders [&C.1 
in the same manner and oider an in our said Court of tbe 
Star Chamber here in Kuglaud is used, uitd >udi m yua iihiill 
find U> be ill fuult to punish by firioi to our u»n, iinpriitonment 
■nd otherwise after their demerits and according to your 
disci'etiouB ; and also to tax and ttesH (o our use aiueroFmviiIa, 
fiuen uud penalties for defaultn to Im inudt^ by nun-uppcnrauce, 
depBrtnreii from the Court without licrncc or other defaults or 
disobediences of the BherifTs whalsover to be committed within 
that Court or against the authority of the same, and fur the 
levjing thereof to award pi'oeeuM iii like iiinancr ns is ii^eil for 
the having or obtaining of niiy of oiir debts or duties witbln 
our said realm of England, nnd the same to be to the uw of u>, 

* Th«ae iiulruatiuiu da mil ajipear Dfun the roll. 






Wns w»d •oeoenora, and in be kccountod for in mcli mniiner 
•dwrUte penitiuilcH or furrcUuive of oth«r our Courts Wtlbin 
mti n«lm uf Irrlnnd Iw or sliiill be iKCUouUnl for. 
>'IlL]*ViKlwe dobysotbnntfof our royal jitviuigalive gntbt 
Atdiin Uttt all judgiDcnln. UxntioiH. decrrcs and order* 
(ImU be giveu, nuda And biken by yoa or my three of yon 
M befi'.rDj lngctli«T with iu>7 your UMMKutM m> to be 
•a aforesaid, shall Ik of tho tike TorMi . . . and effect 
the party or poitisB as any the judgmvati [&c.] given 
.] IB the Coort of the Star Chsniher within our rt«lm of 
ara or ooglit to lie. 

And alfo ve do will and order that the Lord Iluptity 
Bt Jiutive or Jiudcm of our taid realm of Ireland for 
tiiDc being ihall tmat time to time al his or their will and 
com* . - . into our »ftid Court of Ciuttlo Cluiinlwr and 
bit at thtir prewDce in the tame ahall hare in oar 
the full power uf chi«f head sod ptiacipal justiciar and 
^nmiincr, and sIibII be the chief Iiead and principal juiljie in 
Hd of all tndi msttcTB anil caafM as shall bo in the modc 
IWt propaned. debated or cootroversed, any thing in ihna 
wiettaaof ooffiintsaiou 1o the couliury uutwithBtaitding. 

[I.] And thmfbre we do by tcuor hereof will iiml comnuuid 
JVtW yoa and trt*rj of you shall with all nrnest diligenco 
^ ^ya io tlie wt«k in the fonr t«na-limca of the ytar as ia 
»illiiM»l gire yoar nlteoduico in and ubunt the due anil full 
OHvtian of iha premisMs in tnnnner afbrcuid. 
lXI] Ami we do also giTc in strait charge and commandment 
iH oar bithful Bubji-el!! to wbofu it shall upfwrtain, of what 
... to ever thoy uliall be ... , that they sliall be obedient 
• ^ita jrou and to SDcb final onlors and judgments as touch- 
tU preauseee aba!) be Itom time to tioM had and taken by 
90 as shall appettmin, as they will eacbew our high iiHligna- 
tina and will muwer for tho ooolrary at tlirir extreme peril*. 

Kltaus our self at Wcstioiostcr the liftcenth day of April 
n tht [blank] year of our reiga. 

ratnt MM ^dt dirtnit mutU), Bit. No. 1606. 





I. CoHuisBtoK or LtnmExAxcY. 

Elbabi-tli \>y (be gnice of Ood, [At] to oor rigM tnAf ul 
right wcU-W1ov(d A. B. ftc grvetinf;. Kuot iv tint, 
the great and singular trust a,a& contidcoce ve htct* n j 
ap)>rovcd fidelity, wiwioia aod cir^umtprctifin, wc luve Kiicni 

ji>u to lie our Lieotcnaut wilbiu oar conntifs otS.MniT. 

and all the cities, towns and lilwrtiiv withio the prcdiicti t/ 
ssJd counties or of either of lima ; uid br titate |itflKnti 
give puwer and autluirity onto yoa, Ibnt rna rrom tiotc la 
may )«vy. gather bihI oil together all oar sabjecta, of 
Mtat«, df]^rM or dignity they be, dwelling within OCT 
eouuti«* [&c.], meet and apt for the wan^ ami ibetn to 
amy and pot iu r«odiiM«9, and tbera alM aflvr tb«ir abT 
dcgrr** and racalties WI^1I and mlBcicutly tu cauM to Im 
«nd veapoovd, and to toko tlw mimlm oftbem' fiom tiaela 
tifue iu placet most meet for that puTi>o>c after ynuf pM 
diaereiion : and iib»o the Mune oor aubjects so armynl, IntJ "^ 
ann«d, as wvll men of arm* na otWr borsempu. archm ^ 
fontuien of all kiiid> and d<^gi'rr-s tartA and apt for the *ail 
coadoct ai>d 1«ad as w<rll agaiiut all odt enemies na alao tfii 
all tebeK traitors and otiwr offenden nnd their adhertaU - 
within our >aid counties [&c.] from ttme to tini« as efc> ** 
need aball require by your discretion : and with iW ■>' 
eneoiios [ftc] to Ggfat and them to invade, resUt. rrprtH V* 
aubdue, alay, kill and put to esccntiau of death by sll *^|l 
nod rncun* . . . ; aiid tu do all ntbrr thing* vrhich ifaiO i^H 
reqaiiile for the Icvving and govcTDment of our naid i«bi«*^ 
conaerratioo of onr perron aod p«ftci>, ao by you in fom i**^ 
aaid levied and to be ted ' : and to execute against tbe ' 
MiemieN [Ac.J ax Deceaaily shall retjnire by your divcretion ' 
law called tlie manhall [tiic] law uoconling to the Uw nUtJM 
[sic] : and of sncli oBcndcrs apprchrndrt] or beiDg broogiA ' 
subjection, to save whom you (hall think good to be nv«d.i 
to . . . put to e:tecution of death soch and m> maay of than i 
you dhall ihiuk meet by yoor said diaorction ta be put to i 


ham ^M 

■ Tbo ani<c of wardi atifwan titte ta W li»Mpaa«d by Klitaka 


CotMmissiott of Lieutettan^, 


And further we do give onto you full poww and authority 
thnt in ciur nny invunon of our i-netniefl, iinurrectiou. relx-llion, 
riotB, miite or unlnwrui iicwnililHia or nnr other like ofFpneod 
shall happen to he moved in aay place of ttii» our realm oat of 
the limita of this our commiwion, that then and as ofl«<n aa 
you shall t>erc«ire any auob inbdemeuiiour to arise, you, with 
all the power you cnn mnlte, nhiiU with all (iilinecife rrpair 
lo the pWn whnra any nuch iiiviisiuu, iinliiwful nssciDbly or 
iiienrreclion gViall happen to be made, to miMiie . . , the game 
aa well by battle or other kind of force as otherwise by the 
lam of our reottn end the low murtial according to your dia- 

And further wo give unto yoti full power for the execution 
of this oitr commiMiou to appoint in our Mid countic |&c.] 
muster- mas trrn. aod one execute the martial 
law in cB«e of any tnvaaion or rel)e11ion tn conducting any 
niimlii^rB of men of war against the said invaders [&c]. 

^Vherefore we will and oommund you, our said Ideutenant, 
that with all diligence yr do pxeeute the premiHu:i< with i-iTect: 
and foraj>much as it may he that there shall be ju»t caiwc, 
as DOW Iherv is, for div«n of you to be atteodaut upon our 
penon or to be otherwiwe eraployetl in our «en,ice, whereby 
this our fervice in our nid couiitic" of N. nud F. rnniniitted to 
your fidelity cannot he hy you in ponon execute in enoh aotl 
as we have appointed the same ; therefore we give uuto you 
for your better aid and aaaiatauca and for the l>ett«r perform- 
anoe and execution of the *aro« our aervioe, full power lo 
appc^Dt ... by your writing under your hand and veal such 
gentlemen re^idont within every of the wid countieB [Ac. | aa 
[are] here onderwritteu uud named to be your deputies in thin 
aaid service in our auid tevend countiei [&c] : and by this our 
preaent commuvion we give unto them *o liy yon appointed . . . 
foil power in your nb«ence to do in our aaid conntic* of N. 
and V. [Ac] all things liefore by this our commission appointed 
by you to be done. And our further pleasure . , . ia that your 
aaid deputien, immeiliateiy aftt-r your letter* of deputation to 
titera made na it nforeiaid, take care to see every ]iaint of UuK 
our commioion as fully and perfectly executed in your absence 
as you yiKirself ought to have done it if you had been preaaut \ 





ftud the betler 1o etuiUe Ui«m so to do, our pleftnure is tlint 
iniraL-diatelj nftt-r cuch dfipotstion mndc sa sforesnid yon nhHll 
ddivur ttnto tlicia n true transcript of t>ii» our commis^i'm 
Kulieci'ibecl with your hand. Ajid whatsoever you alone being 
]>rpsent or in your ubneuct' your saiil di^puliea shalJ do by 
virtue of t]iis our conimisMoii . . . tuuchinir Uie execnfion of 
Uie [iretnii<seB shiLll lii; ilisdiurged in thnt behalf ngniuit u*, our 
lieirs Biiil aiiccessora. 

And fiinher we will and cnminnnd nil our ju^tictt^ of ppnes 
. ■ . and ail other our officers. miiiiHtcrs nnd Fuhjocts meet and 
apt for tlie wars witbio our tuud counties [&c.] to wbum it shall 
apperlnin, that tbuy with tbeir power and eervautd fnini tim« to 
time sliuU lie ottctiduiit . . . und «t the coinmandiiirnt as trail 
of you as of your said deputii'J in tiie execution txr^of, as they 
tender our pleasure and will answer to the contrary at their 
Utt«rui<ii>t peril. 

At Weslminstw the 15th dny of June, in the twenty-scTenfb 
year of our reign. Palnl Holl {•h Jlr*rii, anaU), Eli;. (No. 1606). 

2. CoumseioK of abrat. 

Commisalo speoiitUs «d bumiues ad araia liahiles arralaudos. 

llegtnn &<:. prcdik-ctb et GduHbus siiU A. B. C. D. ct E. 
snititen). tiicintis ijuod nos, dc spprobatis lidelitntihuB et pro- 
Tidentibos circumspection! bus veatris plurimum coufidentrs, 
assignuvimus et eocstitutmus vos commiasiuuarioB et deputatos 
noetrOB, dantes et concedeutea vobis et tiibus et duobus vestrum 
tenore pmescntium plirnam et absolutiim poleatatem et auctori- 
tatem omiies ot singuloa lioTiiiiics nd anna ae bomincs linbih-^ 
od urnia fer«uduiii, lam ei^uites quaiu pediles et sagittanos et 
8cloi>etlnrius, aupru aelat^m beideeiiii annorum ac iufra aelalem 
sexttgiuta, in civitnte vel villn nostra de B., turn iufra lib«rtat«s 
quam extra, arraiundum, inspiciundum et trinndum, oo nmiari 
et muuiri facieudum, necnuu luaignandum ecjuox, iirmn et ccl^ra 
bellies iustruiiieuta consequent in habilitftti et }fer»iinse unius- 
cuiusijui;, secundum fuiuiam et eifectmn slatutorum et ordiua- 
doDum ntit« Iuu-r t«niiK>ru iude editorum pruvisorum : as 
(minibus illis tirouibns bominiliusciue tmbellilnis et rei niilitariB 
ignaris erudiendum, instniendum ct esereendum nd osum 
praodictomu) equorum, anuonim et bellicorum apparatuum 

[waBdnm utem mililarFm. ftc dilifnetiler omni* «t un^la 
I facicaduiD, gcnndum ct exppdicmlain et fieri oinMiiilum 
« m) dilrcluRi, inon«trHlioncm ct inap«clioD«n mc ctiom 
[•1 tnfitHNKni, tnetractiofieia ft rxercitationem sttbditorum 
io n militkri pro meliori servitio noetro et de- 
Imiiu nfftix niulri nuxiiiw.- caD*«ntttii«tt et op(x>riiiDa 
|«tBrentIt : it* i]uotl iidem h«niin<« m1 anna rt bomiiu;* 
kUn m1 mrma feiendani, rquiln, pciliies, ssgittnrii et kIo- 
jMtm M alii pr^edicti homiiirB drfvusibilea »ic amialt, io- 
■ptti rt mBniti prumpti tiiit el |)urmti ud atrvieudum uuI^h 
fMirm rt quoodo ot-cewc furriU A»igiinTimuii iuiupur quoii- 
on^wtm aot doon vMtrum sd omnrs ct «iDgiito« vettntm non 
(Mcntn ilocnioo« vd [Mree regoi DOntri aut wntiitinnot in 
frirato coiMilio nostro umililvr icntuo «t de iuvicem inipi- 
amlnc, triauduin vt nmiaudum no iu annt« et «<|uia U^llico 
■nvilni idoneis ordtnandura et vidrmlum ; it* quod tnnnen et 
M|{nli Teitrum id fonua pnif^icta ut prardicitnr iitfpiicti, 
■roiiti rt parnii prompli aint et vtia et continue parati ad 
m4u ciBuliicr ut piat^ctum tat wrneadun). Kt ideo mbt* 
VobmoB quod circa pi»eoii«*a diligeutcr iiilfudatt* ao ea 
'toil et iiiugnia ad cerluK die* rt )oca de tempore in tompuM 
P^TatiMi diiwretionca rxequomini in r<jrcna pracdictn. Dainus 
("vtrrvs DiuTcnis ct Bingutis ofGciariia. mtniatiia et subditia 
'Mtri* qDibiucauque tara itifru liberi*t«t qoam extra tenora 
piaevJitiuRt finuitcr iu mandutis '[itod vobln et cuiliWt rttntruni 
'n eXvcntiMae praemiisoruni itit<'ndc&lrii, Btixiliantca et ol>c- 
^etca (int to oinnibui- diligciiter. Kt qaod fecerilis iu piae- 
%MR4 osa cum uuininibus, eo};iKimiiitbua ac Dum*^ru t»m 
^vttUH, ptdilum, nKillariuniui et tclupellariorum uc oiniiinin 
^raonkBi et belljcorum iurtmmcnturuni ccteronimi(ur belUi 
■dnatunim prr to* in fitrnin ptiuxlicta iiifpcctonim et aruM- 
t«niiii, qaam paroeliianiia ct waixlorum in quibaa habitant, ar 
de diTKiattale nnitttoree rt inatrumealoniia bclli«>itim ijiiibaa 
«auH|waqni> eurum armatua et parulus cut, nua el coiikiUuid 
MMtrtun circa i>enoiuua Doalniin attundeiiti-m qunm citiuumc 
^inbrili* puM datum pmeaeulium iii fcriptia »ut> nigillia v«*tria 
ItA triuat Btit duonsi vestrnm maniUua veetria aubecrijitH 
oertificctu. I^muf ulleiiua fiiwitcr iu luaudatii t|uod 
wqwdiliofie ot executioue piucrciitiuu [n-r omiiia 




et lu singulis faciiitis turn sccunijura tenorero articuloniin et 
iiintructioQum blU prnusivtitibuti miuexorum (|iu»u Aliomm 
quomincmique nrticulonim et iiintructiouuni i|Uiic |iur piivutum 
OODsUiaia nostrum citm opus jucrit vcl prr nrx cnnim in ncriptJs 
manibus suii ai^^natis uliquo temponi pobthac Tobia dirigentur. 
Apud Wcdlm. priuio Jie Septeinbr. [No year.] 

Pat. Iloll. i^dr dirrrtii anni.) Mi$. (No, 1606). 

M[cnK>nin(Iura] for men in Stafford m oent., in "WarwlcltBliire 
II cent, in Shropshire 11 cent. ; xxv'h of f^ptcmhcr, 1559. 

To my LonI StaffonJ, to my Lord Itobort ond Sir Ambroac 
Cave, to my Lord WiUioiua, 

Itiglit tniaty and well- IjpIo red, we greet you well. And 
wliureus wn huve heretofore adclressird our lettvrs aniougut 
others for the musters to be tnken within thni our coiitily of 
[lilotik], hy force whereof owr aul.'jecia of the sumc be, nii wo 
lut) infurincd, in u reudiue^a to be employed ua we ahall 
commnnd, we let you wit that our pleasure is you abiill forth- 
with npon the receipt hereof cmwc to 1» Irviod, mustered nnd 
chowD out of the whole body of our snid cotiiity the tmmber of 
[blank] able nien for the wars to aerve on foot harne^aed, 
weajKined iind fmniehed aa upperl^ineth, and the same lo put 
in order to uppoint uid allot to tlie Iradiui^ of [blank] such 
nblo gentlemen of inlTeritnnre of ttiat our county, kb for their 
nptneEs and skill you shall think good to commit aueh a charge 
unto, requiring you to use sitcb diligeDce herein as your mid 
men witli tbeir uapluinE may be in a readlueaa furiii«li«d a* 
before is limited with as much speed as may be, nnd no to 
reninin ready as upon one hour's warning hereafter to be given 
unto them they may set forward towards our town of Berwick, 
and ill the mean time we will that you shall ailvfrtiso us or 
our council before the 30''^ of October next at the furthest 
wliat you shall have done herein and in what forwardueBS your 
Hoid m<-n sJiall he, txi the ei.d that thereupon we may givo 
order for money to Iw ticnt unto you for their couts and conduct 

And these our letters. &c. 

Given ftc at our Honour of Hampton Court, &c. 

gtal4 Papit$ (Pomat(c), ElUaM%, VI 51. 

Her for tight horse. 



itr Seeretary't teammtfw ttatnjimg of certain Mtert, 

tSiahrtii, by tlx grace of God l^c-], To our Inwtjr niul 

ni&t >v]l WloTtd OouBcillo*', Sir William Cecil, Knight, onr 

(ead^ SeenUTj. Forumuch u we have by ndvice of onr 

I naai nmAttd aod recorded to direct our ]etl«ra uivler our 

' liptt Wing to jonr ounImIj to wiDdrr kntglits, ntjuirM and 

An of ftlnlilr in tliveirc thirM of our rrnlm, for to RommniMl 

ll«B to |Mit in onlcr nnil fumiloro crrtnin horsrinpii ... us 

■K* U br^ way sppe&r by the tenonr of our said letteris the 

fjnktrrvf . . . lienafter aUo fol]oweth, W« . . , bavo a'ljudged 

mry thkt . . . tlio number beriMincr (ullvwiiiK shuU be by 

' fw . . . ngned villi our Dtnmp . . . and ufterwnrd •huU bn 

Mlei mith oar sLgoct, and m cxjinlitcd for our more tpcfdy 


The Untmr of the Uuer, 

Tnuijr and well bclorni, w« greet jrou well. Poranniiofa ng 

■ebta aeccaawT ooc«*ioa to kv; certnin numbrTH of horMmcn 

I IVMn* <u in th« uoi'tb parte of oar r^alm, as well for d^nii- 

■*«• M for light horeemen, wli«reiD we are to r^uir«, an 

*nH« ia, the aid of oar good and faitblul nulyectti in mndry 

*ain> of oar realm ; having well ooondered the ability of ni«h 

^nao* aa do remain or have tbeir pcMcenoM in that shire, 

^tt iat that purpoee, with tusnraitoe also of t)i«r good willa 

*■ mm Ha aad oar trowu, we have mwle choice of you, and 

'^toire aad therewith alM Clarke you that with all >pe«d 

I'^iJbh jroa put in ■ rmdiitcnt one able ronn and a bone or 

*•!• piding fully famished with armour, wnpoB and all other 

'^la^ rcKjuiMie to aerre in the wars aa a dcW-lanee or light 

f*«n«Baa ; and tbe tame lo »eud away iii company with oUien 

'ft Uttt ahire in such Hort a>, aMounting tlic diituoce of the plaw 

■ram whuice be ifanll deport, he may be in good niui serviTcaMc 

%wt St onr dty of Voric befoTv the first or fonrlfa ilay of A|>ril 

4«xt ; Mid th«re shall b« paid unto bim money for bis ooat and 

""wwliirt. And we aesore you ibat Ifae horae aiid anaoar, after 

*crric* <ii>iM, khall be oafdy r«tanit«l uiilo you. if iu nervic* tbe 

SaoBc perttk not, nr tljut tbe fanlt Iw not in the boneman 

Aad Ibr fortber iutradioo bow too sIihII arm and 



apparel tbe Mid horMm&n, fou ettnll receive ViuiiclDdfic of • 
]i»utriHiiil ill tlu>t county, or of such otbera that h«n 
tliere tot flat [nirpuiie, vbow direcUoos n ivcioin jfn 

OivFH iindtT nor ttgnel at our Ilonour oT Hamptaa i 
the tot>> (Uy of tUrcb, 1569. Ssrb^ Pajwi, L^■ 

0. Lrrrm to a Bisuor ron uoirr uoi 

Right reverend father in God, right tni«ty ntiil trril-Wlo 
ve gnti you wfIL Wbetvaa we think it conrvnirM 
HcodTuI fur our tervtce and th« defuioe of our rulin to h»n\ 
cerlnin nninber of honwinen pat in a te(id!i>eu. KiiDe ta 1 
as demi-Uncp* niid )ome »» light horvemoa, and thercl<n 1 
doubting hut tliat yon. u oi>o ^pecinlly cni^rnl iif onr 
and of this your native oounti^-, not only vrill fhaw 
ready to advance this serrioe as much as in y«a raaj Bt 1 
vriltingly provide and have in a readineaa tmch men. tuirw < 
armour vrell ap])oint«(I a* we titoaght axvtl to he taxed and iM 
u[>on you, hut alao do your beat endaanwr to M-e lliat <>lbcn<f 
the rlrrgy within your diooMe (vhote name* are containrd ii ■ 
achedole beivincluaed aifnwd by one of our prin^-ipal uvretw*) 
shall do the like aoourding a« in rated upon everyone in >^ 
•aid Mbedole; Our will and plfasore i« that you do not mtrb' 
your fiart proviilc and have in a leadiiWM to h« wt {ormt 
upon an honr's vraming for our serrice as occasion shall rojcn 
two men nith hoKc to eerre aa demi-lanon and two wal* 
•erve for lijihl horaeoMD well and aaiSciently appotnttd m' 
fnmiihed of everything thereto nppnrtatning, hut alui fanli>i'° 
in our name cause the parties iDcntioned in tbn said schnlsbf 
do the like aeeording to their Tst« : and, in c*m nay J ^ 
•aid pnrliei l>e not residFUt in your diocese, then to Bignifrth* 
Mime to them by your Ictten, Inking otUer also thai sa^^li 
eaiinot tpcedily pimvide thcniseWei' of men, hor*e 
utlier furni1ar« as is needfnl and as tbey are apfwi 
rated to do, that then tbeiy do allow and coatribate fori 
dcmi-lnuM ther ure ruled at ^30, and for every liyht 
£10, wUicli DioiMry our jdrjuure u y« vlaJl cnuip |ij be deli<P 
to tlio haixti of iiiK-li commiMioneiB as by IclttrK fmm our I 
Cauncil ahall be named unto yoo. to he eotployed for oar 1 

^Itrital Contribuiion to the Army. i6i 

|i1hQ be br ibem appoiuttd. Ami if any of lliem ulull »e 

UtetiuclTa ■• tliey «Uall Jeiij' to famub the prciniMM, 

, *» »ill ytm to ecrtify [to] lu or our PriTy Council tlie 

I of iktm, bindiBg tlmn DTTcitbctcH to *pp«&r liefoi« our 

PtiTr OooDcil witkiii [bbok] d»y» utter iJieir rcTuiaJ, 

tuid miuiring you fuHber, u you leuilcr our Kcrvica 

I iteotding to tfie j^ooii vpuiiou nc \utxc conceived of you, to 

: til diti^Dcc u wll in the patting in a rtwliiicn of that 

I we hen require you aa alao in the proeuriitx iIeiI llie 

> MBtiotied in tb« taid >cli«dnle may do Ibe like, wi aa by 

rtnd IliRr alaeknc-«* <rur nrvicc be not liindi-rcd, Ac 

tramuZ-Aoe^, £t{iui(/A attt Jama, I. p. i. 

FA* Prhjf Cowntil to tl.e ArdAiA-^ of Caattrlmiy. 

' <mr wry hcuriy commemUtioiis to your good Lonlnbip, 
I tliov batii b««D urder giv«n b}' ber Majnty'* diicctiou 
rmcral muiten and views to b« imde of all ibe able mtii 
*A tbdr arnuHir and furniture, vithin tbn aevrmi C04intic8 of 
tit nafan . . . ve liavo ibought good to dtaire your Lurdahip, 
JntlMUp dil!grnc« to write your letters to all tbe Bialiop», bo 
^wfanbvith uutoyou tb« purlicularoertificsbe of Ibe borwii 
PBl (pot anocd and fumiabed by tbu clergy in tlicir Mirerat 
^mmm, wbtrcof WW pray your Lordsbip ibere mny be no 
VThm your Lordsbip shall liave receired tlic 
wc pray you to uud tbeni uuto nt. [Dntad 
II, 1390.] *'yjw. WMlgift, 11. pp. «j, 66. 


n< ArtUiAty 0/ Canlnhary to the Bidmp 0/ tondtm. 

iftcT my baarty commendatiooa [Ac] I have of l»t« received, 

* fwt Lordabip knoweth, eoCDliiandiDeDt from ilie (jueen'a 
Hi|k»iw aad ber luinounUe Privy Couucil tu take order for 

* artain ricv la be bad and with ipti-d ccr(iGt-d oi artnoar to 
,V|aBriJad by Uie cUrgy of tbr proviix* of CantcTbury ; tbew 

Ita viU Mid retjiiirr yoor l^nKliip to give ord«r a> well to 
[difiy of yotir own dioceM for Lkc nady performance of Um 




eauH, as sUo to tignify tbn <«i<l comniAndairnt lo tl>a n*i>l 
nif breUiTMt, tlie othiT bislwjM of tny ftroTincF »f L'auI 
^Uiog ibem . . . forthwith to ac«ompIuli hor Hiffli 
COKnMndmrDt . . . and the lune view . . . tpecdnf to i 
lUU nr . . . [ilatcil I^mbetb, May fi, (569]. 

Wher«aa the lords of Ui* Queen's Majts^'i most 
Privy Coancil hare giTeu comma ml mcDt for Um |tntiiiiflJ 
■rvour anil other funiitora by the cJci^ Vt thti 
according to rach OdJer aiid ralM aa vraa twed id the 
of the fatio King Philip niid Queco Marr, th« mmi 
and Mders thrn uwd in that behalf art ben«ft«r puilic 
■IMcitled: vMletivet, 

That every one of the clergy bsnog landa or fmrsim \ 
edato of inhcrilage of freehold ahnli provide . . . amtour, I 
and oibcr furnittire in uteli aort lu orcry trmpoTsI km 
charged by resaoD of his land* and pof eMMons by «it1« «f I 
jtatuio ' uutde ia the fourtli aod fifUi ye»n of iln mff» oft 
late King Philip and Queen Maiy. 

Item, That every one of the Mud vIcrjiT haTing 
*|Nritual promottoiia or peasiocH, the clear valae vl 
do amount to the clear yearly valoe of £30 or upwwiIlCI 
be bound to provide . . . aniiour and other provttiou i«qa 
aoeording to »uch proportion aod rule, aa tbo tenipenhyi 
bouod by the >atd Hlatute \>j reuMn of their inarenble soak { 

Item, If any of the clergy of iki* realm have hoik I 
land* and poa — ■io n a and alio apiritnol promolioof, ht ibdl I 
cbar;^ irith anmxir nnd other proviaion acMfding te 
grealMt nt« of one of tli«m. and nol with both. 

Strfft, PawktT, 1 p- £41 ; Srg, farktr, I. p. t*8 {%\ U Cm 

I'm. Jaaai*, L p 319. 

Oimintiow* in rating th4 frop«rtum c/armeur, 

I. the Inahop (o rate himMlf amoag the lenpanldr.l 

II. To late the dean ood prob«t>dariea, oa Ihe teiQpon^.' 
^oods from ^£30 Dpwwrds. 

^ HI. Item, to rate the whole dioc«ae in like wrt. 

' 4* J p. S M 1. f{ ».^ 

* Ad>kd by tb« AicbbiAnji \Strjft, Pmrhr. I- f«l'. 

Offite of Admiral. 


ItcfB, to accooiit *nch n* bo midrDt witliin the dtocMa 
the mm of £30 and Tct bnving Wiiclici!* or |>ctiiiioDa 
to Buka up tbe moi« budi or upwards. 10 to nil«d 
; tbe Mppli««. 

\i lu^ to rvte ereiy incumbent wlirre Iw it leniilt'nt. nud 
' wfiiHrj di^lun not rtvidnit in tho djoww wbi-iv I.e 

..TUa foUoiring wm the wajr profioQnd«d of laying tbe 
t wi UiDOur on llie clergy :— 

A*i I £toa vcrc 

* J <ioo nudl t 
a- I ^40 tq [ 
it I ZjO Bad ) 





I stIibwi»o}i taxed himself at idx bofM u-ith armour ; ten 

I bone vitli tbcir faniitiirc; forty eonleta; forty Atnaiu 

; Rirty pikfs ; Uiirty long bows ; thirty «b<uvn of 

i; ttiirtyctRl emjw; twenty b!aek bills; twenty ha rque- 

i; and twenty morioni. ^'Ti^. Pvt*r. L p. 543'. . 

8. Apvotxnurt or ax Adhikal, 1399. 

, ftc. to all to whom these, Ac gmting. 

IWunradi m tbrre is just and uwceaaryonne jpren lu lo set 

"th to the (ou in warlike manner our nuvy, oonipoundcd u 

I of a ccHain nuxilwr of our own ships as of oiben oon* 

Dt br iha dcr«Di» of our realms and snbjects against *«eb 

Bpla or iiiTsaioDS aa tbe jircpaiatioDs of our eiteoiies do 

u reaaoB (o ccoMive thai ibi-y itUeud to exetute u{m>ii 

rpart of oar d(Mnin;va<, vk ba\e boen tlirnfore muvi-d to 

our vrif uf ■omu mi-'et pciMMi, both for hia dt^rec and 

Dce in like marina ecrxiett. to whom wo might commit 

a chaige aa tbe guTemment of our said navy and 

of all lorta thetnio wrving : and upon due <oa»idera- 

it o( ijM, !^lf. Ann. V.p. jQo; oidsr tor wiuit U 
M. [1. 65, Th> !bU* Mff nn 10 bo BiAqalta otrrwl. 




tioD of ihr fidelily, rslour timl nffici«nC7 of oor rigbt tr 
kud HelI-b«love<i Thomas Loid Hawkrd, buon t>i Wa 
lcfiit;lit of our lionounble ordvr of tW gutcr, «ra bMv 
cbotce of Uiin to conimtt so gmt a tmit aod clisi^ tuil«. 

Know je theKfare U»t for ihow tvspecb wf Jo lij 
prvwnt* unme uid dcpote the aaid TbonUks to be osr I 
and C»puiti G«<ii«rm), l(«dor, gnveroor »iid admu^ wf ow i 
navy B&d Ibrcn tliercin serving trhicli wc bare »vl to tk i 
for tlie d«f«ur« of our r«alm« aDiI pMpIv «^nit tbr S|«sa 
. . . Giriuft mid ttrnutiii'- to th« wid ThomM oar full jjowrt i 
kotboritT uvcr all our aulyM'td of wlwt 8tal« ur rooditi'ia ' 
in oar aiiid nary aiid army retained aad for tbis our 
committnl to bin charge, to arm, motiter and cwnmiuu] ftf t 
d«f«uce of our ivalmii and subject* and in rcviNtaiiM uf I 
Spaniards and tJit^ir adherents or any otbrr* attetnptitf ' 
invasion or aouoyaaM of our dominion* and sot^Mts - • - 

Oiviug also uid gnnttug to tli« said ThomaB full poww i 
aoUiorily all . . . oanses, qnarnU, qocoliotu and RUlten 
Huevcr our said nary and nubjcct* thervtn Mrvfng aa; 
COnocrniiig Bn<l [to] iho nfficr of Lord Lifutrnant asd ' 
G«iKTal at tbe soas by any law nr custom bcloo^p, lo ' 
axamine, discuss and determine according to tbe lav nurlalt 
any disoi(>)iii« tu our navies and annies at tes aix-uatoniol; i 
laws, ordcnt and statutes for (bo (food government of i 
uuvy ami anay to make and nutablitb, nnd (b« snma tu \n 
and pat in cxcoitiou, and al) pereous offendiog agaiost tbei 
laws and ardi&anoee to pnnish . . . ImprisoD aiul (when ha i 
tliink good) again lo disohaTige and release ; am! oil 
criimasl eouc<Tuing life or member in our said nary bap 
and all incnlenta and droumstaoMS Ilia Mine ootnoamB^ I 
bear, examine aitd determine, and e«nteoc« and jodgnsMt i 
upon to giv« and proDoODce, or decrees lo malce and sO ' 
things wbich for the gu»d government of our uud nar^ ** 
army and subjects tberviu servii^ inay be to do, accor^isf ^ 
his be)it dtaeretitMi nml »ne)i dirrctions ag from ds or our 1 
Council in our nauM from time lo liiue be sluiU receirts 

And fbruiuacli a> it may lie needed fur our ■ art iof ts tste 
Up veAsels and ollxr nialeiUIi! fur llie uae uf our •« rrirc. ^' ' 
iieret^ give 6J1 autboHty t» Ibe uid Tbonus to 


Oath of a Privy Councillor. 


warmtit» to our trrasurcr of our nn»y or to hi» deputy in liia 
abHtiicH to make payment of all iiuuh eiiiiis of money nit he tlif 
«oki Thoiua» shall fiud necessnry to direct liim !•> lay out, in 
wiiicli citKc the warniit of our mid adniiml thnll he to our daid 
trcAfiiirvr or hia dejiuly inlliciciit diachargo npon the making of 
his account . . . 

And becuusc it may hnpppn by lj(;)it or otli«r«ise that you, 
our admiral of the furccK coinniilti-il to your oharK^. may 
miiKarry in ihiit acttOQ, wbii-h God wn hnp« wilt prevent, we 
have thought good, providing for all evmta, to B]ipaint nnd 
authorize in such exlremity our aervant Sir Waller Raleigh, 
Captaiu of our (luiird luid Lieutrmint of our euuuty of Cornwall, 
to take the chiirgTi of our lutid fleet and forcpx, bi-iug now our 
vice-ndmiml of the Mine, and in the mi'&nwhile Uiat he be 
adbistaiit ujito you In all your enterprises . . . 

In witness whert-of we linve cimwd tlieiie our letters to he 
made pntcnU to continat during our pleaaurc. 

[Dated August t<\ 1599'] 

Sf/mer, Fadatt, XVI. p. j8o. 


1. Thjc Oath op a Pmvy CouifctLLOR. 

Y011 shall Bweur to l>e a true and fuitliful conociltor to the 
Queen's Majesty an one of h»r Highui-tiH' Privy Council. You 
idiall nut know or underctjiiid of any manner lliing to bii 
ntlrmplcd, done or spoken agninat lier Mnjeaty'a [icraou, honoui*, 
crown or dignity royal, but you ahnll let and withatand the 
same to the utlermoet of your power, and oitlirr do or eauKc it 
to be forthwith revetded either to tier .\laje«ty'ii self or 10 the rent 
of her Privy (!^oiincil. Vou nhall keep eecret all mutters ci>m- 
milted and revealed to you an her Majesty 'b councillor or that 
shall bo treateil of secretly in council. And il any of tlie same 
treatiea or couuaels ^hall touch any other of the conncillon. 
you ahall not reveal the Mme to hiiu, but shall keep the larae 
until audi time ua by the eunieut of her Mujtiatf or kA the rest 




of tbe couDcil pablicAtion slitJI be rati* thereof. Yov dnB i 
lei to give Inie, plaiii and faithfal tounsel bI all liniM. wili 
rripoRt eitlivr of (tie cause or uf ibe |imou, laying apvt < 
favour, Diced, afTi-cliun ami partiality. .Anil joa tliall t«j 
uttcnnoft licnr fntib nnd troo alUrgiatice to tbe Qatea'* )b^ 
her heirs and Inwfiil mcce**on>, and nball us'ut aixl drfiaJ 
Jnriadidions. preemiDrncca ai>d antboritiea granted 
Mf^^ly aiid aiineied ta Iter crown sgaifut all foreign] 
penion*. prelate* or polenUlea, wketber by act of 
or otherwiae. And {tenerBll)' in all tbinga jroa abaD 
a futhful and tmo councillor ought to Ha to bcr 
So belp you Ood and the boty conUnts of this book. 

Uemoraudum tliat tbe ijU> day of IVc*niber in tbcij 
i.-enr of llic reigu of oar SuTrn:it.'n Lady £linb<4b by tbe \ 
of God \&e.\ I, Oeorgv Earl of Kiirtirfliary, have mart hu 
and obediently taken my corporal rath Uvforv Ood to ob 
and perform all tbe content* above vritten in every 
In witnm vbereof I have tnbwTibed my name and fa* 

a«f« Poffn {P«mmtif), Ris. Ima. f- 1 

2. DoTtBB or A SECRBTABr '. 

Titles of matters whenof I am dinrgcd (o have npii ' 
a Ccuaciltor and Seeretary. 

Fiiet In inform my«elf of all trenli^a wilb foreign 
France, Buripindy, and lli« Ix>ir Cuuntrieii, Spain, 
Ueomark and tb« Hniu«*, Ac. 

To be nct^iuinf ed witit tbe particular actiou and na 
of ambnisndora to her Majesty and from brr. 

To inform myself of (be power and form of procMiling il ' 
council of the Mardiea in Walee and tbu council in tli« N''*-^ 
and to undenitand tbe nunner of tlx; Wnnlcn'a govermnKL 

To 1« well infnrrocd of the lUtc of IieUnd, loth ibr y«rl* 
cliargr of tli« army and tbe extracrdinary, tbe «t4>te of nnf^ 
tbcrt, and tbe Slat« of tbe L'ltdcnnken. 

Tbe charge of tbe Lou- Cmintiy wnra, tbe diargC* rf "^_ 

■ PnUbly by Dr Jdia Rwtwrt, •rpdntwl mdoiI'I Setmrtai? ibMl 
liBM (N«to la CdadM of State Papna, p. 416). 

l»oo.] Duties oj a Secretary of Slate. 


Krencb King, tlie state of tbeir dthU to tlie Que«n, what 
the aseuranoM nm, unit whitre Ibc)- ere. 

To overate the onWr gf the Council-book iwd Musl«r-book 
of the rcolm. 

To hftTo the cuatody of kttera fVoin foreign prinQea 1o the 
Queen, auil atiHwvm nuuie to tltem. 

To Luvf ciiru to thi: intclligtiiccii nbroail. 

Munonunluni : That nil cnusce to be treatm) on in council 
&aA rwolvcd urt «itlier only for her Mnjwty, or betwixt party 
and pnity, or betwixt couie party (either subject or utruuger) 
fttid t.lio Queco's MajeKty. 

The tii-Bt dotJi hnadlc principally qnaitiona njid coimultHtionM 
of State, ({rowing from foreign otlvcrtiMmtaifai, or »niai^ (-xlra* 
ordinary nccidont^ witliin the realm. 

Tlic KRCond (between parly and party) are very Bcldom heaitl 
particularly, but mther eaded by overroling an obetiuat^ 
person, who is mudo to acknowledge hia fault, or elxe the 
parties arc remitted to Boma court of jurtice or e<)iiity, or 
recoil) mended by some letters to some justices in tbi- country 
to compound the difiVreuces either by consent of the partioii or 
hy direction. Or if the chumi be great, then to write lettera 
to some principal penionii Ut have vome circuroHtaocea Ix^ter 
undeioluud and examined, concerning matter of liii^t, whereof 
the council cannot bo to well iuformed, when they have only 
tbn suggestions of one pirty agaiaat auutlier, upon which report 
it often ha|>peneth llmt qnnrrela and differences are taken up 
by the council, when it sppoBn clcjtrly w^ho la lu default. 

When there is anything in question wherein tlie Queen n 
A party, it is commonly either by the breach uf ptuuxs or for 
some other title. 

If there be bfi'uch of peace the lords do either ptintiih tlio 
ofTendcr by coin toil merit, or do refer the matter to be further 
l>rocc<'ded in tlin 8lar-ChainlKT, where great riots and con- 
tempts are punished. 

If it be matter of title, then the lords refer it to the 
Quecn'a learned counsel, and roeommend the same to the judges' 

If there be some suits to the Queen of poor men, then do 
the lorda endorse their petitions with their opinion* and 




recomniptid the diaputcU lo tlie Secretary, or for the poorer tort 
to tbe Mn^itcr of tbi' Ittriiiicctii. 

[[Htfd] April 16, 1600. 
StaU Paprrt {nomntie), Elii. oclzii*. p. 1 18. 

3, Cbkhobship or the PREaa. 
(t) Star-chamber Ordinana, 1566. 

I. Tlint no person should jiriiit ... or bring . . . into tlie 
realm priiiU<l any book ngaiitsl the force and meiuiing of any 
urdiuuuL'u . . . contained in aiiy tbe statutes or 1«W8 of this 
rcnlro iir in any iiiju net jour, letters pat«iit« or ordiiunces net 
Cortb liy llie Quwii'ii iiulhority. 

II. Tliiit wTiosiii-vi-r lihiiiild offend ogniiiBl Ibe said ordinancpK 
dliould forfeit all sucb Uwks. and from theucefortli should never 
etereiM . . . tlte feat of prinliu); ; and to nivtain three niontha' 

III. That no person shonld Hell, bind or eevr any mcb bookd, 
ujHin ])iiin to forfeit all aucli buokH aud fur evi^ry book io«. 

IV. Thiit uil books sio forfeited nliouU lie broiij-hl into 
StntioiirrH' UiiU. . . . iinil ikll the Iwokx so to be forfeited to lie 
destroyed or tnadit wimtc i>n])Cr. 

V. That it Hhoiild bo lawful for the wardens of the [Sta- 
doners'] Company ... to make u^arch in all workhoiHes, shops 
. , . and other places of prinbrn. buuksellera aiid itaeh as briilff 
tiooki into thu reiilm . . . ; nntl nil books to be foniul agaiutit thu 
Ffttd ortliimnce* to tc'ati and cnny to the Hall to the uses above 
said and lo bring the persons offending before the Queen's 
Ccinuiissioner» in causes eeclesiiLSt.iciil. 

VI. Every Btaticiiier, (iriiiter, liookseller . . . ebould . , , enter 
into Severn! rvcogniuinciv of lensunabte sums of innm-y to her 
Majesty . . . that be should truly observe all tbe said ordi- 
nances . , , 

Upon ths coiisideratiou Wfore expressed and ujMn the 
motion of the Commissi liners, we of (he Privy Council hove 
n){rei'd tbU to be iibsiTved and kept ... At tbe Star- Chain Iter 
the j()lb of Juiie, 1566 . . . 

N. Racov; C. 8. WtHcaBHTtB. R. Leicestks. E, Clviiton. 
E. I!ooBE8. F. KKOLLVi. Auu. CavK. W. Ceeti.. 

Censorship of flu- Prtss. 

We ' underwrit tlunk th*«o oriiinoiiccs tii«ct and iiecesadry ta 
Iw decrci^d mid obwrved. 

MATTiiirK Canti:ah. Ambb. Cavb. Tho. Talk. 
Ei»M. LonnOM. [)avii> Lkwis, Rob. Wkstok. 

Strypt, fartrr, I. f,y, ^^l-J^. 

(b) Slar-Chanber Ordinance, June, 1 586. 

The nnw decrees of Uw Star-Chnmber for order* in printing, 
vicesinio tcrtio die Junii, a.d. 1586. 

Wliereaa Kuudrj' decl«(^ft and urdiuupcea hav« upon g^nve 
adrtoe and delibenttion bero heretofore mode and pubUsbed Tor 
tlu) reprrmiiTi^ at such gnsnt cnormitiM nod abiuM aa of IuId 
more thnii in limo past hnve beeo commonly used and prnctiscd 
by divcTi contentions siid disonleily persons profeswng the art 
or mystery of jirintiiijj: i>r iiplliiijt of books, aud yet notwith- 
iitandiiig the mid abu>K-j* nnil ciKirtnitici nro iioUiiiig abated, 
but. 81 it i* fooiid by expefience. do rntlicr daily more and more 
increaM to tbo wilful and inuuifeHt breach nnd contempt of tbo 
said ordiuiiui-PK ami det-reirH, to th« great displeusiii-e amX offence 
of the QufiTi'ii moiit excellent Majesty, by reusioii whcrt'of r-undry 
intoli-rablo ofreiicea, Imuhies nnd diaturbance-i hiivn hajipencd an 
well in the church as in the civil goremment of tho ttatc and 
commonwealth uf thin reubii, which aeem to bare grmvii bwauae 
the puiuH aiid j>eanltie.'' cfiilaineil mid set down in thu snid 
onliuuiicea and deRrrm bare been loo tight and ^niiiU for the 
correction nnd piinighment of eo grievous nnd beinoii* oficoces, 
aud so tbe oRenders and mulefuctoni in that bcbalf have not 
been so severely pnniahed as tho i)uality of their offences bave 
deserred. Her Mujeiity thfrefore, of her miml godly and giaciou.i 
diaponilion, Viiig cnrrfiil that speedy and due reformation be 
had of the abuses and disonlei-s aforesiiid, and that all persons 
using or profeMiu); ibe art, trade or nijatery of printing or 
selling of books Hbould from henceforth he ruled and diiected 
tbereiii by nome certain and Itnown rales nnd nrdinance)', which 
fcbonld he inviolably kept and observed and tho breakeis 
and offenders of the same to be severely and afaarply punished 

' Member* of th* High Conuniiaiuii. 




Had coirecied, lifttli straitly charged nnd rrquirrd llm mcwt 
rev«r«rid [fatberj in God tie ArcLbishop of t'Mitcrtniry nml tJi«! 
right hoaourable llie lordB iiud otliern of her Hi((bneM' i'livy 
Couucil to i«o her Mnjetty'i »nid niowt ^uctuua aiid godly 
iiitculioii and purj>o»( to be duly aod rflectunlly executed mid 

Whcrcupan tlip eniJ most revereud father and the whole 
preaeDce titliiif; iu lliis huuourable eoui-t, this 13rd duy of 
Jane lu the sStb year of bcr Mnjenty'ii reign, ujKin Knire uud 
umturu (iFlilH-Tittiiin, hnvu nrdaincd nnd il(>rrrcd tbnt the or- 
Oinaiicm, oiistilutions, rulca ftnd articlee hereafter fnllowing 
from honciforth by nl) [MTsons be duly aiid inviolably kept aiid 
ubserrcd, according to the tenur, purport and true intent aad 
meaning of tlie mine, as they t«Ddfr her Mnjenty'ii hiK^i db- 
[deuaure vid as tbi-y will aniiwer to tlie cotitnuy at their 
uttermnrt peril : vix. 

1. Imprimie. That every priuter and other )>er«on . . . which 
at this tiioo prtisfiil hath erected or set uji or hereafler kIioII 
ei-oct . . . Biiy prihting.prcM, rowle or other instrument for 
itDpriiiting of books, charts, ballade, portraitures. pa|>er called 
dnmaiik pnpcr, or any fuch nialter or thiu^ whatsoever, tjiall 
bring a tiue note or certifitiite of (be said presses \&c-.\ already 
elected, witbiu ten duys next coming adev the publioittion 
hereof, nnd of the said presses [&c.] hereafter to be erected . . . 
within ten days next after the erecting thereof, unto tlie 
M&ster and W'ar-lens of the Compony of Rtationere iif the City 
of Lunduu for the time being, upon pain that evi-ry i>cr«ou 
failing or offending herein shall have all the said presurs [Ac] 
Rtterly defaetd nnd made uufierviceable for iniprinting for ever, 
and Hhull uli>o GufTcr twelve months' iinpriiionracnt without bail 
or niuiupri"e. 

2. It.i-in, That no printer of books nor any other person »Iiiill 
set up any pre*fl . . . but only in the city of London or in the 
subnrbs thereof, and except one press in the University of 
Cambridge and one other press in the University of Oxford, 
and no more ; and that no person sliall hereafter erect io any 
wcrct or obitcani comer or place any such press, but that the 
mm* shall b« in neb open place or phices iu his or their house 
or liouscaafl 'i>*V' 1e»s uf thi^ mid Compuny of the Stntiooen 

Censorship of the Press. iji 

. . . ma]' from <ime to time buve ready accne unto, to WArch for 
and riew Ibe tiBinu ; nnii that no printer or other person ehrtll 
tit niiy time licreaftor withstand or make reHKlnncc to iiuy such 
view or search, nor deny or keep wonrt nnjr nich pi«>H : upon 
pain that every person offVriiling in Anything contrary to thit 
article xliall hnvc all tho Fai<l presBes defaced and made nn* 
iierviccnhio for irapriiiliii't for ever, und shall aim) Miffer im- 
prison me lit one wLole jciir, utiU lip ciinabled fur ever to krep 
any [irinting-preim iir to be marlrr of any print! ng-honec or to 
btive Miy benefit thereby other than only ivork aa a journeymfui 
for wages, 

3. Item, Thut no jirintcr nor other prrsoii tliaf hath net up 
uiy prcK within six months in*t past shall hereafter use the 
now, nor any peison shall hereafter erec^t any pretis till the 
excessire multitude of printers . . . I»<l ... or otherwim* 
brouftht to to Hmall n nnmlwr of masters or own<-ni of printing 
hoiioes, being of ability and {pod bi-haviour, aa the Ari'hbishop 
of Canterbury and K»bop of London for the time beiuK *^"'" 
thereupon think it requiidtc and convenient, for the goixl 
vervicu of Iho realm, to have some more presses rrv<;ted and 
Mt Dp. And that when and aa often as the aaid archbiihop 
and binhop nhaU so think it rc^iuiaite and conveuieut oiid t'hal) 
■ignify the anmi! to thr miiil MuNlcr and Warding of tlio vnid 
Company of Stationers . . ., the said Master and Wiir<1ens shall 
: . . call (he aaaistanta of the Baid ci>iu[jaDy before tbem and slialt 
make choice of one or mare ... of snch perMinii being free 
■t«tioncr« as . . . thall be thought . . . meet to have tlic rhnrgc 
of a pr«ta. and . . . shall preeent [them] before the High Cnm- 
taiMionern iii CJn^e■ eccleuoiiticul, or «is or more of them, 
whereof the Archbishop of Canterbury and Pi»hop uf London 
to be one, to admit every sueh person so chosen and presented 
to be ninatiTr of n pn^an . . . upon jiuin [w in previous §]. 
Provided that this article khall tiot extend to the ofTtcn of tlie 
Queen's Majesty's piinter for the service of the realm, but that 
the Haid odicu and ofBcer aball be at the pleusare and diepoeitioB 
of her Mnjenty . . . 

4. Item, That no person uliall imprint ...any booh... or thing 
whatsoever, except the a.ime book ... or any other thing . . . 
shall be allowed . . . according to the order appointed by the 




QuMs't Majesty's tDJunttioDs', snd be fint tern an<! pcracod 
by tiie Arclitiu]iv[i of Cantrrbury aiid Bi»bo(> of Lonilon for 
tlio lime betnii, or cue of tliem (the Qiiwii's Miyetly's printer 
. . . anit Knell lui nr« priTilrgcd to print llic hookn of the ucimuioii 
law of Ihid reain). fiir such nf the enmo books ax shall Ih" dioa'cd 
of Ivy the two C'hi«f Justic^ii uud Cbii-f Barou fur tlie tiin« being 
ur any two of thttm, only cxci'pit-d), nor nhull imprint any book 
against tho form or meamog of any rmtraiut or ntdtiutnce 
coiitiiiued ill any statute or Uwh of thin realm [fto., as in 
unliunnct^ of 1566. j§ T, II. with incrt^uiml j>rimllii;ii]. 

5. |A» in 5 'I!, oidin. 1566, willi incrcmcd prniillica.] 

6. Tliat it shall b<> lawful for the Wnrdeua of tli« snid 
coin|jany ... to miiku nurcli . . . mid all booki uonlnry to tli« 
intent of thuae ordinnncps to stay and lakr to her MajeMy'ii uae, 
. . . anil the pnrtirs ofteiidiug ... to bring bvfure the said High 
Conimis^iouerB or vuinc tlireo or more of tbem, whereof the said 
Archbishop of Cantcrbuir or Bishop cf Laodon lor the time 
being to bo ouo . . . 

7. [The Wardona to destroy all plunt bclon^tig to ofleoding 

X. llciD, That for the uvoii1iD|;( of the exoHsire number of 
printers within ihia realm, it Bholl not he lawful for any peraoii 
being free of tJie Company of Slaliotic-ro, or uning the trade or 
myetety of prioting, bookselling or Iwok binding, to bnve at one 
tine any greater nunibtr of apprentices than shall Im bcrfftfter 
•xprMsed . . . Pi-ovided alwayit that this urdiuanco ahall not 
exlei^d to the Qui-eii's 3Iujet.ty'ii prinlL-r .... hut that be have 
liheity to kepp npprehtiws to the numlwr of six at any 
line timr. 

9. Item, That none of the printers in Cambridge or Oxford 
for the time being thall be auifervd to have any more ap* 
prenticen tlinii on» at one linx! itt tli<-> niuHt : but it sh;>ll be 
lawful for tlic Miid prinlrr* and thoir cnnceiuora to u»« the lielp 
of any journeyman being freeman of the city of l^iulon withotit 
GODlradiction . . . Slatr Paptn (i^MMttfc). Bit. ac p. ♦8'. 

> 8m bclnw, Iniiinctloni, f LT. (p. iflfl^ 

* Part]} |>riiileJ l>y ihrjpe, WMyip, III. pp. iCo-iis. 

Manumission of Villains. 173 

4. Uahdhiwuoh or ViujiDtH. 
Dt CammUnon* ad manumUttndum. 

Eliiabetli, by tliu (trace of Qwl, &e., to our rigfit irotlj nntl 
wtll-lreloved coiinwlliir Sir Willium Cecil . . . atxA to oiir tnuty 
iiiid riglit well- twin veil cimnnollor Sir Wnltcr MiMmay , . . 
grertinjf. Whereas divers mid sundry of our ptwr fiittlifii) and 
loyal subject^', being botu bonil in blood and i«gardu.iil t« i1ivi-r« 
and Rundry our maiiom and {losaetaioiia witbiu our n-alm of 
Engbind, ha\t: ninde bumble nuit uiilo uh to 1]« lUHiiiiniiHd, 
mfTniicbi^ Riid nindo fr«e, with their children and fir'qiicls . , , 
We tlierefore ... do name wid appoint you two our commiti- 
aioDrra . . . and do commit . . . unto you full power to accept 
... to be mannmised, pufranchined und made fi-ee, «uch utsd wi 
many of our bondmen nnd bondwomen in Uooil with nil their 
childnn and tcqucls, their goods, land*, tenements and bercdita- 
meuta aa are now appertaiiitjig or regsnlant_to any of our 
muiiuni, landn [Sec] witTiiii the said neveraTcountiea of Cornwall, 
Dovon, Scuneriiet and Oloucrster, »» to you bIibI! nei'tn meet, 
compounding willi tliem for Buch rcawimble lines or suma of 
raomty ... for the manumisBion . . , u you and ftiey mu a^ree : 
... the tenour of wbiuh mIiI tnaniuuisuons {ftc.J tilmll be in 
eucb order and form lu is iierc in tliesc preaentJ) iiontained , 

Elttalietlia, Dei gi-atia [&c.], omnibuH ad quns &c. )ta1ut«m. 
Cum ab initio omiies bominea natura lil>pios civavit lVu«, ut 
pottea ju» geutiuiu quusdiuu Hub jugo servitutia cunatituit. 
piuTO fore ci-edimUH «l D«o itcceptabile chriatiauueijnd churit«ti 
cuuwnUneuin ccrlos, in villvnugio nobia, baeredibu* at rocc«9> 
Mribus uovlrix mibjcctoe el ecrvitutc dcvinotoe, liberoa penitut 

Scintia igitnr quod nos, pietat« moti . . . .\. B. C D. tie., et 
omnea et aiugulaa aeijuelaa tarn procreatu et impoiterum [>n>- 
creandua et eorum ijuemUbet, manumiiimus et libcro* fccimus «t 
■b omni jiigo MTvitiitis et wrvilis conditionis Iil>eramus et 
ffxoneramiia iu perpctuum . . . Dsmus etiani et . . . eoucedimiu 
praefatts A. B. C. 1). &c. meaauagia, terrua [&c.], necnou hoatL, 
catalla et dehttu nmt qunecumque . . . quiliiii Hciaiti auu po w ei 
nonali jam csitlnnt . . . habendum, tenendum et gaudendum ... 
iiDpeipetuum . . . absque compoto spu aliquo alio proinde nofaie 




. . . reddendo ntioiif nrrvitutis Ken aerrilis c^odiUuau . . . alnl 
UuwQ uobiB . . , tarn libcrii tcQurui vi luwTMltUunenti* nMini 
ctiKtumUmm l«rranim et tenrainiitoniin de qaibtu itli . . . i 
vxisluiit . . . per (xiptaiu curiae, et MTvittia, irdditibo* [J 
eudvm (olvcniliji vrl facuudit, quam redilitilius ct Mni 
UnqDHin cnpilali domiuM) feodi reddeuilia jini »l>i|iilliiu I 
[Ac ] libtrac irnurao de qoibns ipai fcniti rxutunt. 

In cujut rei ftc 

Aud our turUiOT will acd plamTO tt . . . thkt nnji 

lull or wxrmnt . . . k> tiy you itubKrib«d. skaLI be k 
and imimduitc ranaiil tu Uie Mid Lord T'luiticcnor - . .fwilv] 
mkiiig aiid poMiD^ of evny nich nunuminMoa . . . usdtr^ 
mid Grwt S«»l . . . jiBjing jnlyjor «U manner of fc« it i 
Qmt Setd i6«. 8J. 

WitncH ounclf at Qurluimburr [April ^ aJ. t6]. Per if 

EEegiDum. PaL Hell tda ifiVcrk onab) £TU. No. t«e6: ab* ■< 
JfjoMT, fodirw. XV. p. ;3i. 


I. SrACNroKi). 

Pl-erogaliva ' !■ u nadi an lo hij- a [irivilc^ or pmnuD't*' 
that any p«r»D hatli bcfcre aiiotbcr, u-bicli. a* it I« tolMaUe" 
HMiM, to it IN nioiit to b« pennittiU aiid allowed in a prit« • 
•orrrrigo govcriwir ot n mlm. Vot besidei that, Utft "* 
ia tl:« moit ncdlcnt and wortliie«t (lOrt or airmUr d "* 
body of (be oommonwmltli *, >o ia be alao^ Ihiougb tot (^ 
goveniaoce. tb« presorrer, notirisker and dtfei»Ji"-r of tl) "• 
jKOpIc, btjog the rest of th« rame bodjr . . . For vhich tan* *J 
law> ilo attribute niito him all LoiMUr, <lignitr. prctngstin •■■* 

> Hmh UK Uia a|i«iii^ wiiMaMa of a c«iBmnitai7 u« Ota •*'■* 
MateU aitili*<l ' PrsMnykiiik ItafU,' i*i<l tu hate bteu pnbTiW' I* "^ 
MfvolHtilb ymti^ BJaaiO II: •» ~ ~ * ~ 
Mtrif, *L J67. 
. ■ Hn flriguiU ha* ' th« anttM bed; W Um «thli.' 

,"jaii| t« hat* teeu pnwiti»' " ~g 
I atiioh, cf. ProfcaMT «>ilUwt. '^ ^ 

1889-.] Prerogative: Siar-Chambcr, &e. 175 

preeminvnce ; wliich prci'ogntive doth not only rxti^nd tn hi« 
own perwu, liul also to till oOier hia poewasions, goods ami 
ckstlda. As tliat his ptrnon shiJI bo subject to no man's suit, 
lii* p<i«iH;s«iou« cuiuot he taken from dim by any violence or 
wrongful di»ciiin, his good* and cbaltrlM are imticr no triliutv. 
toll iior ruMom, nor otliorwise distmiDuble; with an infiiiitc 
iiumkvr of prerogatives mure, wliich were too tedious hero to 
recite • . . Stau^fonTf 'HipotUio* qflit Kiiiy't Pimgalivt,' ijC;. 

2, CAHnKH. 

(a) TIm Slar-Chamhtr, 

Okment Slellato, iiiir« potius Curia CooBiUi Regii . . . Have, m 
vetu«tut«in *pcdemiut. eat iiiitii]iiiss!nia ; si dignitatem hononi- 
tinima. Ex <{U<i ciiim ad regca jiruvocnvcrint i^uliditi, con- 
eitiunique regiuni institut.iim fiirril, aiitiqiiitntom rnpetcro posse 
vid«tur. ludicea vero sunt »iri longe houoratiwiioi, rt spccta- 
tiahimi utiquc oouutiurii rtff\. Hoc vero noiueu Cnmenti' 
Stetlatfio accrpit, ex tjuo in cnmrra >tc11ia ornnta We»tni(inn*t«nt 
hot? oonnlinm fucrit corset it utnm. Quod tnm <>tim factnn), 
legitur enim in actis publicis ICdwHrd! t«rtii : CowxkH m la 
Chatubrt dts BaloitUea, prrt Je la re^jiU al if'esliHinttfr. Veruni 
liuiuv aulliorituteiii prudeDttmiiuus priucepii Heuricuii Ejuptimua 
ita parlainenliiriaBiithoritatea'lauxit ct •:<iiiHt«hi!ivit ul noniiiilli 
primum iustituiissa faUo npiuontur. ludices Itic sunt l>nniinit« 
Caacelkrius Angliae, 1). TliPsanrDrius Atigliae. Frtieses Concilii 
Rcfiti, D. Cuatoi privati ^iffilti, et omnes coiwilinrii status tam 
el'cIe>ill^tict ([uara laici, et ex I'urtiampiiti borouibuH iUi, ijuu!i 
prtnecpi udvoculut. . . . Britanitta, ad. 1594, p. i is '. 

(li) Fi/ifimthn anJ Teritht, and Hul^idutt. 

...Ordioes pract^raa tem[>oruin fclicitati congrntulaittes . . . 
ooneewenuit ecclvsia^tict uuum eulwidium, laici ilidcm alteram 
cum duabu« quiiideiiiH et decimtx. Quindcna «t dccinia (lit 
in «xteroruin Krutiiim ndnotein) taxatio ccrta cut, olim impnsitA 
*inguli« civitntibii", burgi". ct oppidis non riritim red 
g«nei«tiai pro rstiouo deciitia«<iuiotae p»r[is fucullatum loco- 

' 71m li.M •Jlliun of Lb* Britannia wat |suUkbed in t}S6, 




niiB. Suboiilium vucamuB qood ni^tulia capitc oam 
\ira ralkiue bouoniin t\ ui^rQTnm impouitur. Verum oh 
aec ilia UxKtio onquikiii imiionitur uiii ex Onltnam ooaaeon i 
IManwirto, Anuidu. »A. I. tfttj, p.t9,»-». *fn.\ 

(c) Martial Lav. 

VdSaDiim P«tri Burcbetli opiuionvm, qni ribi 
lioilutn «0O t'vuit^licue >'i:rit4i(i Kdvmauln oeAim, i 
mctnorrtii. Ko iiKqun tiominrm btiiu* opiiiionti arm kbripocrft^ 
ut lltiwkiii»iin) cbMianucn iHum celobmn in pabtieo pniouB^ 
ftggTMfus Miiciaril, ratuB IlaltoDam csw gratt* tntic ft 
apodlteeiaua) flortrtt«inFt abinltmiBcoDuliis.qDnDi 
Bilvi^nwri uitiliTcrat. Rpgiiia nd boe fucinua nipn qtiun i 
ita rxramlntt, lit in batnini'm ex jun; roilitari uvts 
pn>tint» nnimiulTcrti infvrrit ; dooiM ■ prudcutthat 
edocta, iua illad Don nigi in owtm ant trm[>or!bii« Inr 
adbttwudam ; domi autem et in ixk* «c pnM«mu io 
ferraaJa egendum. Jiim/m, ea. L iSis,|i. H>,«.aif 

3. Sir Tiioxas Sxirn. 

(]) Cla**n of th» ptofU, 

Of the Tiret port of G«nllctnm of Englmtiil, calleil mMliUt 

... In Engl&nd uo maa is otealud a liaroD, «XG«|>t ht U! 
dispend of jtvrXy nttaau oav tbuaasnil pouDda, or one tboiuul 
nuiriu at the leatt . . . 


Of tbc Kcood aot-t oS Ocntlemen, which may bt caUed 
DiiNor, and fint of knlghU. 

Ko naa U a knight bj siiccesaioD, noi tlic ktn^ or prioc* . 
knightii llm'sfore lie not boni but mada ... In Kngtani: 
<^Trr maj dt^peud of ht« (tm laada forty poumb •t«riin|| 

ynr\\ revenue maj be hj the king oonipelled to 

(inlcr and hoDonr, or to pa; a fiiw . . . 

Of EaqnirM. 

EsquiR* (wbicli wo MKnTnonly <al) aquirea) W all tl 
b(«r anm (aa w« cd) tiiem) or araorin . . . ihcaa be la 

Classes a/" the People. 


I datinet ordler of the commonwtnltfa, but do go ynih the 
! of the gcallemco . . . 

Of G«D(]«nvii. 

[(imitaieti be tlMee whom llieir lilood and race doth ottke 

■ad known . . . OrtIiia«ri)y tUe king dolfa only rauke 

uid eruitn Ihuviix or higher degrees, for ne for gcuUe- 

thejr be msde good clinap in England. For whoeo- 

Rodteth the lawB of the malm, who etudieth in the 

|TDnmtics, wrbo pcofcMetk liberal adeoces, and to be uliort, 

ttaa lire idlr and witliout nunual labour, and will bear the 

tchaige and nunUnaiiee of n gi^nilcmoti, be ihall be caltod 

r, . . . and shall be taktrn for a g*intleman . . . 

Of Teomen. 
(hom ire call jwnnen, nest unto the nobility, knighu 
I trains, have tbe i^reat^vt charge aud dotnga in the commoB- 
1 ... I call him ■ yroman whom our luwn do call Ugaltm 
I . . . which in a freeman bom £ngli»li, and tnaj- dispeud 
lii own fre« land in jwly reroone to the aom of 40*. ricrliiig 
F.Tbia aon of people vonfeaa themsetTOB to be no gentlemen 
■ ■.t»ii ret they hare a certain [irucmiiienou and man eiiUnia- 
liuliian labooreraand artificers, and conunonly live wealthily. 
• -■Theae be(fortiie moat jwH) fariucn uiilo geutlcmen, . . . 
*ti by tlicac nxana do come to inch wealth, that they ore able 
ui daily do boy the loodt of aothrifly gentlemen, and after 
Mliig their boos to the tehool at the tJuiTenitiea. to tlio lawa 
*f Ifce mJm, or otlierwiw learii^ them aafScieut landa wheraoa 
Ifcty may lire wiibout labour, do make tbeir aaid boos by those 
anof gentlemen ... 

Of the fourth iort of men which do not rule. 

The (ottiOt sort or cUu amongat tu, is of thooe which tbe old 

BiBBBS called tapiu ctnti . . . day lahourvr*, poor liu*Iiau(lmen, 

jm Bwrcfaante or retailer* which have no free laod, copyholdcra 

, nil nrlUucTB . ■ . 'fbtw haTe no voice nor anthorily in our 

Jlh, and no account ia mode of them, but only to be 

' Ctmvatw^iUk ^ Eaglaitd, vi. i£S9,Bk.I. cbafia. 17-14'. 

(U/* ofSb T. SmUK ^ 64) lays that tku bock ns willtcn 
rifSi^aaJ fint pntliifctJ (a 1581. 




Of Bomlfli^ and BdodnMn. 
Aner tlutt we luire fpokeo of aU th« tort* of ftwmeB, t 
ing lo the divereity of their cstatn and persons, il mtoll! 
nj* somewhat of boDdmen . . . Tlie Ituauuis h*A two kindtl 
b<»i(lmeD. the one vhich w^re calTri) utrvi ... all thow inlj 
bondmen be called iu oar law vilkina in gran . . . 
th*y hnd . .. whicli they called aJacn/Jifii flfeft** , . . andbt 
law arc called villnliu regnnlant ... Of tlie finit I nntrl 
nay in the vcnlm in tn}- time ; of the M-cMid. *o few tbMt i 
that it >» not almost worib the speaking, but onr law < 
acknowlctlge them lu Iioth tboao aorta. 

n* Conmimntala tf E»gtmd, vL IsSg, Bfc. lit dof. ■ 

*^ (») Pariiammt and die Sovfrtiyn. 
Of the Parlianenl and the authority tkereoC 

The most high end absolute power of tbe naim of 
Mmxiitcth in the Parlianienl . . . The Parltament at: 
laws, msketh new, giveth order for things pa«t and 
berearter (o be folluwed, chai^Ui riglita and 
privule men, legilimatetfa iMstardn. ectabliiibdh forma <£\ 
nitcieth wei}[lit« and meararos, giveth frrmt of racccaboa I 
crown, delnctfa of doiibtfnl righta wbereof La no law dr 
made, appoitilcth suhsidiee, luUes. taxes and impoBiliuna, ) 
moft In* paidons umI abaolutJoiia, ratoretb in blood asd 1 
as tbe highcrt eonrt, condemtictli or abeoImJi tl»rtn wl» 
priitce will pvt to thai trial. And to be short, all that errtlli 
people of Rome ut;;bt do, either in etnlttriatU eomitiif or (nMi 
the same mnj be done by tbe Pariiuraenl of Rnglaad, vbic 
repreftnitetb and halb (be power of the whole natm. batbd 
fatttd and the body. For ever;- Engltdiman is intended n 1 
then pment, either in per*on or by procuraliua aad attom 
. . . from the prince (lie he king or ({tieen) lo t^ lowett peni 
of Ei^land. And the consent of the parliament ii taken taj 
ereiy man's coBseot . . . 

Tbe Speaiter . . . b oomraoaly appointed bj the Idi^ or < 
tkough accepted by tbe oaaeot of the Hooae. 

...Nobill tsu Actof Putiament...iiatilbot&lWI 

1B08'.] f(i*>g «it<i Pariiametil ■• Justices. 


severally have a^rrvwl nnta it . . . no, nor then ndther. But 
the lust (lay of thtit jiBrlininent or sMsion the prince cometli in 
person in \t\% paiHametit roben, aud eitlutb inhU etate . . . TLen 
ODn reails iLe titles of i-vory Ai-t which batb ptuwd ot thnt 
HuiBlaii . . . : it {■ marked tbm what (hit priiicc iloth nllour, nnd 
to kiich he oaith, /.« Roj/or La Roi/nn If vruli ... To thosn n'hicli 
tho prince likcth not, Lc Roy or La lloy-n* t'adtigera, and those 
be acci^uuted utl«rly da»li«d and of none cfFvvt . . . 

OF the moDarch, King or Quem of England. 

The Prluee , . , hath ahHolulelj- hi hin powrr tlm nutliuritf of 
V/ar, atid })cnce . . . His privy cuiiiici) he cliosrn ul;o at the 
princi-N plcnmi-t! ... In war time and in the field the [irince lintli 
Also absolute power ... : be may put to death or (0 other bodily 
punishment whom bo iibnU think to to deserve, without procesn 
of law or furui of judgment. This hath been (omctiino used 
within the realm hrfoi-c any open war, in jwdden insurrrctionx 
and rcbellioDs, but timt not allowed of wise and grave tuen . . , 
This abgolule power ie called martial law . . . The prince uoeth 
also alssolute power in crying; and decreeing the inonpy of the 
rralm by his pruclamaliuu ouly . . . Tbr prince useth aIko to 
diiipcnM: with lawM made. wlKreos oi|uity requireth a moderation 
to be hud, and with painN foi* transgretsioti of lawa . . . The 
prince giveth all Ibo chief and higheisl uflicea or magintmoics of 
the realm . . . All wi-ita, executioiin und command meat* b<i done 
in tlie prinoe'ii uauie . . . The prince hath tbo wardship knd Brat 
marriufie of all tbuni! that hold land of biiti in chief . . . To Iw 
short, the prince in the life, (be head and the authority of all 
things that be done in the realm of England. 

TJla CooiwiwiK*tt/(A qfEngtaniT, ed. 1581), Bk. 11. ebapa. »-<. 

{3) Justieuo/AtJ'Mce. 

. . . mie Juatioe* of tlie Peace be those in whom at this time 
for the Ticpn;»*ing of robbers, thieves and vogabomis. of privy 
complota and conspiracies, of riota and viideucea and ell other 
miademcanoura in the cuinmonweulth, the prince putt^th his 
special triidt ; . . . and generally, na I have said, for the good 
govcrnnii-nt of the sbire, the prince putteth bis confidence in 
them. 2'ht Conimonutalfh 0/ ETi^Javil, ed. IJS9, Bk. II. cbue-'W. 





(4) Trial 6y Jwy, 

. . . Bat if thr; [bc % Jurjr] lio, u I have ssid, pn 
DOt guilty upou tbo prrisOMr, sguiasl whom manifest witaR 
brougbt in, tb« ]>ri<oiMr Mcnpetli ; Iwt tfai- tHrclrt! [arc] not < 
rebuked hy tlie jwlgu. but klao thrMtcDcd of ptmiiluueiit; < 
uany Umeti ooaimuidnl to HppMir in ibe Stor-CliutlRi;] 
Wore tlic Privy Council, for tlw matter . . . 

(5) The Court of Star-Clumber. 

There in yet in EogUnd anotliM- Court, of tbs which 
nn nndcrttnixl there is not th« like in %ay other country. 
tbo tenn-tirae . . . «v«ry week ouce at the least (which a 1 
monly on Fi i(1ay> and Wedne«dajs, and tbe next day after I 
the term dotli end) the Lord ChanccUor nnil the Lorji 
olIiLT uf tJic Priry Counctt, »o nuuiy n* will, and otlwr 
mill Rnron* which be Dot of tlie Pri*7 C'ouocil, and be iftj 
town, and tbe jndget of England, Bpecially the two chh 
from [line of Ibe clock till it be eleven, do sit in a ; 
is culled tbe Star-Cbtunber, eitlier becanae it i* fttU nf 1 
or bevBUM at the first all tlw roof thrreof vaa decked 
imagM or star* gilded. Thtn te plaint* beud of riots . . . 

Aw) iiirtber, becunae such Ihioge an not Kuumniily doDal 
tbe mean men, but *uch u be of power and fixrtr, and be 1 _ 
1m dealt witlwl of every mas, nor of nie«u gentlrmtn : if It* 
riot Im foutid and certified to the king'* council, or if otlnrwi* 
it bt coniptnined of, the party in rent for, and he must afpMTH 
the Star-Chomber . . . : for that is the effect of the oonrt, t* 
biidle such nlout uobleraen or gentlemen which would oSir 
wrung by fur<.'« to any manner men, and cannot, lie content ts 
demand or defend the right by order of taw. Thi« cioort WfW 
long bcfoTv, but took augmenlalKiu and authority at that tiai 
that Cardinal Wobe^. Arrhbi>bop of A'oeh, was Cbaucdlor of 
Kuglaiid. who of »ome wa« thought to have first devised that 
cuuH, brcause tluit lut, after wome inlermiMtaa by nqgtigmMd 
time, augrocDtetl the onthority of it . . , 

The judge* of lhi» eontt arc the Lord CbaiNcUor, the Lscd 
1Vea»uier, all tbe King'a Majoet;'* Covmil, (ht Woo* of 


Tlu Slar-Ommbfr. 

luid . . . The puiuabinent mort umn] ie impnsunment, pillory 
or fine, awl mnny tiincn both 6ni< ivnd ini prison mpnt. . . . 

T** CommoatetaUh af Eagluiul, ed. 15B9, Bk. III. cli:ip, 4. 

4. IiAHBAIU>. 

The Slar-CJuimber. 

... I do affirTD tliat the King katli a nipreme couri of prero- 
gative wbrrcunto hi* lubjccl* in such their neeenitie* raay 
provoke, us to his own trayni porsoD, and u-hcrein tJicr« is jUnct 
leit for him to sit; the which our kings in ptrson have often- 
timr-x frct|utntpil, ami were aBsisled witli micli m«ii of uoljiiity. 
wtadoDi and learning as he »liall choof« . . . nwl thpx m^n thu* 
takes for their couusel and advice we <lo commonly call the 
Kiog'H Council . . . So, howsoever many courts of ordiuarj' 
rrwirt nhall be nxlnhlishcd hy him, ytt if f^itliir tfai^y linvi' not 
BUthoritj to Hp])!}' remedy for all wroDgH and diKaaes, or that 
powtr HDd nuthority which tiiey havu may not enjoy ber fre* 
t^our^ and pnsjagi!, the:i munt the King either «xcroiie hiit 
preeminent and royal jurisdiction, or else must ths injuriously 
afflicted he deprived of that help and remedy which both the 
ordinance of God, the duty of a kiiiffly judge, and the common 
law of nature and renfon do nfford unto htm . . . What is then 
to be said I shall the King and his Council open a court for all 
aorls of j)leas that he determinable by the course of Common 
Law 1 That were to set an auomy and to hriug disorder, rioulit 
and incvrlaiiity over nil. Slinll no help at all be aought for at 
the hands of the King, when it cannot be found in the Conunon 
Law J that weiv to atop his ears at the cry of the oppressed, 
and would druw wrntli and punishment from heaven. Between 
thoMi two extremes . . . there lleth a mean that will both uphold 
the majesty of the King, maintain the authority of the coiiiraon 
courtx, aud Kucoour the diitrtwied client in his greatest necessity 
. . . And this mediocrity is maintniniilile, not only liy reason of 
the kingly and judicial office, whereof 1 have sometimes spoken, 
but also by the meaning of many stututes twd by Ibe contintml 
pracliiin of our own kings , . . 

There reniaiueth a coosideration of that statute made in tlie 
third year of King Henry YU . . . Thia statute, as some !».>« 




thoiiglit, ms nude for the restraint of tluit kbaoliitj! 
wliicii tiefiTctinie was «xerci!«J by (be King's Cboncil: mt{ 
after (be inuking thrriwf Ikey were to take kuMrledge af < 
few came* onk, xaA of nnne olhmt. Hut I do rstlwri 
it \yf way of eiilargement of their judicial aolhority ; f<r. ii 
mucli an there is uut in U any vrorda prtiliibitorv toucliiui I 
former nuinneruf proceediait, and the aeopc of ihii Uwtil 
bare tho«c ofTt-ndcn convicted bj- other tneam than b; otda i 
law aa they wti** before, I gather thereby tlial the slatatepK 
on additameul of this son, viz. that, arbereaa belbntiaN I 
Kingaud tbe Loida of thie Council did not admit any t 
bat ' f ucb only n« carried wilbin it a rcasotiabla nnnbt 4 
maiotenance of tlieir jurisdiction. . . . now by tJib statvt*. ■ 
and betiidM Ibat aucicut autbocity, only three of the 
viz. the Cliaucellor, Tn-asuter, and Keeper of the Pritj I 
iiting ihn 8»(«taiK« of tome otlwra thereunto appoiBUd. * 
enabled to hear and determine ordinarily of thne eight < 
and that without any mauuer of each au|[|[«atMHi or ■acrni*** 

This is all that for this time and eerrice I iiurpoaed tai 
of tliie most noble aud pnueeworlliy court, Ibe bcame of i 
brigfit juetice, equal in beauty witli iIc»iKrus and Locifttj 
Arisloile aoid in like cam), do bleze and spread thenuelTitM' 
far ae tlie realm is long and wide, attd by the iiillnnKfl of «lve 
aaperemiueut authority all other court* of law and jutin tint 
wo buvc are lioth the moie earely Bupported aud tlu ■** 
evciily kept and managed. 

&. Cbohptox. 

De Oovrt de Stam Cliamber, et mattan anant le Oaa 

Ic Roy. 

Le CiNirt de Slarre Ctiamlier est Tliiiilt Court, teus* 
le Boy et coo CouoBell ct antcn, et ceux ijtie »out «o«a U, 1 
appelea per nJiptna da|>{ierer deunnt te Roy et con Co 
jour mention in Ic brief; n i^ae jour A fail ilefant, douche 

■ 'brMalWori^ial. 

* Tbi* work b «a*d I* la*( been vtlUea ta I J91. 

Divine Service. 


Dt pris qna U ]i«rti* fait s^ruie one [avec] 1« tafyena, 
I «tlvticin«Dt ; sar que, ta eoit pna et np|>eK, term coinui* 
IImIc pn* lUacrvtiwii tld Conrl, ct n Dot pri* fur Utlnebc- 
, M Uj raxkr, doncqiN i«*ero proclamation do r*1>cIluHi, 
id*iB«nt cU lay jwender, a nv«r mo corps uuanl le 
fH tea Courw«ll *J jour niis in le brief. . . 

I me8m« tet per iiitcwlincnt touta foilx prcaent icy in 
ir le nii^pena qne innit {xir garn^ amuii lUppnvr in 
tCmit m( Mram tw^ta «( contilia n^tiro, et voinm(>iil cjue lu 
victit U, uBcon eulnnt que aa Council cut la, est 
I ■{■• Boijfne meame cut Ia, H ceo quo a Counwll fait icy 
I lUgo IB )«)' oome feauDs U Itoignc nnme, cat tl» parl« 
> boudie tt Bont iucorponte a luy. 

Onmpl^ Caarb rf> Id Soigni (ed. iig4), pp. 19, jj. 



']. Thi QvMtCs ProcUmation, 1558. 

By the Qwea. 

Qaeco'a Majesty, uDderstoudiiift that there Iw certain 

having in timo paat the office of miuiiilry in tbc 

vbicb oov do piirpoe* to t>M their fonnrr ofiic« in 

and iiiioiMiy aiid partly have altempted tbe same, 

. h»tli tbeRforc, acooriling to tbe aothurity comniiUnl la 

BighnMi, for tii« qaiel govcrnnncie of all mnnnfr of h«r 

UioBglit it oecvmnry <o charge and command ... alt 

' of her aulijcctii, aa wdll tbuse that he culled to roioirtrjr 

dunvfa a* all otlwr*. tlwt they do fcirbcar to preach or 

'is giTeaudieDcc toany mnnncrof doctrioe or pi'eHching 

ikaa to the Gnipela aod Epistles, commonly callwl tlie 

I J^iutls of the (lay, aiid to (he Teo C'omniandDirnt)! in 

' tongii*, without cxpoHlinn or nddilion of any mnnner 

FncAniug lo be applied or added; or to uao any other 

' ef public prayer, ri{« or ceremony in the church, hut 




tbM wbich in nlmtilj nueiJ mnd hj bw rMpiTt^l, u the < 
Litoay uMci «t this pr^Miit in bcr Mi^eatj-'* own < 
Ui« Lord's P»j«r, and tbe Creed to Gngtisli ; tuttll < 
v»j bo bud by |MkrUun«Dt, by 1i«r Majf^tv lunl Ur 
eetAtos of thin rc«[in, for ibo bett«r couciluttioo and aeeirH\ 
such csOMs as at thi« {)T*>cnt are moved ia ouUcn 
moiuM of religion. The true adnaccmrat vhn«oC (o lkd*1 
hononr of Almighty God. lli« iocresM of virtna toA fsJam,\ 
with nnivcnnl charity and ooacord kmoDj^t brr ptnplK Hrl 
Mftjealy moft deaircth and mcaneth rfriM-dmlly. br aD ■ 
of tncua pouibl«. to proevre and to rtston to tbi* btr i 
.. .Given at her Hi|[hDen')Mlaeeat WMlniinsUr, tb«iTlk^| 
of Dewmbrr, the fint y»r of her Miijeaty'a reign. 

God aare tile Qven- 

Sirfpt'4 Aan»U, Xlf-tf. 

S. Th* Qtuma fiyunetiom, 1559. 

TnjuDcdoD* giv«u by Ihe Qumd'm tlI^«Hty, «« well to Ibr dvffi 
as to the laity of tbi* realm. 
Tfaa Queen's most royal Ktajptty, by tbu ndvicc of her : 
booouTuble cooncil, intending thft adiran<:«iDpnt of tlie I'V' 
booour of Almighty Ood, . . . dotii minister uuto her loita 
aubJKts lbm« godly Ji^uDCtions bereanu- followiiig . . . 

I. Tbe fint U, l^at all deans ... and all otl>er reclc 
pcnons shall fnithfiillir ke^p and obaerre, and, m far m in 
nay lie, »ball caUM to be obwrred aod kept of other, : 
•tUKular tawa and Ktatules niado for thr leiloruig til the 1 
the ancient iariadiclion over Ihe stale ncrIeaiH»tical,«nd ah 
of all foreign power repugnant to the tmme. And fu 
all ecclesiastical persons harioft cure of souls shall ... 1 
. . . (bur tines in ihe year at least, in their wntion* and ' 
GoUations, that all usurped and forrign power, hav 
•slablUhmprit by the law of Uud, is fur niuat jont cam 
■iway and abolislted . . . and that th« Quecn'i power witi 
rMlm ud dominioBS !> tbe liigbeat power mid«r Ood. t<i wfa 
all DMB within tbe aanie rtalms and dontiniotu by Ood^ 
owe motl loyalty and obedience . . . 

II. Besides ihii, to tho int«nl that alt satwndtioo 
h}-pocrisy crept into divere men's bearta may n^A »wmj, I 

the tn»" 
>er lotiat ■ 




The Quetu's fttjunciions. 



ahull not »et forth or extol the dignity of any imagsB, relics or 
mirnclca . . . 

III. Item, That thoy, tl)e parsons above rehcaircil, »hal) 
preach iu thdr churches wid evety other cure they hire one 
Rcrouiii every mouth of tho ymr nt IcAit, whereiu they shall 
purplf and sincerely dtclaie tlie word of Ood, . . . and that the 
works devised by luau'a fuiilasies, tiesidefi Scviptiire, as wandering 
of p:lgrimage«, setting up of cimdlcii. praying u]>oii bi-ads. or 
Kuch like RUporttition, have not only tio promise of rc-wnrd in 
Scriptnre, but contrariwise great threateoingB and maledictions 
of Ood . . . 

V. Item, That every holy-day through the yenr, when Ihcy 
have no sermon, they shall immediately after the gospel . . , 
recite to their ijarislitoneri lu the pulpit the I'ateruoiitfr, the 
Creed, and the Ten Commamlmonlii in Engliab . . . 

VI. Aiiio, That they »lmll provide within three months next 
aftor this visitutioa, nt the churgen of tlie jwriali, one book of 
the whole Bible of the largest volume in Kngli«h ; and wiihin 
one twelve months next after the said visitation, the Paraphrased 
of Er%«mus also in Kiigli^h upon the Gotjioli. and the ntme mt 
up in same convenient place within the snid church that they 
have cure of, whei-caa the purliiiliionera may moet commodlonsly 
resort unto the name nod renil the some, out of the tini<r of 
common service . . . 

Vllt. Alw>, That they shall admit no man to preach within 
any tlieir cures, but sucli as shall appear uulo them sufficiently 
licenned thereunto by the Queen's Mnjcety, or the Archliinhop of 
Ctnterbury or thii Archbishop of York, in cither their pi'ovinca!!. 
or the bishop of tho diocese, or by the Qiiccn'ti Majcirty'ii 
visitors . . . 

IX. Also, if they know any man within tlicir patish or 
dNwherc that is a letter of the word of (lod to 1>e read in 
Bngligh ... or a fautor of any usurped or foreign power . . . 
they shull det'-ct and present the same to the Quecni Mnjeaty. 
or to her Council, or to the ordinary, or to the justice «f tlw 
peace next adjoining. 

X, Alto, Thut the parson, vicar or curate, and puiahtOBaca 
of every poriHh withio this rf^alm nhall in their ohurcliM VoA 
cbapeU keep one book of register, wherein they shall write tli« 




lb« next of )i«r kinsfollc*, or, for Uclc of knotrledge of bucIi. of 
IwT maKtcr or tninlrcFH whei* »lic scrvfih . . . And for the 
manuer of tniirriago§ of any biahops. tbo Hvoie ^hnll be allowed 
and approved bj tbe metropolitau of the province, and alto hj 
tinch commisHinnFrt, n* the Queen'* hliyesty thereunto ahsll 
appoint. And if any master or dean or any h^ad of Bny 
collep! slinll purpOKe to nmrr^r. the inme stiall not !« allowed 
but by FUch to vliom the vigitotion of the wme doth properly 
belong . . . 

XXX. Item, her Majesty lieiofj deeirous to have the prclftcy 
and fl]ergy of this r«nlni to be hud »■ well in outward reverence, 
as otherwise regarded for the worthlnew of tlmir miiiintriiw . , . 
willeth atid coinmaudelh that all archbl^-hoits and bishops, and 
nil tbnl may be called or admitted to preaching or ininUtry of 
the sncrnments, or that be ndmiltcd into vocntion eci:le«iastical 
or into any society of learning in cither nf tlin univcnfitiM or 
eliiewherc, Khnll use and wear such Heeiiily lial)i(i<, gurmeiits, and 
duoh )i(|uarc caps, as were most commonly and orderly received 
in the latter year of the reigu of King Edward tbe Sixth ; ■ • ■ ■ 

XLIII. Item, Fomsinudi as in llieee latter days many have 
been miiilr priests Wing children and otherwise utterly unlearned, 
to that they could read to say matins or mass, the ordinaricj 
thail not admit any hucU to any cure or spiritual function. 

XLiV. Item, every pnrsoD, vicar and cnrute whiill npon 
every holy-day, and every second Sunday in the year, hear and 
inBtnict all the youth of tbe parish ... in the Ten (.'ommand- 
menta, the Articles of the Belief, and in the Lont'ii Prayer, and 
diligently extLmino them, and Irucb the Cnteehium kH forth in 
the book of public prayer. 

LI. Item, BecauM there is a great ahuae in the [Mintere of 
bocks . . , tl« Queen'a Majesty straitly charfielh and com- 
mandoth that no manner of jjerson shall print any ra«nner of 
l>ook or paper . . . except the snme be fint lircnncd by hrr 
Majesty by express words in writing, or by aix of her Privy 
Council ; or he peiu»ed and licenced by the Archbishopii of 
Canterbury and York, the Biiihop of London, the Clinncellors of 
Ixtth Univeniiti«p>, the bishop Iwing ordinary and the arch- 
deacon also of tbe place where any such ithnll bo printed, or by 
two of them, whereof the ordinary of the place to be always 


The Queen's Infumiions. 

1 89 

oov . . • Aud becauM: nmny pamptilebi, pUyi and bullkila be 
Dflcnlimcit printwi . . . lui- Majesty likewise commandeth tltat 
DO maDnor of pcnoi) shall eiiterpme to print atjy such, except 
the %a,ma bu to bim licented by kucIi her Miijesty'ii coiuniiBaiuners, 
or tbree of tlieiu. aa b« appoiated iu the tity of Luculuii to 
hear atid iletermiue divers cauaea eccl«siii9tical, tending to tbc 
exccatioQ of certain statutes made last pnrlinment fur auUbrmity 
of order in religion . . . And (oucbing all other hooka of matters 
of reJigioL or policy or goveroauce, . . . bei- Hajeaty referreth 
Uie probibitiou or retninsiun thereof to the order which bcr laid 
CODimUHoiicra within ttio city of Iioitdou Hbnll tiiko anci notil; 
. . . Provided that these ordera do not extrnd to any profane 
ttutlioia and works in any language, that have been heretofore 
comutoiily received or allowed iii any of tlio Uiiivei-sitiea aud 
t-chools, but the asme may bo printed aud uoed as by good 
order they were occiiatotned. 

An eulmonition to gimpU ntm, dttei'ved by maiiciou*. 

The Queen's ^(ajesty bHng informed tbnt . . . sundry of lirr 
native Hubjects. being called to ecclesiastical miniRtry of tlie 
church, be . . . induced to find some scruple in the form of nn 
oath, which by uu Act' of the last Ptirliaiueiit ta prtscribed to 
be required of divers persona for tbo recognition of tlieir 
allegiance to her Majesty, . . . forbiddi Ui nil ninnner her mibjects 
to (five ear or credit to such . . . persons which . . . labour to 
notify to her loving' aubjeeta how by words of the said <iath it 
may be coltccted that the Kings or Queens of this realm . . . 
may challenge authority and power at miniiitry of divine service f^ 
in the church . . . For certainly her Majesty neitlier doth nor 
ever will cballeuge any authority than that wu diuUenged and 
lately used by the noltic kings of famous memory, KinR Henry 
the Eighth nnd King Edward the Sixth, which is mid wnn of 
ancic Lt tim e due to tht imjierial crown of this realm, that is, 
under Qod to have the sovereignty and rule over all manner of 
persona born within these her realm*, ... so aa no other foreign 
power shall or ought to have any sapcrioritj- over tlieni . . . 

■ 1 £1U. t. { 9. 



For (4iUm i» dtt ekttrtk. 

'Wbrrctta btr M^jcaly i]nden(uid«Ui tlmt in muiy \ 
the rMlm lli« altan vf the cliurctim b« rviniftnl, u2] 
plnccfl for the «i!roiniitr*tina of the Huly Bflcrainrnt, i 
totl>p form of the Uk therefore proiidfl. tod in totneolhtrf 
Ike aitars In not ytt tvmoTMl ; ... in tli« on]er wheiwC i 
for ao unirormit;, ihirrv awmeih do matter of gnal i 
thut tlie lacraioent be dulr nud rmreutly miubtered; 
ohrcrvatioo of one umforratty tbrvuRb tbe irbole rcolni . ^j 
ordered . . . tbnt tbi! boljr tnble in ereiy rbunk bt 
Blade, and set in tbe place vberc Ott altar atood, . . . wJ »i 
atand, raving wben tbe eomraunion of the Mcrament ia to t 
dittribulcd ; at vrbjcb time the Mine aball he m pboeJ ' 
the chnnerl, 04 wlxircbj' tlio niiniitcr tnay be more mut 
h«aril . . . and the com muni can t> also more convenient]/] 
more number coramonitate with tbe aaid minister. AW i 
(1m) con)Dituii«D done, from time to tiMie the eame Mjr taUtI 
be plaord where it Blood liefore. 

Item, . . . Tt i* ordered . . . that tJie nmunmtAl Wral ' 
nude plain, witboiit any figure tbereupou, nf the eame ' 
aod fasliion round, (Jioagb somcvhat bigainr id rompM *>^ 
tbtckiiMa. aa the luiud bread and «'at«r heretofore namedi 
Ckkn), whicli aerted for tbe iiae of the prirate mua. 

The form of bulding the prayon In be oml gctwnUI; in i 
tinif<irm tort : Ye shall pray [&c.] . . . 


3. Svmmons to Conroealion, 1563. 

Eliubetha. D«i gratia fftc], revcrnidiinimo in Cfariato Frtri 
Vat than) eadera gratia Cantuarienai Arcbiepiscopo, totin 
Angline Priinati et Metropolitauo, aslutetn. Q"'*— ■*«— udia 
et urtKotibua oegotiia dok, avcuiitatem et defcnnoacaa Ectlwiw 
AngUcauae ac paeen et traiiquillitatcm, bonum pablievaa at 
dcleiuinwni regoi uoetri rt nibditarum noeirorain 
ooaccmviilibiu. vobia in fid« et diteotione qnilxu 
mini rogando nuidamtiH, (|uatenijs, praeauiais debttv; 
altenti* et ponderalia, uiiivertM et aingvloe eptacnpoa 
proriucia* ac decaoM ecclcaianim cnl hoi tali nm, ntcneii arehi- 
dlKonos. capilul* «t CoUegia totumqua tltfooi cqji 

r in iff" 


l] CoHivca/ioH .• Puritan demands. 


cjttideiB provinciM ail cntnfuneuduin coram TobiB 

iiw ln ii nUl)G>li%K S. Psnlt I^iiid^ dmxlcciiuo ili« Janiurii 

tmuv, cUbito more convocui facbtia, ad tncluidum 

Inn «l GoncludeuclQm super pra«mUsis ot aliis qu«c 

lidknuuponeatur tunc ibi<I«m ex parte Doaln. Etliuc, 

• et •tatam refsm nonlH et boDDivta «t utililaiem 

pn«ilict«« diligitif, nallfktenns onuttnlt*. Tuxta mc- 

, ipQd Weelmon. zi. di* Novpmk kodo rrgni nostri quarto. 

Slnpr, Parlur. I. p. ijfi. 


4. r«tw>ftj/i«i cf 1563 : Puritan dufnattd*. 

L 'Hut All Ui« Sunday* m (lie yw, and priocipal reasta of 

I be kc|it lioljdayi, atid all ollii-r liolj'days to \x abrogated. 

n. That in all pnrifih churckfs the ininiKlcr in comiximi 

tarm fata Ux<t tovard tbc peoplr, and tliore diatiDcHy 

I tbc dirine cerrice apptMuted, where all ilie people asaenblcd 

■r beaiT Biid be edjfied. 

lU. Tbot in miuiiitcring tbo Mcnuncnt of baptum the <ne> 
■n; of nuking tlio croK in tlM child's forehead niuy bn 
aBittnl, aa tending to aupentitioD. 

IV. That, forasmudi as div«rs oommuDicants are not ablo to 
kwtl dnrini; tbe Umt of tbc curomunion for uft^, lidcoeaa aud 
mdiy othrr infirmitica, niid aomc al>o supcrnlitiouily lioth 
ImH and knock, that order of kne^ng to bo tofl to the 
Aoetiofi of ibc oidiiiary witliin Itia juriadiction. 

V. That it be aafBcient far llii! miniiiler, in time of aaying 
dnnc aerrice and Diiuistcrii^ the lAcramrala, to oso a mrplioe. 
lad that no mioiilcr my MrHce or inintflcr the tacmmeiit* but 
in a concljr f&rmrnt or habit. 

^ VL lltat the oae of organs be remoTtd. 

Slrype, Atmalt, I. [>. 501. 

5. Parkrr't AdrtrUttmnat, 1565. 

[Adrertiaesieiita* poitlj for duo br<l«r in tbe public adminis- 

of coauaon prayer aud unitih* the holy MCraioents, ani) 

aHklM mn brDUgbt fata On Loww Baaia of CMvwftlkni 

Ij. If6^ kiul rf]rc(*il lij a cui^etltj of oae T«t« {jS Tor, $9 agnlnil). 

wmtmm iiVniou, liiant (7 i^irtjr-UirM BMatnn <rf Ui* Lcmar Uuuw, 

, dt^MMM •nii'ng aabFT tUaga, the total abolilioa of MvplicM anil 

I apa '.^'TT'i '*™"i«. r. pp foo-joj). 
A» Mriitr draft if (kaa adTtttMcatttl^ Uttetimg b aMoa paitlmilaf*, 
I IB J^rjf^ Piuhtf, IIL fl S4. 




portly fur the nppoirel of all {leniauj ccfleaiaitial, bv ' 
Uie Queen's Mi^Mtj** letUn comnucdiug tii« mat, th* . 
day of Juiiiar^- in Ibu icrcntli jrnu-of the rngnof ouri 
\aAj ElizftUlb [&c.]. 

The Quveu'a JIi^^j, of ber godly seal ralluig to 
famnoe how utouaary it !■ ti) the adnuMcmrat of Ood't | 
him! to tl)« MldUMhmcnt of Cbrirt's pure rrligioo, for . 
loving nuhjccts, oqiedall; the al«t« Mcteuanka], le 
togctlM-r !n one pcrfvct unity of doctrine and to be i 
one niiiformily of ritea an<l muiuen, . . . hatli by fa«r 
directed unto the An-lil>lFl>oj> of Contarbury . . . ttnutty ■ 
that, with MttBtuuce luiil confervnoe bad with otbtr 
nantcly Much us be in oommisiion for canara «ciclesia«tia(j 
orctrrs might be taken vhrnvby all diversittes and 
among Ihcin of the clergy and the people . . . might be i 
. . . Whereupon ... by roiisrnt of tbc pereona befim (H^i 
orderi and rules enniiug have bcra tbooght meet and i 
to be u*cd and followod ; not yet preecribiug UiMe raW aibetl 
equivalent with the eternal word of QuA and aa of iimiwiljin] 
biud the cooccienoea of her (ubjKt« in the natOK of thv] 
couidcred in tlirmncUMi, or aa the; choold add any cAca^l 
more holincM to tlic virtue of pnblic pra^per and to (Ik i 
nMDla, but aa trmporal orders oiere eccleuattical, without uf] 
vain anpcntitioo, aiid aa rolea in aome part of diaa^liael 
coDceniing decency, distinction and order for tJia tint. 

I. Artida for rf octrtiw and preadiiny \ 

(i) Firrt', That all tbey which shall be admitted to 
shall be diligeully ezwuiucd for their confonuity in 
doctrine, cstaUishtd by public nHthonty: and adii 
sat aobncty ukI dtaerelioa in teadung the people, 
natters of controrarsy . . . 

(4) lu-m, That all lioenaes for preaching granted out by ' 
archbiHboiia and IwJiops witliin the provtnn of Cant 
beurin([ date before i March, 1564, be void aud of now 

■ St» the It-tUr *1It»I*iI to ia Paiktr CerTtrptmJtne€. p. 113, 

■ Cf. giryy, PatktT, L pf^ 313, 4J0; M» IB ItL p. 84. 
* TUi i* procodcd ia Sttyp*'* draft by Hum ncliow i 

vaUdlCy of Uia tbirljr-nfai* ailklM aoil wiii rliiii tbai itX da 
dedaia tMr adbtnMi to ikMB. 


Parker's Advertisemfnts. 


aud nevertheieM all nich as shall be tliougbt iii«et for the gfficr 
tu be luluiitted Kjtain without difficult}' or cliorge . . . 

IL Artictrn far adminiilraliou o/jrrai/ert and taeram^nU. 

(a) Itum, Tliftt no pamon or curate, not admittiMl by tlie 
bishop of tlie diocese to preach, do oxpoand in his own cura or 
otherwhere uoy ncripture or mutter of doctriue, ■ ■ . but only 
study to rtoiti gravely and a|>tly, without any gloung of th« 
Humo or any additions the honiilieB already »ct out, or other 
tueh necessai'y doctriue as is or (Jiall be prescribed for tho 
quiet tuatructiou aud edification of the [wople. 

(4) In the tniiiiitriition of th» Holy Commuuiun iu cathedral 
Bod collcgiatti chiircbea the priticipal minietrr (hull use a cope, 
with go«pellvr aud epiatoler o^'ieeably, uud at all other ]>rayere 
to hv auid ut tho commuuioii table to use no copeii but surpliveii. 

(5) That the dean nod ])rebcudaneB wear a suipliee with 
a ailk hood iu the tjuire . . . 

(6) Item, Tliat evi-ry uiiiiiater laylug any public prayers or 
miniitering tho sacmnicrit* or other rites of tbc chiirch tfaiill 
wear a comely surp'iew with slecven, to bo provided at tho 
charges of the parish; and that thu parish provide a decent 
table sfjiniling on a fnime for Ui« communiou table. 

(8) That all commUDi cants do receive kni-eling . . . 

m. ArtieUt for certain vrdert tit eccUticutical piiliey, 

(i) Firat, Against the day of gifiog orders appointed, the 
bishop shall . . . give notice that nooe shHlt sue for orders but 
within Uu'ir own diocese where they were born or had their 
Jong time of dwclliDg, except such as shall be of <legre« io the 

(3) Item, That no curate i>r minister be permitted to serve 
witihout exanunation and adrainion of the ordinary or his 
deputy . . . and that the «tid ministers, if they remove from 
one dioceee to auother, be by no meaits admitted to serve 
witbont iestimvny of the diocetiau from whence they come, in 
writing, of their honesty and ability. 

IV. Artielft for outicarj apparel of pertOTis $ci^e*ui*lieal. 

[4) It«in, That ... all ecclesiastical peiions or other having 





in OMiin 

any eeel«iutical living do w«ar Ibe e»p ^[MiBlcd hy 
ii^joDCtions . . . 

V. PrvUtlatioHt ta bt mod* . . . tmd ntbtcribti tj/ dtmt liUt i 
hmafter be a4mitt»l to nty ofit^ . . . tceUmattteaJ. 

(i) Iinprimia, I shtll doI preach or publtdv intcqirH, I 
only rrjul tliat vrliicli U ftjrjiutntod liy public aotliority, ' 
Bpcciat licenM of tbc bishoji imdcr hia s«al . . . 

(4) I shall uee Bobnety in «ppttT«l, mid (fKcuIIf ia 1 
at uooiinoii prayers, acmrdin^ l« onlcr nppoinUd . . . 

(7) 1 <lg aUo faithfully promtM ... to oheem . . . mdbl 
«od nitifomiity in all «x1ornal policy, rit«e, and Mr 
llie cburcb, aa by tbe Um, good nsageii and ordnm aie 1 
well pmvidcd and etdabUaliml . . . 

Agreed Mpiin and «aWritwd by 


Edmondus Loxuoaiiaisis f 

Knxoxnrs homatsa / 


Tilh otfacn. 


6. Bf^nningt of Puritamfm, 1368. 

Dam TlioiBas Hariingug. Nicbolaiu Sandanu, et T. ' 
ibeolqgi sx Anglin pnifiigi itnnue exutvannt 
potestatciB a Pontifira liomano nop«r acc«ptam, abialTeBsi <■ 
foro coDsdpniiae ooinct Auf^kia qui ad cecleiiiM gretnium rW~ 
tcbantur i-t ditpeitmndt Htnm in oauaa irtegnUlitatu, txetfit 
ex bomicidio voluntario proTeni«)tibu* wn dedactia tn fa 
raattotiaaain. etiam ab im^Urilate ntioue Itacmia, ds 
abaoIwDdi abvtJneant per tiiennium a miuistvrio aluri* : 
attan parte Oolmuiiu, Buttoauf, Hailing ham lu, Beataai»| 
alii, qui atnc*ri(w«iD rcligiooeni ■rdenij cum if lu proAaai aibO i 
qtKtd a McTBTum litrntmm foolibut baaatun probamnt, lin a* 
pnrioria diadpUnae uot-ilatis ant diascDMonu atodio, 

■ la lUa a laWprial fcc K. T. (ftabvt F>i 



Exfommunicalion of the Queen- 


Ecclrsioe Anglicsnae dUoiplin&m, liturginm, rpidropnrum 
Tooatioiiem in ((uaeiitioDeiu ptilitni vocaruut, imo daniuarunt, ut 
quti« Koiuuiittin religioueiu {iIuK uiiuio sapkiil, quacum sliquid 
hnbcre commune iiupium vmo declamitarunt ; omoin verwuiteH, 
Ml ail Ornrvi ir-i- t^ rT.MJnc amuimina nn^la in AngHca Enclciiia 
reforiii^i'Mitiir I, . iiiauquniu Itegtiia in cuiitoilinni duri ius- 
fterit, iticri-ilibile Uuivii Hut. qumitutu coDgcctanei. qui iuvidioBO 
Furitntionitn uomiiin ^totjiii ttitiutesiM^re cop[>cruut, ubnlinut* 
qiiadam ptrvicscla, cpiscoponim vecordia, et occulta quorundoiu 
nobilium ecclesiae oiubus inhisutiain favoro, ubiqu« succrc- 

Veriut. Camrttv,. Annatet,^. IJli B, i. Ij68. 

7. BvU of Excommunication, IJ'O. 

Pius L-ptMiupuii, wrriM *ervoruin Dei, ad porpctunm ret 

Itfguanfl ID eiceUiB, cui data est omnis in caelo et in terra 
jmtentuEi, iiiium lunctain Onllmlicnro ct Apostolicnni Ecclniiiiiin. 
extra qimm nulla p»t ii&lu*, uni soli iu ttrria, vid«<licet aposto- 
loruin priuciiii I'l-tro. P«tri(|ue fiucci-iiaori Roinuiio Puiitilict ia 
poleBtuliH pU'uitudixii! tmilidit gulieriiandam. . , . Quo quiduiu 
ill niuucm cilH-uiido . . . inilluin kborcm intermittimtu . . . Dt ipsii 
unitfu et Cntholica religio . . . inte-^ra coiiiiervetur. Scd im- 
pioruDi uutueme laulum poteutia luvaluit, ut nuDus jam in 
orbe locun sit relk'tus, qa«m ilti peii.iimiii doctriiiiii corruuipere 
lion t«iitnriiil, uduit^iite iuler cuutttros Ragitiorum eerra Eliza- 
beth, preet^'iisa Angliae rcglno, tid quaiu veluti ad asjlnm 
onimum iuftstisiimi prorugium iuveDeruut. Haeu eadeiu, regno 
uccupiitu, Bujirfiui eoclesiac capitis Inoum in omiii Ati)(litt 
ejuKqui; pmiteipttiim auetoritatcni ntquo Jill-indict ion cm moii- 
Btruotc »ilii UHurpnnv, rcgntim ipBuni, jam turn ad fidcni catho- 
licam et bouam fnigcm reduetum, luriiua iu mintrum i^xitiutii 
revocuvit. Uau naiuque vetae reli^punia, ijuam ub ilUuK ilesert- 
ore Henrico Octavo olim evuraam cIuniH mciiioi'iuc Mnriu, r^gtiiu 
legitima. Iiuiui" %oA\s prncsiitio irpnrnvcrnt, potent! inanii iiiUi- 
bito, Kcutisque et auiplesie hneretii'orum tn'oribus, regiuni 
oonvitium ex Anglica nobilitato coufvctum dii-rinit, illud<|uc 
obBCuris bomiDibuB hacrctici* oomplevit, Cathnlicnc fidH cultores 
oppresail, iinproboB conciouatorcs atque inipiotatum adiuiniatros 
rt-posuit, . . . deque ecclesiae (.'aunts dec«ruei% nuaa, praclaUs, 





citro et poputo M Roinaiuini Ecdctum cgnoMemit ia 

dixit, (ilcrowpw . . . Bomftni Fo&tificu «(>ctoritfttm 
obedienlwm nbjnram seqav folua in tcmponitibus rt vpiriB 
but doninaia agooswra jurejnraDdo co«git. . . . Ilitu 
•ucturitate toffulti, <)ui Nu* in boc tupmno jiutitiae 
liwt Untfl aperi impiirM, rolutt mllocnre, dc iqwatoltcM 
talis plFnitoiline dt«Ursnias praMUeUm Elinbetb, 
t!t bjiereiicorniu batric«m, eique adb*e>*irtw in 
BtiiilbeiiiBt!s ii!nt«ntiara incurruM, wfetjo* a Cbruli 
nnitate prarams ; quin etiun ipmtn ptMleawt ngni 
jnre, necoon omni et qnocunqiM ilomiuiu, dignitstv pri* 
qoc privntum ; «t item proccrM, iabdito« «t popnlui lUdi 1 
AC csctcroB ooiDes qiu illi qnonuidocaDque jurst«niiit % , 
tDeuU) liuJDnnodi ac omni pronoa domiiui, fitltfitalb 
obeeijuii debitu |>erpetuo ahralntoo, proot non tlloa 
itui:taritDt« ahsolvinitu ; et prinnu* cniulcm Klizabvtb ] 
jnre rrgni Bl!i*qn« otnnibti* suprailicti». Pn««i|>iaiwi|Di 
iDt«rditiiuiu univrrsis r1 singulis proc«ribm, tabditi*. 
et alili praedtc1i% ne illi ejusva monilii, niaodati* «t 
nutli-niit obctlire. Qni aeciu egertnt, «aa vimili 
frntpntia innndomuii . . . 

Datom Komac apud ssnctnin Petram, anno 
D(naiai«ae miUMmo qningfiiUeimo Mxageeiino 
Ka). U&rtii, jMuitificalud iwstri anno qninla 

" 8. Puritan Doetrinet. 
(a) Caitterifht'a ^pfopomlwtu, 1570. 

T. 'Arohiepi»ooponiia et ordiidiaMinoniia Dowiaa fODali 
tDuncribu* et oSciU «uut sunt aboIeDda. 

IJ. Lcgitimoram lu tcdtm miniiitroruiii nomina. qotlA 
suut epiMOpofum rt diaconorani, Mfinrata a tiiia DatuKribnt in 
vnbo Dei d«Mnpti!<, similiter sunt improbauda et ad iartju- 
tioBoin a|KKti>liaun rcvocuidB; at e|ns<opuB in tctIw rt fno- 
hatt diaconDt in pauperibiu rtirandia vrnelur. 

III. Episcoporom caitceltarii* aut arcbidiacoaonna ofiddi- 

' CUloi tn Stnu 'a eon* <f tb« [iroiNaltkM CartwtUt bad m« i 


Puri/an Proposifions. 


liui r«(pmen «ool«9iae uou eat comniittcji<lum, ttd ad idon«atn 
ininiBtrum ut |>mI);Ft4!rium irjuuleni ccclraiiir (lurcrrndum. 

IV. Non oportot minieUrium cmc vagiun at Uberum, sed 
quieqite debet certo cuidHin gregi nddicL 
^^ V. Nemo debet niiiiUlerium Uucpi&ni caDdiJalus peten.'. 

^^P VI. Episcopi triDtum autlioritiile ct {ii^tvatutu miiiiatri noD 
I suiit creftndi . . . ted nb occIcma olcctio fieri debnt. 

^—^ Shypt, AnnaU, II. p. 31)0; Wkitgifl, III. p. i;. 

I chi 

I 1» 

I du 

(b) Chark't propoititionM, 1573. 

Chark ', in » c/n-um at St Msry'e before the University \aS 
Cambridge], bad roundly coiiduintied tlie hierarchy of thiH 
cbiirch . . . laying down tbene two bold pOKitiMu : 

lull atatiu epincoputRH, n^chiepi*«ppAtu^, 
putriitrdinttu, dcuiqu« papatus, a Satana io ccclcsiam iutro- 
ducti cunt. 

Inter uiiiitiitiuii «!RclR"in«, non dnbet nlitia alio ci<iin Kii]ierior. 

Btryw., Annalt, III. [i, »*8; ef, Strgn*, Parktr, II. p. 10+; 
Wkililifl, 1. p. 88 ; III. p. ««. 


(c) Dtring't jir0j>ositum», 1573. 
The loidsliip or oiril goverumeut of bishops is utterly nu- 
hiwful . . . And whnt, I licMcch yuu, is Uie fruit it bringeth t 
In it not the sain* that Hpringvth out of Ibn popn'ii brMsitt 
What «I«e are officials, commissaries, chancellors, archdeaconn, 
&c,, which rule ivnd gorvrn by the common lawst Sluch 
worse Ihao the »tatut(ii< of Omri, and alt the ordinaocea of the 
house of Achab: which uphold in Die midat of as a court of 
FocuHie*, n |i1iic«i much worw than Bodom and Oouiomh . . . 

iMlUr/rmn Edu. Vrrifg, rontrr nf ■''( Favl't, fn LonI Barleigh, 
Jaltd I S^. 1173; Strype, AmaU, III. {^ 401-411. 

(d) Samjiion't profiogilionii, 1574. 

. . . Kiy ^{^tod lord, pro Cbiinto Domiuo dominantium rogo, 

obaecro, that tbern may lie a couaidemtiou had of the state of 

the Cburcb of Knglnnd. Thn doctrine of the g<»[>c1 in aad ninv 

be purely preached in £ngland : but the govemmcnt of tlie 

church ft[ipoiiil<.-d in the (gospel yet wanteth here, Tlie doctrine 

' Wiltiam Cbark, Uto f«Um of Pet«ttiou««, then oli.iplun l« Lord 




is good, tlie i;:0Teriiment bjr him Appointed u gwid. T1hi»i 
to be c>Mtjoii>««l, ttod mt eeparaled. It ta a deramitj ta i 
Cbarch ofChmt, prufevung his gospel, Xa be gDnriMd I71 
caaooa oiul castoma «* by which Antidirirt AkA nh hit 1 


JjiUrr fron &>injMoa, /om/rty Dnu o^ Cilruf CiturrJ, (a J 
jrtirJ«>>i,<JiiM 8 JtfarM, 1573-41 Siiyf*. JmMaU, Itl. |v j:).J 

^ 9. Sx!meUfrmn iMf Ftrtt Admomtiam, 157>. 

An Admonition to Uic rKrliuncnt A yiew ef 
•busts y«< nnuining in tb« Engliah Ctiorcb for Uw 1 
godly tninisUra hare refused 10 subaerihe. 

Whorau immcdiatdy mftcr tbe Wt puliun«it' 
ministers of God'* koly word and ncnraciitB were «1W 1 
Wr Majesty's Uigh CoDimiaioDers, and enfonttd to luboilj 
unto tlM Mtielee, if they wonld beep their pUcu and 
And Mme for reftuing to mbocriht! wrre . . . remoTcd : M«f i 
ptewc Ibcrvfore tbu booonrahle nnd liigh court of psrTH 
... to tflkc s Tiew of racli cauMfl aa then did witbboU tni 1 
dotb the foresaid minifitcTB fruin anbKTthlag and 
unto tbow foresaid articles, by traj of purafi^tioD to dis 
tliemnrlvT^ uf all dtwbedicoce towarda the Cliarch of G«l 1 
thvir Rnwrcign, and by way of most hanble ^utnaljr ht 1 
removing away ... of all such corruptions and ahmwa ai 1 
belli (hem . . . Albeit, right bouoBtaUe and dearly beland.< 
bsve at all times borne witb that wliiob we could not amoDlii 
tbia book *, and have niwd ibe aame in our ministry, ao far isA \ 
M we might . . . yet now beiog compelled by aubgeriptini ti 
Allow the aame and to confess it not to be against the *of4tf 
Ood io any point, but tolerable, we most needs my ss (bUotnllt, 
that thi* book ia ao nnper^t book, culled and picked oet it 
that popiab dunghill tbc portuiie and maet-book full ef ell 
aboininntiana. For some and many of the eantente thttiia 
be each na are against lh<^ n-uni of God . . . 

Their pootifital, . . . whireby they coneecrate bishop*, make 
mtnistcn and dcscAna, is nothing else bat 1 thing won! far 
word drawn oat of the Papt't ponllAcal . . . ; and m tb« imi 11 

Tie farikneat ef 1571. 



fnumffi'on fo Parliament. 


. ardidwcon*, lord bi*bop*, ch&DCi-llon, ftc, ara 

.. ihe Pope's bbofi together tritfa iheir offices, so the 

wliicb tbey OM ... is uitichriatian and devilish, 

to the Ktipturas. Aod as ssfdjr may we, by th« 

Dt uf God's word, sabKtibe to iJlow the domliiiou cj tbe 

JTeiMlIjr to rale over the word of God, m of an nrdt- 

I cnrer a wboln province, or s lord ImsIm^ over a dioccso 

ptith contaiiietb many shires and parishes. Fur tLe dowiuioo 

. tbef exercise . . . U unlawful aod KX^ntAj forbidden by 


Tbrt should wo Fpeak of l]i« archbishop's court, aith sU 

I fcnov it. and your «i«]oin» caimot bul »«e u-but it is. Aa 

ttlna oMfts an subJMt to this by the Pope's prerogative, 

. and liy siatnle of this realm yet unrepealed, m is it the 

qoake-mire and poisoned pUeh of all llie aboniinatiooa 

: io infect Uie whol« realca . . . And us for the ooouniwaries' 

Unt is Irut a petty Itttle stinking ditch tliat Sowelh out 

rthat fonnt^r great pitddio, robbii^ Christ's Church of lawful - 

, of watchful Mniors sod cldei's, and caiffQl deacons . . . 
And aa lor tL« apparel, tbougb ne have been long borne iu^lufv'p*^ 
and yet are, tfaiit it is for ordrr and drccncr rgntmnndrd, 
am know and Iihtp proved that thvrc te neither onlcr nor' 
nor obedience in unni;! it . . . Neither ia the con- 
' betwixt Ihciu and us (as they would bear tli« world in 
)) (nr a cap, a tijipet or a surjilice, but for great mutten 
Etiitg a true ministry anil rr-giment of tlw church nooord- 
ta the word ... If it nilglit please ker Majesty, by the 
Iriee uf your Ittfiht Honoorublc, in this High Court of IWlia- 
to bear us by writing or otherwise to defend onrselres, 
socb is the equity of our cause that we would trust to 
bToor in brr Msjc»ty's liglit ... If tbin cannot In.- ubtuined, 
*c win, by Uod's grace, address ourselves to defend his truth 
by ssfirring and willii^'ly lay our heads to the blocic, and this 
^n Ik oar peace, to havi' qnict consciences with our God, 
when ire will ahjda for with all patience until be vrork our full 


bj Cutwrifht, SaiBfiMn sad oUicn, sad idilri J iiJ to the 
of tiJi : bT. betev, p. 147. 




10. TU CmtOM of le^'fi. 
Liber quoituidnm cnnnniim ilinciplinav McIirMoe Angltciinae 
onno 1571. Krtinuntar in boo libclto certi qaidnm nrtlonli 
... in quoB plene consetisum est . . . iu ^j'liixlo inchoata 
Ltfiidiui iu Md« diTi PHuIi [3 Apr. 1571]- 

... (3) Episcupns qaisi}u» ante oalendas Septcmbru proximas 
ttdrocnbit ud ne uninev paUicoa ooacioiikt<>r«ii , . . nt ab Jllia 
ropetct fnailtnfM conciotiandi . . . Deinde. ilelcctu illorain pru- 
dcnter facto, qnoscmnque ad illnin tautam fuuolionem . . . psres 
inTenerit, illiH iiovun iiicuhatci ullro Hixhst ; ita tunw^o ut prius 
Bubacribniil nrticolix rhrifitiniific rcligionU pubHra in i^ncido 
approbiiti", fidemquc dent se velle tueri et drfcndcrc doctrinnm 
earn qua« in illis coutiueLur, ut coiueuttentuiuniain veriUti 
divini verbi . . . 

(6) EpiscopuB nrauni pcethuc mannm intponet nid instituto 
. in bonU literia vel in academic vtl in ioferiori aliqua scbola, aut 
qui tiatit commode intclli^t Lndtuim liiijiunm ct prolip vcrsatus 
tit in B!icri« lilL-ns ; ncc nisi ottigrrit n^latcm iUam Icgitimnin 
quae statutis et Ipgibus est constituta ; n«c oisi cujua vita ct 
iunoceutia gravium «t pioruni boiuiuum <t epi.icopa Dotonim 
fucnt tectimoiiio commcndiitn ; ncc iii in ngrirnlturn vcl in vili 
aliquo et wdciitniio nrtificio Turrit cdncntnH ; nee nisi qui 
tilulntn (qudti appellant) aliquem babeat, ut sit unde vitam 
tueutur . . ■ ; nee tiisi qui inti'a ipt'ius dioeccaim mcro mininlcrio 
fuDcturu* nl ; aec unquiim nir^i nlii uicnim nliquod niinisteriunt 
in ewlcrti dioeneai Tacare contigcrit. Nemindu autem pere- 
grinum et ignotuin vel ad eaierdolioruin prorentun vel iid 
ecclesiasticuni niicistrriuin recipiut uixi iib Ulo cpiicopo, c cujas 
diocMU diMPuit, litems conimcmlntitiaii quna vocant dimisaoriaa 
Kccuni nffi'ntt. . . . 

(8) Episcopug D^minem qui te otioso notniue l«utorcin viK«t 
et manus tiupuHitioueui uoji ucceperit, in ecclonaa miniaterio 
venuiri [lutivlur. 

II. Jkcani tccltfiarum cathtdraliuvi. 
■ ■ • (s) Quivin deciinm iu nnguloa iiiinoH nd minirnnm quat^r 
rrtidebit in rcclr^^ia i>i)a cathodrali ibique f^iiigulia bujuauiodi 
i-icibas mensem integrum . . . moram faviet. 

EecUsiaslicat Canotts. 


IlL Arehidiaami. 

...(]) ArcliidincmiiM qui . . . bab«t potetrtateni Yuitiuidi 
■«mel in dngnlos annos in pcrsoiiit sua visitabit prorincinin 
KOAtn. . . . 

(5) Archidiacom in onines (lelioquentcB severo et gravitM" 
aQiuiadvertiMit . . . 

IV. Cancdlarii, Commi»»ani, OfficiaU*. 
...(>) Nulluir Uornm ... in cogrtitioue munanim [iroc«d«t 

usque nd ftTvndnni ncntcntiaR) nxcomniunicutiotiiii uiu taDtiim 
in cnd*b inttaDtiarum . . . 

(3) Excomm Dili cut iuuiH aut^m sententiain dcrcrml tnntiim 
ad epitcopam, cuniqon ant ipM! pur )« pruimnciabit aut f(Tuvi 
ulicni viro in eacro minintorio conntitiito pronuiiciaadam 
coinni!tt«t. . . . Comiiiuttitiouera autem injvnctiio jmciiitcntine 
ncc csnccllnriuH faciei ucc arohidiaooDoa nee oflicialis nee com- 
TuiKsAriu^. En poUstnii multts gravibus de caqms epist-upu loli 
rcservatur aut ni quein alium episcopos ad cum usum apedali 
maudalo di-si^iiabit 

(7) Quiviii miiiislcT rcclrdinr, aiit«qiiam in imcram fimctianeia 
ingrcdiatur, snbscribet oninibns articulii dc roligioDe cbvLttiana 
in quoe conseatiunt est in ^nodo . . . 

V. Atdilvi eecUtiarum <( alii tettcH viri. 

VI, ConeiowUwtt. 

Kemo nisi nb epiacopo permissus in parochin nua jmMicc 
praedkahit u«c puKthaeo audebit cuiicionai-i extra miDisliriaiH 
et ecclcidaiti xuam, niiii pototnttrm ita cunclouaiidi aeceperit tv\ 
a ri'gift majctitatc por omnes irgni parte" to! nb BVtliii.-jii»«i]Hi 
per proTinciam vol ab epiacopo per dioeeesim. . . . Mt qiioniam 
articull illi religionti Cbriidiauae . . . liaml dubi« collecti tnnt 
ex Kacriti librii V«toris et Nnvi Tc<staniciit: et eum ca«le*tt 
doctrina quae in illia cocitiiietur per omnia eongruunt .... 
illoi'iim art IcuWum auctuntatvin ul fid<?ui . . . aubacriptioDe 
vuurirniaUutit, Qni Kecun Irccrit, ct contmrin doctrina jiopulam 
tnrhaverit, exromraunicabitnr. 

Inter coiicionandum utL'ucur vetite quam maxime niodesta ct 
gravi , . . qoalJEqtie in libeUo adnutnitionura descrl^vi «b\. 




Vn. E<»dei>lia. 
AbecnUa pub^riii n i1ommic<> gn^ ct socm-A ilU ne 
qnani vid«m(i8 in multis et deatitul'to BuunU-ni Mt ntl 
fnc<lA ct odioM iu valgus ei peniiciiMn ecdenM l>ei. 
hortUDor omius [umtore* eccle«i«raia in Domino JMii,«t i 
|)rimuiu ivdeiLnt %A psrocbias quique hub . . . iUque vtrmlKj 
In ciDgalos uiDoa non minas quan wsaginbi dies. 

VIIT. PUmlitas. 
Non tic«lMt cuiquam, enjtucuiiqu« lU gradoa, |iliiiii]nui( 
eodnJanUcn Wneficiu otitincre coili-m trtnporv, n»c[ap cuiq 
otnniiui liccbit obtiDcre duo bcncficU u pIusquuB viftstii 
Diilltanis distinct* aint. 

TX. iMdiou/fittn. 

S. Patrom tt PrvprietariL 

XL Forma tmleittiat extemmutiieatienU. 

II. Emrtim. 

(a) Htffidations m Ikt <{rMMM of Ptttriorffugh, 1571. 

FroptucTings or extroMS vrre ainch tned now Uin 
most of the dioceaee * . . . These esercia^s were tncd ia ' 
clinrcli of Korlhampton bv Ibi; conx'nt of ibo liiabnp of PtW*' 
borough. Scambter, the mayor of iho town aad bis brrtln*> 
and otber tbe Qaeen's Unjctiy'* jmtice* of tbe peaoe vttUa ite 
county and town . . . 

...XII. TbcK is on enrj otlier Satni^y . . .aotifftuecf 
tbe Biinisttn both in town and counti;, about tlio intimuilaliw 
of Mriptorva. Th« ministers Fpealdng oae m&rr aootlwr 4* 
haadl* •ome text, and the saine openly anong tlw pt«pb . ■ ■ 
Tben if aim a wtckty anemhijr evtty Tbanday after tk 
lectare, by tlie ntayor ami bis bntkrcn, a«ul«d with tbt 
prcBcber, ■iui!st«r aad odier geDtlemro appointed ta tbcs bj 
tba Utbop, for tbe correction of disranl tnade in ibe tc 
lor notorioas blasphemy, wfaondom, dm nfcfnn aaa, ntliait I 

Far nUkip htkhoiH'i pmalaarai of nwriHa la ik 
Norwicb. isTt. m* StiMr, iaMb, IV, p. 494 ; fur 


religion, or preaehert tbereol^ scolds, ribelda or sudi lik«; 
whiuli faulu ari! rach Thuixbiy presented unto them in writing 
by certAia ■worn men, npjiolntcd for tlint service in each parish. 
80 by tlic Inahop's autbority and the mivyor's joined together, 
being a^BiBted with other f;«'itl<^>"CQ u the comniitwioti of the 
pmce, evil life is currecti^d . . . 

XVII. Tliere in hcrcnft*r to twite place, onlcr that nil 
minislera of the »birc, onco every qunrter . . . repair to the 
said town ; and there after a sermon . . . priralely to confer 
nmoDg IhemselvHs of tbeir roniinen nnd lives. Among whom 
if wiy be found in fnult, for the first time «xhortarion is made 

> him nmung all the brethren to anietid ; and so likewise the 
Olid ; and [the] third time, by comi.laint from all tlie brethren, 
he U committed unto the bishop for bii correction. 

Th« ordar o/the tteerdse of the minisUrt with a eonfestion 
of t!u faith. 

I. Every one at his fint nllowuuoe to be of thU exereiM 
shall, by aiilMcription of hia own hand, declare hia conMiit 
in Christ's true religion with his brethren, and submit himself 
to the diw.iplioe and i>nlers uf the wimy. 

II. Tiie names of every man that iJiull njx-Ak in thia cxeroiae 
shall be written in n tabic . . . 

in. The 6rst speaker beginning and ending witli prayer 
ought to explain the text that li« reudeth. Then be may 
confute any fulac or untrue expositions . , . But be tfanll not 
dig-iesiH . . . 

IV. Wlmtsoever tB left of the first speaker . . . they that 
speak 'afterwunln have lilierty to touch, . . . without re|)cati«g 
the BelfHrinie words which linvc been npokcti hcfure or im- 
punning tJie same, except any have spoken contrary to the 

V. Tlie excrciiiG »hall begin immediately after uine of Ui« 
clock and not exceed ttie rjutcc of two boun ■ . . One of the 
mcidcmtors shall always toako the conclosion. 

VI. After the exercise is ended, ... if any of the speaken in 
tlil« rxcrviHc he infnmed or convinrrd of any grievoUN crime, he 
shall be there and llien reprehended. 

VII. . . . And this consultation shall be ended NcltVi wnsub 




tbori exborlation, t« move each ww to go fbrvtrd U 
office . . . 

Then foUownl a confewon wlvich tbecs mxtmtn wm 
talMcribo . . . 

7A« ttrnfrttwn m (fa «x«m«ei^ 

We wboM naran ue Iierpundcr written . . . bdiei« oi h 
thitt th« wonl of God written in the cuwnical (criptniM «f I 
Old ftod New Tfsluncnt . . . [in] and ought to be Dpra, la 
read aud kuoMti of all torts or meu, . . . and ibe aKtkd 
tfaercof &r to exciMHl all antlwril)-, nai of Uie Pop« of Ra 
only . . . but of the church nien, of councils, htlun or 
wboaoeTer, either men or angiFls. And thtroron (n thti 
of God vo bumhly aubmit uunelvea aud all our doicim : 
and rendv to be judged . . . tlicrcby, in all pomta of teiifrv- 
Shypi, Jit»tit, III. pp. ij}-t40. !.■. 1571; c£.ULin.|v 

(b) Supjmttim cf Extnitet, (574. 

Arobbiofaop Parker to Mr Iklatebett. 

. . . YoQ shnll go unto my lord toot otiUuaty. and 

that 1J» Queen'a MajestT wiUwt roo to nrpfn— tl 

pnjilieeyiaga. And lli«reDpoo 1 require tiitn in h«r 

name innacdiatt^Ij to dkchsr^ tfaeni of any fui 

doing . . . Mattbus C* 

[Dated 35 March, 1574.] 

Porttr C or mf om ilMi , p-l 

(e) GrindaVs StptUaioM, 1576. 

Orden 'for rrformation ofahu$a a6mii At tearmd • 

eon/ertnet4 omonj At AfiniHert of Ike CkitnK 

I. The aaid escrcbes are to lie nsn] onlj: in raeli 
aud at swh time* u tlie bbb^ of the diocese ehtO 

U. Tt*m. That in all such eiwcUca, eitlier \i» 
if be be a itiTiuv, or eke Bona one oilier grave 
graduate, at the Ifaat, to be apfwinted . . . by tbe 
and modente the nld eieratOL 

■ Ct Letft of Oriafcl to the Queta, aoDtc ifTSC*— « *■*■<'' 




m. Ilaai, Tlmt s oalalogne of D&mea be mnde kni] sUoired 
AcH iW m jiul^^ meet to be tipeaken . . . luid nich parta 
ttt Scri[)l&Te ettlrMU<<l of a« ibn ImkImp •hall appoint. 
IV. ItEiB, TliAt the rost of tlw mintftvra ... be amigBed by 
Bodcnton Komc t«ic«, for th« increwe of tbeir leHTniag. to 
taii{nMid in nrltiDg or otberww, coDoeroing tbo expo«iti«i 
part of Scripture . . . 
Vbam, «r/« omnia, tbst no lay porson bo suffeivd to 
^UIcIt in tluwe ancmblies. 

Item, Tbat DO man epcakiog io the nid exnvi^M nhtdl 
nfard to glance ap«tilf or cov«rtly agaimt any >tat« or 
pcma public or privalv . . , 
TIL Item. That no moa b« taffrred in tbo stid fx«iYife> to 
DakeanjiuTvctioDsagKiBst the bwa, rilM, policies aud discipline 
ildiii Obar«h of England Mtublblitd by public autliarity . . . 

VIIL Item, FuTJ^inucb as divcm uiiriitlcrs, dcpriwd from 
tiur living* and iidiibited to prcarli for not obeying; tlw public 
witn and ditcipliiw of the Cliurch «r England, have intruded 
■hMKlvvB in nindry plac«a to be tpeakcra in the wid exerei***. 
ml . . . baT« in the Mid exereieca osnally luado tlietr iiiveetJonii 
Vioat the ordeiB, rtt«i aud diKipline of the church . . . , vttty 
Uup ii to take strict oidcr In hi* dioccnc, tlmt hereafter none 
I* nffercd to be speakera in the said «x«rcijed, wbich remain 
ifdrcd or Jtihibtted for tk« cauaet afoKnaid, except they ihatl 
kts before contonnod tbemsclTca to onI«r, neither Any otiwr 
■bail not . . . coa&ina bimwlf . . . 

Edh. Cantvab. 
Strypf, Criiufdl, pp. 3)7, 31S, ■■ a. 1 jT^. 

(d) Tht Qvtent Letter againtt Pro^tyings, ifi]?. 

bl memd father in Ood, wc grvci you veil. W« hear 
' great griaf, thai in sundry parts of our realm tLer« are 
I fmall number of pcnona . . . which contrary to our laws . . ■ 
b daily deviM . . . and put in execution nuidry n«ir rilea aod 
bcu in the church, a« veil by thoir preaching, reading and 
BtBttlEriag the BcrwRonU, ax by pnwnring unlawful amciDblica 
)f ft gmt nombtr of our pc<opte . . . to b« }tMren of their 
Byitatiom and new devised opiuiuua apou mattere of dirinity, 
[ bmI BBoieci of unlearned pcojJc, which nuuuwr of iarMioita 




ttiejr in tome pWei nil propbcVTiiig and in nme other pli«| 
«x«Tei(c*; bjr which lUBDocr of a8)«in1>lie« gn:at DimWnJ 
our people ... are btou(;ht U> idleness rimI svdactd «■«! ie ■ 
manner tchiinialicalljr diviilril mnougxt thenuel?e9 . . , m1 
tuanifcstif thrn-ky encouraged to the vioUtiou uf oar U*t..> 
Wberefoi«, cooBidering Uiat it should be the dntj cf tk I 
bu>Lt>|iii . . . to aee these diabonoan agaiiMt the boaosritfGtiJ 
sad tbii quietneaa of the diurck rebnoed, ... we «3i mT 
atnightly charge yaa that jroo nlim charge the aaoie fottbatf I 
to oraw . . . ; but if auy ghall attempt or coDtinoe W t«i)r«tli| 
same, tni will vnu not only to eununit (Jtem tmlo [niM i 
luaiiitaiuers of disorders, but also to aitr«fti*« as or our ceoKfl^j 
of the Domea and cjualitiea of them and of their nuiotiia 
and abetton, tfant thereupon far better exmropte their poioA- 
nwDt UAy be mot* ahorp for f Ivir rrfonnBliMi. And io (koe ' 
thio^rs ve chai^ you to W so ouvful and vigilant aa b; jw I 
jiegli|[euce ... we be not foreed to make aoiue eiaaifit K 1 
nfomtation of jou aocordtng to jour deserts. 

[Dated 7 Uay, 1577.] CurOtctU, Dotmmtni^rj ABttaiM.l.^ia- 

(e) Regnlatioitt in the Jiocat «f Chetter, 1585. 

A copy of the authority giveu by the bialiop [of CIiMtit]» J 
the moderalora of every aevml exercise ... and 
orders to be obnervnl iu the exerctae& 

WiUinm ', bj (toil bin proridcacc Inaliop of Cheater, ts-. 
motlcrmton for ibo rxcrct>r« liolden at Bury, within tlic diotat 
of Chester, grrrliog. WbsrMS the right honourvble the brii 
of her M^jfsty'B mott hoaoonhle priry counril . . . h»ve nvm- 
nmided u&to HS aonte furllMT eulai-gemcnta of the eoelcaiMticil 
exereiae, . ■ . (ince which lime we do uodentand . . . that 
who ought tu frequent ibe aaid rxcrciM . ■ ■ either uvgligeBl 
tl«al in the tamo or wilfully abwnt themsclre*. . . . thcae 
therefore to astboriw you tltat nu do - . . giire Doticc tn all tbt 
el«r]Qr ... of the routenta of these pi«icnta. And if y«n ahaB 
flad any . . . negligent . . . after warning girvn, ... to satftaA 
turn BO ofleuitiDg . . . And what you ilo couc«rBtag the prefntMca 
we will you ccrtily u» . . . 

* Wat.CbadMMi,BiA(9erCk«ter,i5Tg-i}34. 




,.AU ftirooB, viars, ciintM aod Mlioolmutara within 

r JwBtiy ara to BpiMior [ierM>iialIy an every cxorcicc lUy, 

f citber to write i>r (pratt ... Ail tho |)«opl« sud tl>e wbi^e 

■tion are to rvsoil to tLe sermon, but none to tl>« other 

I bat clei^gymco only . . . aud tcbMdii»st«rs. 

[Dated I Sept. 1385.] 

Stiyp*. AM«att, IV. ff. H^-HO. 

{f} Uam'ton on PropJten/ingt. 

lb nuiti)' of onr ari:Iidt«couri«a we Iiare nu excreiH' lately 

D,iihtch br tJic nKwl part i* culled a prophecy or coafer*iic«, 

i ere«t«d only for the rKnmintlian or trial of the diligence of 

^(krgyia their olody of holy »rrip(nrt«. Howbcit such is the 

■ dwire of tho people in these days to bear the word of 

d, tkst they rIm liave as it were with ie«louH Tiolence iii- 

tmdf 1 ihvtnicivca among thciu (hut as beaien only), to come liy 

IfapK knowledge thtwogh tk«ir pmenen at the wme . . . The 

^^T XVT qieak of counc. except notne vnin and biuy head 

^B BOW and then intrude thenMelvea with nflence, but an> only 

^knts; and as tt is used in aom* places weehly. In others ouce 

lafbvteeii days, in diven numtfaly and ehcwlirro twice a yew, 

H ti it a iiataliln spur nnto all (be minut^tr* (hereby to apply 

4nr boijks, wluch otlicrwiite (as in tinM-i jin»\) wonld give 

, Biaitlnia to bawktug. huuting, tables, card?, dic«, tippling at 

tb aUMMne. tfcooiing of matclies and other such like rauitieft. 

. . . But aUn '. a> Baton (lie author of all mitcliief hath tn 

■■diy tDaniien l>rrctof<i»e- hindered the erection and mainleii- 

mae of many good ihioga, so in this li« hath *(irred up ndvcr* 

lll^BBf ktt . . . who have - . . pronirtd the suppression of 


^^^B (g) Atcon en ProiAtryitufi. 

la there no iomjis to nnrae and train up ministera. ... to tmn 

t say, not to praacL . . . but to preach souudly and 

t)i« acriiitniei with windom and jadgnieot} I know 

flog ««• (ubjcct to gnat aboaea . . . But 1 >ay the only 

the ahntr wR> b«c»i>M tbtra won admilted to it a 


ffaninm'$ DarripHoit </ Kayland, Bk. H. rk, I, 




pnpular audiUirj-, KaA it wm coDtAincd wtlh a printe 
lecdxc of tniiiuters. 

12- The Queett't PrcK^amation againit So^eonfonnd*, t^y , 

A proclamalioo n^intt the i)es{>ii>er» or biralien of tSe 1 
pnecribed in the book of Cooimon Pnjcr. 
Bt tbb Qvkek. 

Ill* Qnci>n'* Mnj«*ty bring r!f[lit hottj to uDilcnbuuI ttatl 
oriler of ComniOD frajrr ect fortti tiy tlic catmaon cobmoK 
the reuUn and by ui1horil;r ^ parlUment in th« lirat jor 1 
hrr r«ign. wbenin la uotliiiig eooUioed but tlie scriplMi 1 
God and thnt vbich it comonpnt nnto it, i* now d lale cf ■ 
nwD dtepiwd and spoken iigaiBst, both by open pnaehiDgi ai| 
mitinfn and of somo bold and vain curious meo new ud < 
riles found out Bad fi-equeDt«d; wbemipoo eantentHOa, 1 
aod dinjntdueH* dutli anM amoiig her people, and, fir < 
godly and unifunn order, dtrertitj of ritn and nrenHNdetk^ 
putatioDs and oontcDtions, tcliuoi and dirinoti* already 1 
and mon like to eimw : the cao^e of wliich ditonkn ! 
Miyeety doth plainly understaiid to be tlie nefligeac* «f I 
blabops and other magiatisU*. «bo iliould canae tbe g«ed 
and nctaof parliament atadt in tliia belMlf to be better* 
and not to disaemUed and vriuked at w hitbetto it may *n*"^ 
that tlwy buve been : 

For spwdy remedy whereof her Mnj«tT itrmitly c&aT{«A 
and GoiBniandetb all irdtbialiopB and bUliopa . . . and all aliMt 
who have any autfaorily, lo put in exerution tbe Act for tW 
uuifonuity of Commoo Prxyer and tlis admuiii4ntioo of tte 
•winnieDla, tnade !n tbe fir«t ycir of ber gradooa rei^ -miA 
all diligence and ocTsrity . . . 

And if ntiy perron* (ball either in private bmuet or in pnbfie 
plaoM make a«seinblie« and Uwreiu tue other rit« of Cmhhi 
Prayer and adminbtratioii of the «acmincnte than U pnwiili^ 
in the (aid book, or thall majataln in thtar bmea aay pet^aM 
being nolarionaly cbargvd \j books or pmubiDgB tu altcsft 
th« tdlenUion oif tlw said ordon; tbey aball no Mcb p<ew«i 
puutiidil with nil Fevcrily. aecciding to the lawi of tfck »ln, 
lij painn apjioiiiied in the «id Act. 

Quest's Message on Church Reform. 

And b«ranKe these matters do principal!}- nppcrtain to tli<^ 
per»0Da eci'letiiualical aud to the i-ixltsiniilicul govtrniuent. hei' 
MiycMty Kivutli n inont apeuiui mid i-nnieit cbar^o to nil arcli- 
binhnpH, hii-linpN, iiri^hdcnroiiii and deans, and all inch us hnvc 
ordinary jiirisdictioa, in such cases to havo 6, vigilant eye and 
<;are to the oliseiTntioii of the orders and rites io the said 
book pre^ci'ibed. lliruu^^hbut their curei nod diocese . . . upon 
paio of lier Majcutj'B hif{h displeasure for their ii«'Kli^'«uce aud 
deprivation from tlieir di)itiities luid benefices or otbnr oennurc'* 
to follow, according to their demerit*. 

[Dated ao Oct. 1573.] 

, C«TdmU, Docimrnlart/ Annati, I. |i. J4$. 


13. Quttn'g Sfasagt' M Pariiamtnt, 1576. 

[9 March, 1576.] Mr L'baticellor of the Eichequer, touch- 
ing thr petition for i-efonnntiou of dikripline in the Church, 
doth bring word from the Lords ' tliat their Ijonlsbips hiiving 
moved the Queen's Majesty touching the eaid petitiou, her 
HighncM Biijiwcrc<l thc-ir LordsliipH : 

Tliat her Mnjruty, Iwforc the Pnrliainfnt, had n care to 
provide iti that cum of her own didpoMlion ; and at the beginning 
of tliia semion her Highness bad conference therein with some 
of the bishops nud gave Ihcin in cbargn to *ce due rcfcirtnniion 
thereof; wherein, as her Majesty thinkctb, they will have 
good coincide rut ion, according uuto her plciiHure ami exprefH 
CQtnnuindment in thut lielialf; mid Ko did her Uigiiiii-BS iiio»t 
graciously and honounibly dcdnre further that, if ihe sutd 
bisbopB ihould npglcet or omit their dnlicJi therein, tlien hei- 
Majeity, by her supre'iie power and authoiity over the Church 
of Englktid, would upecdily bch such good redrew therein, an 
might satisfy the c^ipectntion of her hiviug subjects, t« their 
good con lent ati on. 

Which mi-anuge and report was most thankfully and joyfully 
received by the whole Houxe witli one accord. 

Cnmmofli' Journalt, I. p. 1 1 j. 

' nil niMSkgc nu ■»□! ia coDuqiicnr!* ■if Die iiilruilucliuii inlu tbe 
fiooie of Comiiioni of » bill fm totitailuliciil rrforinfitiun. Cp. almv*, 
pp. 110-114. 

* t.a. of th* PriTy Council. 




14. Tht Quta'i MfttMgt* U> Af tlouta tfCommaiu, ijSi. 

} Much, tsSi . . . Ur Clianiwllor of Ibe £xebei]n>r 
tfant Mr VioecluunlicrlBia, botli Mr SvcnUriw ud 
hftve, Kcoanling (o their cominission from thiii Uouw^ 
with aome of my lorda Iba bubo|Mi toacliiug the giicb d 
Hoine, for lome tbiugi v«tj requmta to be ntfomod b 
Clrnrch; Mslhe great number of unlmmnl and nnaMa 
tfae grMt ab[u< vf csoumrotmication fur everf roattar rf 
tnomeut, tlie cooimutatioo of jwnaoce, udiI tbe groat 
ot dispenntiona and plaralitias, and otbcr things mr 
to tbe ChitRit ; . . . deelariDi; fuitber that ihty fmud 
Iba aaid lonlt the bbbopa, nut onlj to axifea» and gnat 
■•id da(c«t8 iiihI nbiuKs, wifJiing duo rolra* tbarvof. . . 
npOB thsf aftenvarda joined in huinbk suit togcUwr wu* 
HlgfaniM and nceivod ber Majealy'a moK gndoiu aai 
Timt, «a ber H^umm had, the laM mbhod of lariiaoMri. 
ber own good conaidemtii>n and bvfore any |icti(ian « 
tbervof made by this Uousp, cofumitted tl>e cliarg* and 
aidcmttoQ tbervuf tmlo w>ine of Iter Higbocaa' cUti?, wbn 
noi iwrfonnrd tii« tame s«conting to ber Higbneaa' 
maBt, ao n«*r her MijrMy would «^Uoooii coiotnit tha 
avcb Otliers oftbein as witli all convenient *])e*<d . . . skoall 
Uie same accwupliabed accordingly . . . For Ui« wlu'di a« Ibcir 
all rvndcr unto hi-r MaJMty moat liumblc and dutifal 
to did Mr Chancelior futtber declare that tbe only cant «1 
no due reforaiatioo balli been almdy b*d in tbe uid |>tt. 
vrnt only by tbe iiegligccco ai»d ulacknna of Ruino otken; 
not of her Majesty nor of Ibis Uou(f ; alleging «ilhal thai 
ot the mid btJiopB had yet done mmelliiiig in tbose maltxn, 
M in ■ man adrised ukre of nllowiny and making of 
tot jr«t in effect little or nothing to ibe puTpora ... 

C«maU>mt' JtmtmmU, 

15. WKit^fi and the ytmmnjiitmiau. 1583. 

Bacceant loatines WbitKifliu- llaic Begina {tpate 
poUtictf, ila et id Icgibn* ecclesiaiitici* utbil onquain 

'In coMt^iNaea of a rMnlftkni of Ih* Caaunnna thai 
CtiualorriaiD and othan •hiraM 'moT* Ae Iiord* of tht Clatgj ts 

itV"H*Mfjt>iy *H[T"'i 'I*''!! '■'i'trntT'tTr tf r fftT» a li-» ' 


IVhUgift's Articles. 


nMuJarit, nt ante otodu diMiplinniR ecclcxue Angli- 
% Wiiformitatna in ncria auUioritatci pnrloiucntariA 
^ Kltaumretv qtuw pn««iluii) cuuuiveatin, uovatoivm 
tn, ct noliilium ({uorundnni poli-titia lusnlu Ucoil ; liam 
^^iuutria rrgiain in (>ccIc8i«3ticiB authotitnUm lecte 
^^L aMnmeDtoniDi adminutratioDeni ■ verba pnudi- 
^BjfltreDt, novoa ritiu pro nrbiUio in priratie aedibos 
^K^ lilurgiani, SMnuncoloratn udmiuiitrationetii ooii~ 
iVt ncris lileri* in 'juibuMfam coatraris ct epiacoponiin 
um otDiuno damnarvul ; i(]«H)ue Uiupla adire rtconrvat, 
a Khiirsw bccnnt, Ponttficiin plaudcntilnu uiultM()uc 
I |«rtM pcrtrnlicnlilHi!!, qaati oulln »Mt in Eccloia 
IBk milM . . - Ncc bi Botiun domi Eocl««am «xsgitsrunt, 
^ fonts qui ex his pn>dtenmt, Itutwrtiu Brownus 
t^|i(iDai* in tbe^ogiu tyro, n r\ao novi fcctdrii Brunniilau 
I Uichardiis Uarrigoaiu e tlirio paeHagogoa. Ui raim 
pirilu do re nligiouia itidicare Dost, libm faac teinpvslate 
adia cdili*, ct per An^clUm di»p«ivis, Eodninni Angli- 
<|tutB nnUam daiB&anuit, multu^ue novi Khiuitatia 
UTetieniDt ; quamris eorum libri r«gia aut]KiriUl« 
ti el a)> cruditii nerviMi; confolati untutjae vt alter e 
^ ad & Eiimaiidi, cxtruno suppticio aSccti. 

C mi d m, AnnaXt*, L p. Jfli, «. >. I583. 


p/>'» arlMa lotic^rng pnachm and oUur erJertfor 
tti« Charth', 1583. 

I laws )at« tnadt ^^iast thti reconnts be pat !n 
cDtion. GUDsiderii^ tlie beneSt that hatli grown 
Church iheix-b]-, where tlivj tiani been executed, and 
Bnngenient which Ihcy and gtliers do nceive bf remiM 
bg thereof. 

%al all preaching, reading, calechiunft and other »aA 
trcieea in prirste plaoea and &niili«i whemuito olhen 
rt, being not of the same Jamil}-, be utterly inhibited . . . 

nj MtkliB «cr* ilnwn Dp anil agrvnl ap«n hj himMlf [iIm anb- 
mi tka I'M ol the Udwpi of hk prwrhioa, aad •i^ii*'! 1? tb«n. 
U Quuu kbu alLot,! ef, mkI {;»• twr itijal iMimt anUr, Is |[i<e I 

r 2 





nr. TbAt nunc b« pcRBittMl (u prvadi, nad or tsi«cJuM 
Um church or ebewkere unlcM be do fbor tinua in tbft 
ieut »«; ftcrTic« &i»d ministw tlic MGT»nieiiU 
Book of Common Pnij«r. 

IV. That all ptTttchen itDil (ithm in MclMtttlicsI ofdm 
kt ftU times w««r Mid ok (och kinil of ■ppttM ■• b 
nuto th«in bf Uw book of Adveitueacats and hrr ll 
iDJunetioiu anno prrma. 

V. Tlial nono bn permitted (o pn«ch or intcrptwl tht 
turn Dn>«M be be » |>ric«1 or dMcon al tJte leMt. 
therenoto Mionling to the Iftws of thb rmlm. 

VL Tli«t none be pennitted to preach, read. 
inint»t«r the ucramriits or to vxrcutc any other 
function . . . nnlcas h« fini conseul and vubwriha !• 
article* fi>tlowiRg . . . vidrlicct : 

(a) That h«r Majeety, andrr God, bath and ooffht ta 
the aoTcrcignly and nils aitt all Buumer of penmi 
withii) hrr realms, dominions and conntrioi, of vbat 
«rcle«iaatica) or Inaporal soever tbay be ; and tb&t na 
puwor. prplste, atalc? or pu{«ul«(e hath or oufht to 
juriidiction . . . authority acelaMwitica] or Iraipond' 
ber Majesty's said realms, dominwns and coontrica. 

(!•) Thai the Book of Common Prayrr and of ardrrin; 
prictta and deaooni eootainetb nothing in it caotnty t» 
word of God. and thai the aaine nay lawfully be vatd. uA 
he himself will me the form of the aaid book ftnacnM 
pohlie prayer and adminiRtnttion of the aaciamrata, and 

(o) That be allovreth the book of Articles of Rrli^^ion. 
npon by the siv-tiluKhopa and biilKipn in bulh proiineca taA 
whole clergy ia the Convocatinn bo]d«n at London in iW ycv 
of onr Lord Gnd 1561 aiid act forth by hvr M^jeatj** anlWiti. 
and that he believeth all ttie artichui tliercia coataiMd ta W 
agrceuble to the word of God. 

.lo. Caxt. Jol Loitnox. So. Sabcic, 

En. Petubuso. Tuo. Lhcolx. Eui. Vobwicb. 

Jo. UorFBB. Tbo. Exos. UAUaati. Mb» 

sinrpf. mUf^, i jr. tis-txi: «»». i. 

■ (ptrUaal CC«nhKll, &w fttf. 1, nHfifr^. 







, fffcitjV*' 'S**' 

"the Q««''" ^ Tim eome to ^^^ X »-*d '""""^^ 

J^p-^ rJ^rs^ •'^ri v^ ^^ 



of the RomWt ituiuiaitioD, and is nJjaer • device U wl 
oSimdera tlinn to nfurm oiir. Hiia is not tke 
iuslraetiuQ that I thought wm JuIimhIcJ . • . It nttj b4 ■■] 
Mid, tlie L-uDuiiist« mar maintsin tbu procmdiitg W 
their Uv*, but tliuugl) omnia iie«t*t yet MMtia fww opaba 
IVimo Jmlii, igSl- Vour Grace's at oommwidinettt. 


18. AnJJiilhop Wkitjfi/t to Lord Bur^lnr, 1584. 

My aioKular gocA Lo(d. lu tlie rery l^nituiing of tLi« 1 
Bod >o from tiine to time, I Imvr itiikIp vuiir tionkliiii 1 
with nil mr doin^ . . . Tuuching the twenty-four artiolci < 
year Lordship w^meth so mncb to mialikt, ... I caoaat \ 
greatly marvel at your ly^rd-hip's rehemeut s|ie«i(liHi 
tbnn (I bu]>L- witlimit c«uim:)- >r<.'iiig it in thi.- onliouy 1 
ill other courts likeu-isc: n« in the Star-CbaaiWr, the OniIi 
tbo MarvhcF, and otbpr places. And (withoot oStvn tt 
spoken) I think these articles to be mora totenble, and 
agreeing with the rule of justice and cbtrilr, and leas • 

than tliote in other courts And. thfivforc, 1 ar* n _ 

why onr judicial and canonical proceedings in tbh point ikall 
be misliliwd . . . 

Your Lorddiip saycth Ihnt lAcw art'itta an JnaaaJ [I 
The like may l>e said of the like orders in oth«r courts aW . .• 
I have not dealt as jtt with auy but such as bam reloMd ta 
mlwcriW and giren manifest tokens of contempt of n4(ni«l 
laws . . . Neither balb any man thus b«ea enmined which ksA 
iH>t before been ennferred wiUi ... 1 know ynor ImMb^ 
dnireth tlw penee of tbe Cliorch, but bow ii it powihle ta W 
procond, after m> long liberty and lack of di»ciptiMi. if • few 
peraaun, ao rocauly qualified ■> mmt of ilicm irr, ilwvU U 
countenanced against tbe whole slate of the clenir of 
acouont for leamiufi, steadincas, wiadofu. nUigion and tunasty^ 

From Croydon, 3 Jtijy, 1584. To yoor Lordship 
'*'»^ Jo. Cxsnut. 

Sfrfff, Viilgift, HI. pp. tOJ-Uti (£ tf. L pp. 3I^ 

■P bmEI 

l] Parliamenlary Petihon 

•trch Reform. 115 

Pititiom o/tke If cute 0/ Comment for eerietiaslieat rt/orm, 


TW hamlile petilioDB ' i>r the Oooinioiis of the Lover Hooso 

hriuBctit U» be offered to tlw ounvidcratton of tJi« right 

tha lordi spirita*) nod UmponJ of tbc Higher 

(■) VTfaen bj ft >l«lut«' made t&e ttujrtwtilli of L«r Miijcaty's 
it wu CDitctcd, That nunn iboold be mmte n rainistrr 
I he fthodld be able to amw«r and rvtidrr to tbe ordinary 
taceoBiit of ttM foiib in Ls^n, MOOtdiuf^ to cerltun urticlen* 
livUiin a^mod Koldea in thc^cu- 1561 'and mrntionctl in 
I itelut«, or bate special gift and mbilitf to be s preacher; 
' pfaiMg tbcir bonouTiblt! lonlnhipt to couBidi-r wlic^lbi-r it 
•*n Bort to be ordainrd. tlut m maiiy na biiv« bcco taken 
I tba tBiiiistry <tn<« Uie making of tbia sta(ut« and b« not 
•cconliug ki tbe true meaning and iuteut of tbe »m«, 
: vilbin a ROiajictcBt time suajwiidcd from tbe miuirtij . . . 
(i) Tbal where in a ^j-nod boblca in the j-eir i,<i75. it wna 
That unlexme'I ministers b«retofore made hj any 
iboold (Kit frum henceforth ht admitted to aiijr cure or 
■ilaal fuDCtioti, it may alxo like tbeir lordnhips to advise 
- W many as bave been Slioe that time admitted oon- 
U) thm form of tha! artiole, aball be witfaln a cumpeleut 
rtaw Tc d ; and tbnt for Itcttcr cxplanntiou of that article 
''mA be takes for imlearDed, aa be not qualified according to 
iW rtaUte bdore recited . . . 

(3) . . . That noiw bcrviifler be admitted to the miuislry hot 
■Kb ae ahall l>c lafficienlly fumibbed with gifXi tu perform h> 
U^ aad fo carar»t a charge, nitd tJiat none be )iu{ierficiully 
aDffVed aa penoos i^oatiGed aecording lo the ttatatc uf iIh: 
Iktflceiith of her Mi^enty'a rMgn before recit«d, bat with 

' la 1^ A(tb I'liIiirTil nt BUnfccUi'i nagn, certain jittftiao* wore 
!<■ lallil *o lb« II'iaM of Cr mi iat mt , tit thm latrodQctiMi of variqai 
tfcm» AmiPti by (b Puiilaa ff T- <^" '^ ''*''• '5^- * Cotuaiitlm 
«•■ ay^iteed, <m IW motion of !inr W. MililniAjr, U> n<li><M tbs cualcntM 
rf Ibva MlOoiu Islo Mtido <'h]eh arigbt be laid bttan tha Hdom of 
Iddki «uh Um otJMt of jouil ictioti b; bodi lloiua, IW ab«*c wtitdM 
ra<Mva Bp t7 Uib «onwal»i)« ; •*« note on p. 119- 
• ikM. i; Bb. II. ■ Ibo lliifty-NInc Attida. 

' i$$]-2. • C»noiiaoris;i.i III. 




^«Ub«ratc exaiiiiiifttion of tbetr bnowMg* and otroM n 
bolv M-riptnrc* Mi»wenble to tlw Irae mouung bf Ihat i 

(4) Further, I1iat for 10 niiich w it ii jwwnbed 
fona of oHcrittg uiuiilt^n Uut (b bMoyr iriA (Ac 
*jr«wnt aAaU lay lArir hatvJs teverallif rtpon fV haui oftrtrf t 
that Tfetivtih or4tr», without metitioo of koj nrtain anaAcri 
piittit« (bat fttialt Im present ; and that in • aUtot* ' maic i 
the iwrnty-lirtit of Kiug Henrr the EigLlb it u oAnofJ I 
m btoliup Tmvti ocnipT nix c1ia|>lai(i* in girinii of onlrn ; it 1 
be couaidprcd wh«tlivr it niAjr Ik moet I0 pratiii! t^ 
biabop ilull ordain a.Kj minister of the won! and 
but with the axiiatance of «ix oilier miniatera al liie lfMt.i 
thereto such otilr bi- choMn as be of Rood report for linir I 
Iwmed, conlinoally rcaiant npon tkcir bcaafie** with rwc . 

(^ ... That none b« admitted to be a miiuiter ofllit < 
aiid (oerBueuts but in a benefice baring ciu« of ajob 
meant in Uie (tioceM of aitcb a binhop a* i* to admit hinhtrl 
T(im« place ori'lain where Rich inini»tcr to be m»A*. ii oAr4I 
1)0 ctiteitaincd a prcadwr, or aucb graduate* «a alnU beail 
time of tbeir admitssion into (be niinbtry placed In aomi 
iJiip or Hcholarabip witbiu the Unircnitiea, or at tlie U 
trial be made of tbi* utiler for ladi tim* aa to their 
wlfld' ma aball bo thought conveuient. 

(6) . . . That none be instituted ... to any benefice witk * 
of Mala or received to be curato in any cliarg* witliont 1 
oompi'tvul notice befotv ([ivco to tlic fiariali whore tba* tUI 
lake their oluirf[e, and loiae maonable time alloHvd wbweiajl 
may be lawfiil to mch aa can di*eov«r any ilrCcct in canvrf 
of life in the peraon who ia lo be ao plac«d aa ia iifiimalif.l 
came and ohject tlie auae. 

(7) Tluit for the encoamgement of many ile*tr«ua In 
into tlie miultlrj- . . , herasflUT no oath ur aalaar^pliaB W 
tondi-rcd to any that u to enter into tlia tnif^atry ot Vttaf 
brnrfico with cure, or to any pbc« of preaching, but aaofc ^y 
n« be expfTwly ptrseribed by the slatulc* of thb rewJm ; «i*iiC 
that it sliall K* lawful fur rri-t; ordinarv to ity any 
prenrnled to aiiy Iwncfice within hia diocew by bia iMlh,! 
be ia to enter ooimplty or tDcorrujitly into lh« saoa. 
' It d«* mil ai<|M«r ailul aUlul* b nfrmd la. 


I.] ParlioHirtUary Petition for Church Reform. ai7 

(S) niwRu anDiIty tniniBteTv of tiii* realm. ditig«nt in tbfir 

■ad of good oonvflnstion ami lifif, have of Inlu jvor* 

I . . . nakvted bjr Mne exercising ecclesiastical joriActicliMi, 

Httingamll portioaa or aotue cervoiouy pi-eecribed in the 

: id ComBiaD Pnycr, . . . [Uiat] mch rainisU-n iw in Uic palilw 

: ot xh» Church and the adBunistration of the Mi^niniuiU 

■M ike Book of Comraan Pnjner alloired in the statutes of 

mUm, and none other, ho not from heuceforlh i:al]«d in 

tat omijiidojiii or dwogcc of Mxno portion* or tite, as 

I afeuM Jj. »o their tloiiigs tberds b« roid of contempt. 

(9) Tbat, (ensmnch as it is no small disKouragemeut to nuiny 

Ibejr Me mieh as be alreiuly in (he ntiuistry openly dis- 

br official* and oommtniancs, wlio daily call tbem tn 

BOnrt* to aDSwer corapluints of their doctrine and life or 

of orden prtecritjed hf the ecclesiustical laws and 

of this realm, it mny plowie ll>« revi-rend fathers, our 

hope and bishop*, to lake to their own hearings, wilh 

^rave assulaoce aa thai] be Ihonght mrat. the eanrce of 

nade ogniott any knovn preacher vithlo their 

10) It laay alto plca»e the laiJ rvrerund fathers to ezleod 
dwntahle f><roiir to lucb known godly and learned 
U late bc*n Kiupcndod or deprivcil for no puhlii.* 
at life, bat only for refiiial to eubecribe to tarh article* 
hVlj faaTe been tetidered in tlivfrse parts of the realm or 
br aaeb like tliinga, that the)* may be reatort:^ to thi^ir furmer 
AM^ces or plaoea of prvacfaing, or at tbe leaai >el aX. lilwily to 
frcMk «bcTV tbcy may lie hcnatfter rolled. 
'^ (i i) Further, that it may please Uie rcTvrend father* afareaaid 
to fav^e^r iiuat t^aminatioiM «x tfj^o mero ofgodlyand learned 
fttmAen, not ibteeted unto them for open offent« of life or 
' k pnblie maiBtainii^ of apparent ermr in doctrine ; and only 
la deal with tlwm for mcb mallrra lu iliall W delitct*^ in 
iWat. And that also bcr ifajcsty't comtnisinoDi'tii for cuiuet 
irrlfsinitifal be required, if it »ball so Mem good, to forbear the 
Ske pmeeeding againat auch preacben, and not to call any of 
tktw oat of the diocoe wbrre be dwelletli, except for waie 
aoUhle oAenee, for reformation whereof tlieir aid shall he !«• 

Kl^ tlw ordinary of tbe (aid preacheiB. 




(ll) lUm, That for iht belter inci-eue of know)tdg» of «el> 
a> ilimU be einplarnl in t}i« minirlrr ... it Tmr be pemittcd tn 
tbc miniatrn of wtry urbdnicotiTy ... to have tcaae eomiuon 
exereijiFs and c«nf<rreDce8 Rmoag tbemMlTiM to be Umitctl maA. 
|ireacribn) b>' iheir aHiiukri«« . . . 

( 13) ^SIktb coini>Uint i« m»A» ot tbe abiue of exoomiouni ca- 
tion — it DMjr yietat joar l«nblri[M to eonuder whether some 
bill might not be eolmciMtttIr btaied to thia effect, Tts. T1i«t 
nooe having <«efenMtioal Jnriediction dull is anjr m>lt«r . . . 
other than iu the e«ae* IxTMfter isMitiaoed. give or proncunoe 
aujr «rut«ic« of txeontniatiicatioii ; and that, for the cuutomacy 
of any perMu in caaa depending befotv IhCK. it ihnil Iw lanrful 
to pronouiwe kiin only ecntumar, and m to dnwancc hint 
puhltiJy ; and if npnn *neh droancution . . . the party afaall not 
•ubmit hintfelf . . . within forty days, tbea it ahall be lawfal to 
■ignify his cootitmac)- tu such nanMr and aort and to mich coart 
as herrtofbre h>th bc«o nitcd for p eiwo a ao iaaji titauding eicoom- 
ntonicale ; antl that upon mi<^ eeittficat* a writ i£« oontmnacw 
c ap imdo xhall be avaidcd of like force . . . u tkv writ d4 
exrommttmieato eaptmd« i%. 

(14) McrvrtbrlvM, (orvintich a* it MCmeth not meet that 
tli«> Hiuroh ahoald be (efl viihoat thu momuv of «xeommniti- 
ration, it may be provided tlutt for tooamm a criBtce, as incest, 
adoltny and nMh like, the HUne be ex<cul«d br Uw rtrervnd 
lathcn the bashope thnamlTc* with the umiAaBtx of f[rav« 
pMMwa, or «1m by otlMr penon* of calling in the dinreh with 
lUt* Meaateace and with mA otlur «OMtdentiaaa a« npan 
debbtntioN aUl be henrin ndroed ti, and not by chaneelkm, 
eOBUaiMUtoa or oteiala, m hath lirra unnL 

(ts) Vlwreliceiieeaof »oa-r««)dcnoearea0nmTein thednircb 
and be onasion that a gnat naltitada of Ihta realm do want 
iartruction. awl it sMuivth that cases certain whereui the Skbw 
stay be alluwtil can hvilly he derisci). ... it nay therefhra be 
conaiderctl liy th«r booouraMe Icrdslup*. whether it w«na 
wan coavMiienl or nicweary that the use of then wrre ntteity 
renu>v«d out of the C)i¥rch ; and ao likewise of idnraUtiei. 

(t6) But, hoiraeYWT it »haU he tboaght ooaTenient to onler 
thMM CKcnIlirK, . . . nay it pleat* thear lorU>|« to ronsider, 
vheiWr it mere esptdtent to proiidc that none mow havliig 

Uiritan Peltfion. 


of Doa-reaideDce . . . aUAll beivuftcr lie permlit«d to 

' l&e bcurfil of roch lir«Dce, cxcnpt be drputc nii nblr mid 

. pnMckcr to wrve tli« cure, and that no Rurntc hy him 

W mffiemi to eoutiiiu« iu hts wmcc of tliat rur«, 

Iw be of RilBcintit ability to preacli >iid doth wppIcIt 

tltkt <x)iigrtgftti«D and perfonn the otbcr dnticn of in- 

; iht ytiaxh in tlie cat«ckbiu required by Iter Maj«tty s 

. in thai behalf. 

abur*** in;(j|(rt. 111. pp. iis-iM; /ye<fK«*JoBr»ii«.n>. };7-4; 

tL id. pp. jjc,, jUo. 

20. Pwitan Ptiition to At Qu^n, 1585. 

Qvtain bumlili! jieiiliocu*, wliicli are In most iiunilil« manner 
'to be {««n-atcd to the godly eonndcnitioD of our Mvercign Indy 
^Qwni £Unb«th . . . 

TH. . , , That ercrj arehbialiop and Inabop of this Church .. ., 

tit lo fonnd . . . tlmt the oBlce of tbu arvbhiUioj) or tuabo^^ a« 

'■ m BOW, ia both ueocitMry and profitnMe fur the Cburcb . . . , 

. . . bave aaigtiod . . . unlo iiitn, by tli« uRMt nulhnrity by 

Im) !■ cboMD archbishop or bishop, eight. t«'ii. tn-elre, or 

^pnachii^ paatorv, doctors aad deacons, such us are rvai- 

OB their own panHbea and cbatfcn, witliin hiv and tlwir 

to^ltier with mmim> other gnrv and godly tnen of 

ip or jasticea of peace wilhio that Fhirc, in siich a 

mmiber as sball be tlwiUKbt good to the Qiiwu and her 

wluch nay be aJMilant to him . . . ; mid lliat the laid 

•ad biifaup shall, with tlicm and by thi-ir cotinxct, 

aud oooMot, hear and determine evory cmwm e«cle- 

rbich ia now used to be heard before any archbisbop 

I bMbop or ordinary . . . 

X. And that . . . ct«ry pastor teudent on hta charge . . . 
*faaU by the advice and direction of tlie buhop of tlie diocrec, 
and of bia awodate*, prraeai to the u*d biabop and his 

' TUi p«^(iaa inwats 10 ba*a btva IiJil hrfoM the Hnine of IiMtl* 
dKelly W&iM IW luljoanoitnl oa it IfBt., 1584. The Lccdi dotmed 
Ibafr um«r lUl 11 P«ti., 1585. Tba U<r<l Ttmniter Uivn dvelarfd th«t 
tmm iCUm utjctn anitarvd ta Ui* LMila to be uaneiNeiBiy, wfail* otlior* 
•*f* thmXj pra*idDd for. 

' Till prtKtM b «bl by Stiype (Amealt, V. p. jio) 1* kare tiMR 
1 b; Loil tlwiblay, ' Mt Suupoo'i book to Ui* partiaiaaiiL' 

zm. nrt M« 

liBt U aX' 

it fctiuftti |« B ia aidButtitig 

■or V ■h M Jy J Bg mt pnvn 
•or mibe <Wiiii«e Mti Alitwining 
witbwrt tfe ailnc* umI inBueiit of 

JUV. MsnMo; . . . tka tl iUI Mk b* kwfnl fa* ny nws 
(o ^ipc*! froa the ■ ulwn aad j>ilg«Mt «f tlw bubop. gma 
wilL Um Bilvka Kfonaud . . . bat onlv t« tLe next pmnacial 

ajaod . . . 

XV. Aad tlni h amy lie kvfnl fcr tbe provincwl synod, 
hone cmOed by tbr Quwti. ... to •dah viwy mppol w nadt 
— fliid to give KtitcDce njioa it . . . Tnm the vluA w tt teaw 
at tlie pniTUKttl naod U AtM Mk be bvftil for >ny mati to 
apiMal ... bat only to « — >i a— I ud feaml coukU of tW 
vlintr iwtiaii. 

XVI. That welt « praruKul cjnod b« called ettf? year 
tMKC, botb in tlw proTuiae of C^otM^Nuy and also of \oTk . . . 
Aad that a aatMoal ur griMml «o«acil lor tha whole Eiik- 
luh and Irak ratiotu br «Il«d «fW hmsaftar, oik« in arTen 
jcan, b; tlie Quwi, ttM- hein aod sncnwora . , , And tbst 
from hciKofartli. the yearly vyaoda, TisiiBtioBa and coarla, kept 
onlliunly for money by tW mU aathorily of arclibUIiopt, 
Liihops. arobdeacons, ehaocoUon [te.] d* ceaM. 

WH. . . . TiM aeithar tbt mU tiAhiAo^ ... nor the 
hiabopa — do kerfaftrr, by thrir sote and private autiiority. 
malt* and publiah any JigaaclioM toodiiug tvUgion or cbnrcb 
govornmmt . . . 

XXIV. That ... in every ^nod henafUr to be called. . . . 

1688.] Queen's Speeek about Religion, 



thi! Uii-hnjtii, d«iinH, nrchdencona. clrrks, and such as ahnll hr 
called by order tti tbe syuod, do all dU lof;»ther brotliei'ly in 
oiie hua-^e; uud that tlipy do fihoow one of tberoMlvea tu be the 
modtratoT or prolocutor of the synod . - . Thftt thvrn may bi.' 
bIdo by tl]« nppojiitnii'nt oftiM Qumd and her council, joined to 
thpRi, to sit with them in th« synod or onroeation. some other 
godly iuanied men which are not in the ordtr of the ministry. 
■ ■ . to (jive their coiixcnt to the concIaMon* which ahull be 

XXIX. . . . And t« the end that the said bishops may here- 
after do that office which shnll bt^ coinniilted to them the more 
sincerely, we desire that all they , . . may Itc d^irered from the 
burden of nil worldly ponip, honour and chnrgic; .. . and that 
they alio be set ho free from the a'lminist ration of all civil 
eaoMM and offices, that thvy muy wisely apply themselres to the 
labour of lb« f^pel and eccle^tasticul ftmctiou in diligence and 
silioerily . . , Sliypc, JnnaU, \^, pp. 17S-197 ; cf. V. p. 3)0. 

21. The (}tum'» tjiteeA in Parliament^, t^S^. 

My Lords and ye of the I/>wor Houm : No prince herein. 
I confew, can be surer tied or fastn" bound thun I am witli the 
link of your (tood will, and can for that but yield a hurt and a 
head to seek fnr ever all your W»t ; yet one mnlt«r louchcth 
tnc HI nmr, lu I may not ovrriikip, religion, the ground on 
which hII other matters ought to take root, and lieing cor- 
rupted may mar all the tree. And that there be some fault- 
finder* with tlie Oi'dcr of the Cltrgy, whidi ao miiiiy make a 
slander to myxelf and the Church, whose over-rnirr God hath 
made me; whose nejulifjence cannot be excused, if any orhismH 
or error* heretical were feuReied : thuii much I must say, thut 
aome faultn and nrgligeutes miiy Riow and lie. as tn all other 
great charges it happrneth, and wlmt vocation without I All 
which if you my Lords of the Clergy do not amend, I mean to 
depost- you. Look ye therefore well to your charf^s. Thi« 
may \>c (imcndrd wiOiont headless or open eiolamations . . , 
I see many over-bold wilh fJod Almighty, mnkiiig too many 
■uhtlc ecamiiugs of His bicwed will, as lawyer* do with human 
textameiitn. The prwumption is so great, a* I may not soITer 
' Mkd* cm the occaaloa of proropiing pkrliuacnt, 19 Maich, IfSs. 




it ()-ri mind I not bercbjr to uiiisato Bauoiitb, wlach| 
adnrsarie^ tKej- be to mine nUte is •itSci«iiUr 
nor iderate u«ir-fiui};l6diKW. I mean to ^nle tlirm l»tk 
GvA'» lioly Iriiu nite. In both part* be peril* ; anil of tW I 
I matt pTDtiotin?* Ibem dsngcroiu to « kingli- rale, to 
«ver}- man, according to Lis own ccnBore, to make « d«« i 
the nlidity and pnvity of bb princ«'t gfivtnmttA, vjlfai 
common veil uid c»ver of God'* word, «ho»a followers wmA i 
be judged but b}' pnvntc ti)«n't cxpcsition. God iitmi ; 
rrom nch k niler tbat bo eril will guide you. 

22. <7«M>iM^ 1584-5. 

Artionll per . . . el«nuD Ototauieiitta pcvvineiM in tpA , 
ineboatft LoftdinJ [14 Nov. 1384] . . . utabilili, cL regis ukM^J 
talc apprahali et coufirmati. 

PT, J)t quibtmlan eirta ejieommuaitatvin^ut mwmAm 

eoereatdit tive rtfiiintaiuiit. 
(t) Quia cxcommiuiicationis %um id ecdem perpetaac ! 
Tigwem iani obtiuoit . . . idee ab»qae grandi malaliouet 
CtUK* inri»dictioab et plurimanim baiui c«^ l«gnm h 
vci alteniri n«[ujt ; niliiloiniaas, ut «irotnmiiiucatio, qo* 
aBctoritati* *c ditcipliniic ccctoiarttotc qnaai ncrvnt ijnidiinK 
Tinmlsm babradom rst, ad pTistiDum gnnm tanm, itm A 
dijEnitalrm r«<liicaUir; cantiun e^t at quotiMciinqiu KMVa 
ista in imuiddiatam poeoam cuiu(vi« uotoriav faamMoa, kU^ 
mntis, ttmonlae, penorii, luarue, inoesta*. adnlt«m m ps- 
vieria alieoiaf ciisiini* Tenctit itifligrada, ccotctttift ifmt pv 
arduepifoopniB, epiM0fMUii.dcc3nuni, ar^diaeoimBi ml pM- 
beadarinai (akoda tacria ordinibut et eccledutiea Jiu laJictlMK 
praeditva fnerit) in propria pemu pronnnciabitBr, utta cna 
riunDodi frniaeotia et aniatcntin qnae ad nnioreai ni anct«(i- 
tatrm coociliiivctani oonduoerc vidctHtor. 

V. De hfufidorum pluraiilaU ooAAm^ 
Quod nemini in pocrtemm. faculta* *ire indnlgmlin 
dclur de phiribna Ivnrficiit cimol rctincndiB, nia bmi 
tantum, <pii pro undttiMM ma at «—"*■*" digai 


n'nes of the Indepcn- 

tiuniniin, nt in (lui hiiiutmodi f«:ultnt« fniiloniii 

,Kt tA mtnunnm artium nuigi«t«r et publicus ac uluuciui 

£*uii condoiiitar ; ita t»meD ut idonea «tiitm cAUfiime 

ttoealur, de penontli niA r«nd«uti)t in (ingulia 

pa liomiu auEti cuiuK|u« iiurlom fuckudtt, el quod 

brncGcia Inj^int* niiUurium cptitto nit siiinmum iion 

•biatiMin. Dciiiqac quod uloneum curatum lislx-nt, 

1^ fMftn «iiiB psncliiaip, in qua dod rendebil, iiuttitunt ac 

Bodo feculiales «iiud«m beueficii taJem conuoodB 

pMM Bri:htepUcoj>o vid cius dioucoMoa opiecopo ride- 

23. Doctrines cf the Indtfttdtnis. 

(l) . . . Amon)iit wliora Uierc were T«rf forrard to Ibu like 
fMsaptioo llrnry Dormw, gentleman, and John Gn-cnwooii, 
<M, wboir«i« eonvanted beforr tbo Hijili (^mmiiiHoncrs for 
fWet Ectlcaaaatical in November, 1587 ^1386], for their 
■Uanatical and tedUtiMU o]>iiuons, namely, that our Church 
■ Be Qinrch, or at the I«ant no tm« Church; ji«ldii^ these 
Marai tbervfore, Tbnt the worthip of the English Church is 
lu iilolatiy : tliul ve udmit into our Church peraoua uumoo 
GU: tint our pnacbert have no lawful calUiif;: that our 
F-pmnneut it. ungodly : titat no bithop or prcaclwr prvachclh 
I Qniii liacvrelv and tnily : that tho people of cverj [<ariah 
Ivght to ckooM their bishop, and that every elder, though he 
I le M iIoctj>r nor pa<tor, t* a bishop : that all th« precise vtliich 
' nAne the ceremoniea of the Churvh aud jx-t preiich in the 
: (^mrch, stniD a goat and Hwallow a nunK^I ami arc close 
Irjpuciilaf and walk in a lefl-handcd i>oIicy, lu Master Cart- 
night : . . . that let pnyer is blasphemous. 

PaaU't Lift ^ Wkit^, 161J, p. ^3. 
(3) Q. Whether he thinketb that any Liturgies . . . may be 
ispeaed spOD the Chuieh . . • I A. \ find in tlic word of 6od 
BO Mch aatburity Kireu to any man, neither aucfa liturgies 
fnaeribed or \utA in the primitive ChurcIuA; and Uterefore 
Md h high prrnumptiiw to impose any oii« duviwd Apn- 
ayplta prayr upon Ihr Chnrch ... I think tbe Qacen'a 
ll^)Mly supreme governor of tJic wltolc Innd, and ovrr the 
also, bodies and goods ; but t ihiiik that no prince . . , 




neither tiic Cbnrch itMtlf, va^j nuke ■nj 1av« for Ui* Cluini 
otUr than Chi i«t h«th sIrMdjr Icfi in hia wonL . . . Tbt Ut 
goTeiiiiueiit of Cliriat bcloDg^li uot to tbe pro&nc >ir w 1 
beluitiiig - ■ - Uil vTifr «r«t7 {larlictiliu- ooiigiegatiati uf Chrat I 
th«rc ought to be an eldenliip, aai aivry ntcli coa^R^tMJ 
ought to their utt«rnia*t power to wdcAToar tlxniuto. 

1.^) Thiry [the niAgi at rates] lony do ttotbtDg MDccniiig d« 
Church, but util>' oirillj qik! as civil mogiitnitm : ti»t ii, 1^ 
lutro not that uutharity owr tti« Church m to ba |aB ]tt ti i 
prints or cpiritaal kinge, sa th»y are magistraln onrtfaiaH 
t>ut only to rule the commuawi-tiltli in all outwvnl jiul>n,l» | 
DDaiutalu the riplit welfare and hunoiir Ihcrrof vith ootoarl 
power, Intilily puniHhmrnt and ciril forcing of mm. JM 
tberefon alto, Imcmih the Chun:!! is iu • Miiumou««alili, ii t* 
of tbeir charge : thai in, cooceniiiig tli« ontwanj prortnontaJ 
outwurd juvUcv, Uwy arv to Uxjk to it ; bat io eomprl rdiplA 
to pinnt cUurvhru by power, Bi>d to force • submndioli to tHl>- 
siastical govemment by laws and peoaltiea beloageth out It 
ttlOD. . . . 

Tbe Chordi planted or galberrd ■■ a oompany or nunifaff ■'l 

CImrtians or bdierer*, wtiicli, by » villing corenaBt md*! 

with tlipir God, are nmder tbe govcrcment of God and Ciait\ 

aod keep hi* laws in one holy cotnmnnion ; faMuue ChtutWtft 

Rd«eiu«d tiirni unto botinca and happincta for cv«r. Ins 

wfaidi they wim« fallen by ihs tin of Adaax. 

; ITarJb a/ Sol-rrl Br^mt [jMtai hf Dnt^. Ciiiijn§tk»J»» 
■•p. 101, loj}. 

24. JVarfiM Uarf<rtlaU l^d», 15SS. 

Ut cxtaino btllo. ita «tiam intemo ecUismate hoe 
labonvit Anglia : achiinialio enim pr«vtl«9 acinpcr beii" 
ardent* niaxime lusnrtat. Kec certe mntuntax in cede 
(intiiMa ma^itritiu iinpwfentia ct contnnolma impniilai 
inaoIcBtina alka ae txercuit. Ktenim cnm Regiua, ^He 
semper cmIcbi, noratom in relifpoae atidin noluuit, ^ue 
reele«aalicaa adniniitntionia et rx^iae pn«rag»li*ac D«m* 
euccaurua cxUtinatit, noBnnlli ex iis qu Gencvvnau r~lTr— 


iMi.] Attacks on tht High CommissioH- 435 

diiciplinnm tinicc lultnirnlinntiir Don alism rBiioarm coiixlituenilt 
cnnilrin in Anglia excogitftri poagQ putaraot, qiinm AiigUrjim 
bifiraruhiHiu iimectatido et praemKbua invidiiini ayiiA ]>n|iiilum 
coufiaudo. Hi itaque et in liiei^ii-chia'ii et in praesuleg pro- 
broHia eilitin lilwlltH, quibuii tituli enuit MurliuUH PraeBulibus 
exiticHiu vrl Prncaulo-Miuitix, Uiiternlin, DiolrepbuB, Deiuou- 
Mtmtio I>i)ci[i]inii«, &c., calutiiniis <il couvitiin viru1«iitisaIimB 
wJgo acmrililcr cirbnccbati sunt, ut nuihorts lion picUlin cul* 
tores fed * popina fj""^"^ viilereiitur. Authored tamvn 
erant Penriuset Udiillus verbi imuij^lri el Jobus Throcmortooua 
vir doctun ct fuucU dicas . . . 

Cam(ttn, AnnaUi, I. p. 497 ; ■. a. 1588. 

25. Auaeks on Iht High Commitnott, 1591. 

Ncc hi aol! «cd cliom nlii qui recrptnm in Kcclrais ADj>bcaua 
disciplinitiu epUcoporuiu vccationeni damiiuiidD «t pi-nr^ulr^ 
coiituiurliuw: oJuiuiiiaiido biLCti-uun fruitru iin|iiigtiiinii>t, nunc, 
pertnictii in coram partca nontnilliii iurii Anglici poritin, iu 
eorum iarisdictioDnD ct d«l«gatain a liogina in ^cleaiaiiticii (• 
cauais aulboritateiu ut prorsus iniustam et liu^ati et calamoi 
8ti'itinei-uiit. declamaiidu ubii|ue etiaiii libria publicatix homiDca 
coutru rvgui Irgcn in forin cccleKintliriN indigoe opprimi ; 
Rj'giiiutn ciiiBmiidi niiTboritat«ni vx iure uoo pone delegaru ueo 
alioH exrrccrt' dclcgatam ; fora ilia non pome a r«o iuniumndnm '^ 
ex oflicio cxigere. cuni nemo wipuum acruaare teiwatur; iuain- ^« 
rauJuiu illuii bomiiiM ud mii cuudcuinatiuncm cum igtioinini<iM 
cunfusiune, vul in iipnntancuni |ieriuriuni cum aitimanini eiilio 
pmecijiitfirc ; prneten* dc alii* quad uiatrimoiiialibus et ^ , 
tt'itamrniarii^ caiiBiB nou debrro cogiioscerc . . . 

Coutra iuiis eccleaiMBtici prufMaores rfgiam in ecc]e«iaiilici« 
autboritat^u prupugui^' out. ulique jMrlaiaeutaria autboritale 
iu Itegiiia iiivcKtiUm. Hunc upiiugnui« uibil aliud esae quam in 
tDtue«tatem irrucri; cl incruwtiicUc pni«rogatirac viuluto oIikt- 
qaii iuramcuto iiiBuitjirt; ; fora eccWsioktica da aliis (|Hnin 
niatriniouialibua et leiitaiu«iitariis poBse coguoecen, es slalulo . 

Cimantftete^aiiatit et Arlieulit Cteri nub Eilwardo Pniao'tO% 
dooueniui. . , , Kcgina, liand ignar* auam autboritatem per i>Mpf^ ^ 
epifcoporum latera in boc negoUo p«ti, adTena&tiuin impetus / 




tocite inlWgit, ct «cc}(«ueti«mm iam^etionaa ill 
Sfmvit. Caadrm An*mlm, n.^fi.*.%.\ 

26. The LamhrA Artidet. 1593. 

Articnii sppmWti m Rercromlisiniis Ilominu D. IK 
Arclii'-piM«f>o Caulaurienti vi Kichanii EpUoopo 
kIiU ibeolotfis. Lauib«(bite. Norvmbrt* ao, anno 159^ 

I. Dcu* ab BcieriKi |iraedeatiii»rit iu<»dam ad rltMi 
qtio<dam ad mortem rcprobarit. 

II. Caun luovriifi sot vfficicnt pnmlBatinatioiiu ad 
nan mt proruio fi<l«i aot pcrMvcruatiue ant Innartuii 
aut ullius ivi quae iniit in penoois prMdeBtiaatii, bJ 
vuIuqUs beuefilaciti Dei. 

nL Praed««titiali>ruin pnefinttua et c«rlna nomfnif M, 
n«c angeii ncc minui potret 

I^'. l{ui noil ionl pracd(«linati ad falnten ueceSHm 
peccAU ma daiDDabuutMr. 

IX. Xon mt poattuin iit ariiitm ant polnUte imi 
bomini* MTi-ari. ^ry^. ma^lfl, n.^ 

27. Canon* 0^159}. 

III. I'l hm^ali in niu £cn^w euratit 

Qnouiam ecci tain rum cothiuImliDm caDonici sivtt piuatra^irtt 
•GclMkwtiu bvneScia curata !ilil>i M<«piiu pusuibiit et twB 
... ad catli«dral«a convolaul ibJiiue luuram fKnint lonpMM- 
unde Dec CMna pnrMliianoiniin illi* r<iatiiu»ae mU* ff^ 
citar, nee panperts domi taa«, ncut dilficulfaM boia* tetnpirt 
esigit, ■luiiturnt<iueHi>lenlnnlor; idcirco ii(is . , . dcc ttiWi dil* 
ceiiMmDR ut omj)«s caiKiriici sive prMtbesdani, qui litwfiA 
curaU uuum aix-e dno vbtiu«ut ncc reudenUiirii nrccHarii ia 
«ui> Mclcuia cntlidlralibua eUBtuiit, ttltra trmpus qao it 
catlinlr&iibaB nwUl^re tcjicninr, « IwiwJiiciia aiiii cunti* |nr- 
l«ilt) pncbemUrum tv non abMnUuL . . . Quod nntvai ad n* 
atticiFl qui ad tT«idm((An , . . uUiiiatituc . . . ma ita iaUr ■ 
■tniii iriupiini partiri volnrauti, qutMul mideotUiu in catJnJntiWi 
halMBduii, nt forum alupii in c«ck«iia illia ean^cr itUaH It 
ftnonaiiltr raaideajat . . . 

The High Commission. 


Dt tSKHMihtt apparU^rvm rt/ormandit- 
lerMi quuuiam ncMndlmi ct f[r»TiimiiulMu qnae per ap- 
ioTeni dicontnr irraeiliain ciipimtu tuLbibcre ajipor- 
, TKlrtar at spparitoratn multitoilo, qa&nlutn 6eri poUritj 
itar.. . 
adCTEn ia mans offidi et oometioma ne qoiw fiaat dt*- 
geneiale*, qiMC vnlgo 'Quorum nomiba' dieuntur, nisi 
(citkuhc T«ru Dominibas cxprcmis . . - Kcihunlar. . . . 

CitrJwrll, Sftvdalia, I. p. Ifj. 

28. Cmrt of High Committioa. 
(«) Fir*t Committion, 1 559. 
l] Elialwtli by tli« gmce of God [Ac.]. To Iba rerereod 
' bi Ovd MatWv IVilccr, mitainatcil bi*bop of Canterbury, 
I Edmocd GriDdall, noinii)»te>l bisbop of Lotxlon, aim) to oar 
I tnial«il umI rigbt weU-b«l<iv»J ciMiociOora FrkDcis Knoirici 
'. wdl-belond Anthonj Cooke and Thomu Bmytb, kuigbU, 
Bill our almooer, Walter HnddoD and Tbomas Saclc- 
mutera of «ur r(i]tieatB. Rcurbnd Uill and William 
r, Imiglila, R*ndoll Cboloirly and Jobn Southcotr, m-ijutuiU 
rtfc* Uw, Willinm Mar, doctor of Inw, Fmnci* Cave, Tticliard 
OooderKk •nil (Jilbcrt Grrmrd, eequiiv«, Holxrt Westou and 
IWndh Buick. doctors of law, {.Tveting. 

pi.] Wbin« kt our l^irlunicnt liolilm at Wi-jdmimli-T ihe 
th daT of Janoaiy and thcryi conliniicd and kept ntttil Ibe 
htb of Msj then next followinir. aDioogtt other things, tbon 
two Act* and Statutes mode and calablithed, the one 
' An Act for Uie uniformity of Common Prayer [&c.],' 
tlw other cntitlri) ' An Act leatoriog to tbe Crown the 
at jnritdictioD [&e.],' as by tbe miik Mveral Acta more at 
appear: and where dtven aeditioui aud sLtndrrous 
r do not et»n< daily to iiircntand wt forth folie rumoure, 
t, and •rrtitioUR flanilrni, not oiily againxt ni and tbu said 
: Ian and >tstule8, but olw bavo set forth diwra veditioni 
k» Mithin this our realm of EDglaud, mwning tlwrebjr to 
aail promrc «trifr, divtuion nod diT^L-niioii uiioogBt our 
liffiBg ami ubadicnt subjectd, much to Llic dttquictiog of ai aod 

4 3 





[m.} An»pr«fbr« we, midcsII; mukding ia hn« tW i 
Acta before iiMnlJoa«d to be iloly put in eMcntioti, ud . 
pcnKiR* u aliatl berenller olTeiiil in snythiBit uonmr; toj 
tenor and dlbct of Um) miiI Kverul it«tuta to Iw 
|Hiiit«b(^, ftad lisring (wpw.i*) tnitt itnd ccofideoce in^ 
wiiakunii nod ducretionj. have AOthoriswl. madgDMl and 
pointed )-dii to In our coromiMiotieni, Mid b^ Uwm yf«na< 
giv« our full powrr and uitbortt]r to you, or ils oTjim, < 
]uu,Uiernid Matbew Parker. Rdmnnd Oi-imUlI, TbomM I 
Walter Hiuldon, Tltomas f^kford. liicfaard tioodeiek 
Gilbert tirrrard, lo be oa«, from limi- to time h«n«fUr. i 
oar pleasure, to enxjuim «■ ircU by ll>r oatlis of twiln | 
and lawful men, as alw bj- witneaKS and all other skn 
in«aiui j-v mi ileviac for all offences, aaJadoen {«ic'] aiJ 
dcmrAiioun daoi: and cotniniUcd and berainer to \m i 
or doDO cotilnry to tbe teDor and effect of the uid 
acta and statutes and Mtber of tlieBi and aUo of all mu) i 
lieretical opiuiom, seditious buoka, otMilcmpta, coDcptraoci, I 
rumoiirK, taltv, trditinnK, inifbrhHrioors, alattderoos 
abcwingv, jnibliklwd, invvnted or set forth, or hemft^rtil 
published, invented or Mt forth bj any pcraon or 
against OS or contrary or af^&iuit oiiy the lawa or stalnUsI 
ttds onr realm, or agaiiut the i]iiirt governance aod niW tl* 
|)eoplc uml f ubjcctK in kdj- county, city, borough or ulltet \ 
or pIae<-» within this our realm of England, and of all i 
every the c<:«4io><>'*> eouusellora, comfortera, procutvn 
abtllora of every such oflbider. 

IIV.J And further, we do give power and aallMrity la Jl* 
DT six of y«i [(luornm as befi>re}. fmra time to tttne Ut*^ 
during our pleasure, as well to h^ar and drtrrmuw all tW 
prenise*^ aa aUo to ent}atrc, liear and dctoraiae all saj 
aingaiar enorutitiai, disturhonera and nmbeliavionn, dnc aaJ 
cemmilKd or bcreancr to be dene or cnrainilted in any thexA 
nr rliHpel, or againtt any divine arrvirr, or the HJMUrf <r 
nitniMer* of th« Mnie, cuulrary tu the laws and ttalatts *d Urn 
rMlin : and also lo enquire uf. srarch out ami to ofder, onecl 
and rwfnrtn all soch persons as hcmfler eholl or will ohrtlndely 
•liMul ihemKhes finin churdi and bdcK divine icrriw aa t? tha 
Uw« and sUlvio of this raalm ia aiipoiiiud to be kJ aad ^lad. 


The High Commission. 


[v.] And xAm we <Io Rive oiid grtuit fall power Mid onthority 
unto you nnd wx of you [quorum »s liuforej from lime to timef 
and at till tJmcMi during our plesxiim, to vmt, refonii, ntdivin, 
order, correct sud amend tti all ]>laces wttluD thji our realm of 
EngUiid all sucli errors, lierrsics. criuic*, aUuHes, ofTraceB, con- 
temptR Riid enonnitii:!! spiritual and eccleniantiral wlieri-»oev«r 
[sic] wliich tiy aoy spiritusl or evclesiMtical power, nnlliorily 
or jurisilietion eau or may lawfully be reformed, ordei'eJ, re- 
dreswed, curreiled, reslraitied or amended, to Ihc pleasure of 
Alui(ility God, tha increase of virtue, Dud (lie cuuscnratiou of 
tbu peace and unity of thin our realm, and ncciirdiiig to 1h« 
authority and power limited, given and appointed by any laws 
or statulea of Una realm. 

|V1.) And alKg that yciu i>r nix of you [quorum ah before] 
shall likewise liaTo full power and authority from time to time 
to enquire of and March out all masterlesB men, quorrpller*, 
Tftf^nnt and futipttct pi^rMini within our eily of Tendon, ftiid ten 
miles conipasa about tho same city, and of all assauUti luid 
affrayn done and oommttted 'nilbin the same city aiul coaipajw 

[VII.] And also wo give full pi>wrr and authority unto you 
and six of you, as before, summarily to hear and finally deter- 
raiuu, according to your discretioiia and by the lawn of thin 
realm, all causes and compliinls of all thi-m, which in respect of 
religion, or for lawful matrimony conlracted and allowed by 
the Bame, were iujuHouely deprived, defrauded or spoiled of 
their land*, goodi>, poiieiijiionK, rights, dignitiea, liviiign, oKcua, 
spiritual or teniporni ; ami tlicm so deprived, na lieforc, to r^rtora 
into their Hnid liviuftd, and to put them in possetnion, amoving 
the uiiurperN in convauipiit H[>eed, as il shaU seem to your 
discrrtioiiK good, by your letter* iniMiru or atburwiiie, oil 
fnistrstory npjwliations ele-arly rejected. 

[Vlll.] And further, we do give power and authority unto 
you and his of yuu [ijuorum an Imfore], by virtue lier«of, not 
only to liwr nnd delcmiinc the rame and all other ofienceN ontl 
matteni before mentioned and rehearsed, but slw nit oth«r 
notorious and manifest ndvoutries, fornications and ecclesiastical 
orimiM and oflence* within this our realm, accordiug to your 
wiidoms, consciences and discrettoni. 




[IX.] Willing iuhI cocnmntutiiig joa or lix of yna [q 
as beforaj from ti(n« to Uni« b«reaA«T to um and dnuc < 
»Dch politic iFityg and mean* for Ibe trial and (earthing «4i 
all tlM preuuMB, aa by jo<i or lix of ytm, aa afanmiil, i 
tiimiglit rooBlex|<«^uit aiidi)ec*«ury; anil upon diw | 
and the Dffence or ofFcnci'* ticfore specified, or anj af i 
mfficiently proved sgunst any p«non or pt:noiu bj i 
of llie part.v or by tawTul vritnecues or hy hay due : 
jon or Rtx of you [qaorum as before], that then ^n tir < 
yon, M aforcitaid, iih«]l hare full powtr and aulboriir U) am^ 
tiich puaUhiuRiit to every offender by fine, impruotuuHil i 
oth«nvi»e, by all or aoy of the ways sforoMiii, »vA to lake < 
order for the r«dr««a of the Mine, aa to yoar wtsdotn 
diMrctiona [nhull be tboiieht nwet and cottreiiiciit] '. 

[X.] [Aoil further wc do giro full power and aoUMityi 
you] ' or eix of yoa [quonun ei bafore] to call befote yia i 
fix of jOQ asafor«iaid from time to time all andcTetri ~ 
or offcndcra, and nich aa * [to] you or uz of yua, a* 
cb*Il tKtvx to be Bupcct pcnoD* in auy of the ptviaim; < 
alio all such witncaaoa at you or sis of yoo, u aforowi, ' 
think [mc«i] ' to be called before yon or six of you as 
and them and cTory of lh«m to eianuiM apon Uusr 
oath, for the better trial and openiog of tlie ptmisa or i 
part tbiTcof. 

[XL] And tf yon or six of yoo, m aforesaid, ilull find : 
pertoD or pcnons obstinatt or diMbedioni ciilwr in tl 
[appearaiuw] * before yon or nx of yov as afomaid st n 
calling or oommatidmeiit or elae not ae«amplialui]( m ■< 
trying your order, decrees and com mand mcata in 
tomkiog the prvmiat* or any p«rt thereof; that then yoo. i 
sis of you, aa aforesaid, shall hare fuJl power aad avUm^l 
conunit tho same peraon or peraou* eo offaading to wnd, I 
to mnoin until bo or they sliall be by ym or mx of ftt, 
u afbrvnid, onlargcd and ileliTcred. 

[XU.] And further «rc da give onto you and cU of yea 
[qunroBi M before] full power ami aolbortty to tak* aad 

■ Tlu wwi» ' iluJl W thougbt . . . aetluril* oato jm,' ami tW •< 
■ncM* beluir. uvwantiof i« ttir n<11 {t» w«U ■• is iW «f lj#)),< 
aMMpplisd AW HiaCoimaiaa of ij;i. 

' ' trr ' ta ocWoaL ' * spt^rdt ' la oelriaaL 

The High Commission. 


reoeive by ycpur ducretione of eveiy offender or mupect penmii 
to be coDvvuted or bruu};Iit lieluri! you u ivcuKtiiBitiue or 
rccogiiUaiicce, obligation or obliguliuna to our uiw, in nuch mm 
or suniH of money as to you or sii of you, ns aforrsaid, shall 
iiGem conTeiiient, as wel! for tlieir persoiiit] appearance before 
yoa or eix of you, u aforesaid, as aloo for the pcrformauce and 
accouiplitiliment of your ordem and decrees, iu cave you or xix 
of you, as iiforesoid, iJtull taa it (u couvcuirnt. 

[Xlli.J And further, our will nnit jilrjuture h that you shall 
Appoiut our trusty and wcll-lwliivnd John Skiimor to be your 
neuter of all your acts, decicis nnd proceedings by virtue of 
tliiii cummiauoii. aiid in his default ooc other Hufficieut jicreDn, 
and thut yuu or six of yuu, as aforesaid, ohall i^ive such 
nllowiiiici: to tlie nimc reK'^'C^i' '*>'' his [luinii nnil his rl«rks 
to l>c levied of the tinirs and other profit* thut shall riau by 
force of this conimiision and your doings in ihe premieeo, lu tu 
yuur liiscrctious shull he ibouKbt meet. 

[XIV.] Anil further, our will and pkiiHurc is that you or six. 
of you, aa aforestdd, shall canic! nnd appoint one other Hufficieut 
person to gather up aud receive nil sucb sums of money as ahall 
be UMBted iiud taxed by you oi* oix "f you an ufon-iuiid, for any 
fine or fiiiea upifn uuy penou or pernuuii for their offences : and 
that you or «ix of you, as aforrauid, by hill or bills signed with 
your hnud^, sluill and may assign and appoint as well to t)ia 
»aid person for his paijw in rewveiiujt the mtid nuiiis, a* nlw> to 
your meBseiigera and uttuiidanta upon you for tlinir travail, 
I>aIiM and ehnrgcB to be sustained for or aliout the premises or 
any purt thereof, sudi sutn« of moiicy for their rewards, as by 
you or six of you, as aforesaid, ».lia11 be thought <'Xpedicnt 1 
willing and comnumdin;; you or six of you, as aforesaid, alter 
thu time this our uommiesiuu expired, to certify iiitu our court 
of exchequer sm well ilie imme of the said receiver a* also » 
note of >uch fmcM a> iJinll be »et or tnxcd before you ; t« tho 
intent that, upon the dctersitnation of ncoount of tbo *aid 
receiver, we be assured of that, tliat to us shall justly appertain : 
williug and commanding also our auditora nud other oJGcerH, 
upon Ihe sight of the said bills sigucd with the liuiid of you or 
MX of you, us afon-Niid, to make unto the Niid iccciver duo 
(dlgwancos according to the faiil hills upon his accounts. 



pV.] WliM*f<ire we will *vA. mmtamxA two, wr 
nutMOiMTf. with dtllftmce to exccuU IIib pr»mi»* with f 
uf tif oar lav*, MHtuti!*, pradanwtioiw nr utfaer 
privilege) OT ccduiMicn, whioli be or Bta^ seem tu \» < 
to tlie pfcmiatB, botwilhslanding. 

[XVI.j Aim! more, we will awl conroiui(i all ai><l tii 
jaitic«9 of tbe jmce, taAjors, sbcnfTs, liuli&, o a u ilaiJ a i 
other ovr officcn, miniden aud (ktthful (vhjcctti, ta bt i ' ~ 
h^iung ftod B«nitiiig, toA at rvor eomnumibMnt ia tk» < 
exMtution faereof, u the? t«nilar our pl««mra, moA *iU . 
to tbe coulraij at Ibrir ntmoet perils. 

(XVn.) Aud w« wiUwid gnm that tlmr onr ktttn | 
ahnll Im! a Kuili«i<:nt wamut and diicharge for joa aad inttj < 
you a^iiwt na, our knir* nnd ttieaeaaon, uui all »>h1 i 
othar person or ptnon* whulroarer tlwj be, of aad fv i 
conccniiDg tli* premtM) or snj' pona) berto^ of or fir t 
execution of this our coianiiiaioo or aav part tbafW. 

AVitjicM tiM Queen at Wntmiiwler, tbe 19^ day of Jalf'. 

Peb tCMJi Rxsoia. 

faUa-t BalU, I Sit. f«1 >. 

(b) r&« OeuimiMion 0/1561 '. 

p.] FJiiabnth, ftc. To our tnuty and nell-belomd tbr umI 
ravetwd father in Ood, Malbew Arcbbisboji o( CbaKrtafy, 
Primato and Metropolitan of all £iigtatid, t)i« rvrervod (tlbir 
in Uod Kdmuud Btnliop of I.nndnn, Riclinrd Biabop of Elf. 
Edmund Bubop of Ro;:hratcr, end to our rigbt 
well-lieloTed Connsdlora FirniKia Knotlee our >1c 
Ambroae Cure Ctiuwellor of t-ur Dutby, Willbm 
cellar of the Orier of the Gurtvr Kui^lits, aud to our 
Btid wpll-lwloted AntboBy Coke and TlnunMS Smitb 
M'altrr Iladdon and Tboouui Raelclbrd Gluten of the reqwrti, 
William Cbrateraod WlDiani Gartvt KuigMa, Raadolf CbolMak? 
and Joku Sowlbcote aeriMintR at the law, Alexuder N< ^ 

' ThU CewiKMtw i* print*]. Ml -nrf Miren)*, in OmrdtMlr* 
wmttrji JmimU. tr.!. I. p. (jj 
■ ThkCoMniHini U bcwlnl • Csn^Hi* Malbeo (^Atasr. Ar 

'^'- . V.^*"** from lb. Oon^idM rf i.jg la thiE 
qwra. ;| III\ wal li add. I., ne. aMfaM »»» SV. KVIJ. 

ti^ Commission. 



■f Panrs, a«bricl OoMlrann D«in of WprtmiiKler, Clillierti 

EMjuire our AUoni<ry OeMral, KoWn Novell Attorney 

Court of WwtU •ii<] Li\etie». Iticbard Oosley Cl«rk of 

rDadtf, Peter OtbuurDc »n« of the Rcmembraucen of our 

David Lewcii jiiilgi' of uar high Court of tbe 

nirnlly, Kobtrt Wmioii iJeno of tlio AtcIim, Tbooinn Ha.vuk 

elktr to tbe Bishop of London, MaMera of onr Court of 

Tlioniu Vide Cluu>r«llor to tbe Arch bit liop of 

WUImuu Dniry CoiDiniMir7 of Uw fuuHiee 

of the Xav, kiul Tliinu!! Wktla AmbdtMon of 

, gweting. . . . 

Wbmforo we, Mmcst]; minding to !■««« the Mine 
acta before mealionrd to b« dulj put in esocntion and 
I pMWMM M NhnJl hcTvnflcr oflVud in uiything vootrsry to 
I tenor uid effect of lJi« mtd Mvernl vtalulen to b« L-oudignly 
■nd hiiviiig f«|Ncial (rust and conBdunce tn your 
ftttd diter«tiooi; have autboriz«d. ttHignrd and up- 
yoQ ta be our comtuiaalotiera, nod by tlieie preseDts da 
r full pow«r and aotbority nuto you or tltre« of you, wheivof 
Uk Mud ArrbbiJiop uf Canterbury or you Blcliopi of 
£]j, Roebctter or yoa tbe Mid Thomai) Smith, Walter 
, Tlomas Sackford, or Gilbert Uerrsrde to \xi onr, from 
to time bareuftvT duriu); our pleasure to enquire ns well 
> oatliB of twelve Koud uixl lawful men ae ul«o by witiieeaea 
I all other wayii and Menu* yc can deviiii! of alt oBiiiieei aud 
Doun done nod committed and hrrrafliT (o be eom- 
and doM contrary to the tenor and effect of tbe tnid 
anral acta and statutea . . . 

[XV.] Aad wbeitsa there were divers eatliedral and eollegiaia 
Aarthcs. gmnunar-tcltoola and other eccleainMical tucoqtomlkiDS 
lad, bonded and orJniii«<cI liy the lati: king of Cunona 
our dear father Kiog Henry Uie Kighth and by our 
int late brotber King Kdward tbe ^nIth and by our late ttitter 
Qmcs Maiy and t>y the late Lord Cardinal Puvle, tbe ordinaneca, 
nk« and ttaliit«i wherL-uf lie either none at all or altogetlier 
iaipaffoct or, bein^ made of luch time a* the crown and 
l^pMent of thi* realm wm tubdui^ to tiM- foreign authority of 
lh«y Iw in *on>e poinla foulrary to the pr<-«ent stale of 
■ 'n the nunc; We therefore do give foil powtr and 





nuUion<r to joa or to nx of jtnt, cS wtiom we wiU (be i 
tiampi) Arvlibtshop of CuiteTbarF, ihe aforenid Bukq* i 
LondoD, KI>' or RocliMt«r alw»j9 to 1« one, to cwHe 
coBunuid iu our nunc all mdA ninttnlAr tba nnJinuiM*, 
and riatutc« of all bimI every tlic rnid catlxidnil anil tuD 
churches, gr«miiiar«chooU amt other MclMtastical 
lioDB and foUDiUtiona to be Lrouf;bt and exhiliiud Mon ; 
or aix of j*)V. as i» ftfcfvsaid ; wilUBn and comiBBiiiliiig jw \ 
■ix of you, «> ti afbrrHtiii!, apon tho eshtbiting and upon dilip 
antl deliberate view, ee-orcb and emBination of tbe «aid : 
rules, ofdiaanoM, letters pttteuts and writing, aa i* 
not only to nuke *|)«cdy und undelaypd errtifirate of i 
«noimitte«, diRonli'n, ilrfL-ctii, tiiq>lnug«« or wants of all 
ungnlnr th« aid tt«ta(<«, rules and ofdinasoea, bat alMi 
tile nme to advertise (U of such "ood orders, rules and < 
as 70U or MX of you, tm a afoivMud, shall think laaet 
coovunietit to b« by us mndo and set forth for the beUcri 
aDd rule of the said several er<«tioDs and foundations auj t 
poieetsioDi and r«vriiuF!i uf the mbw. iind as may best tfojl 
tlie houuor of Alntiglity ficNi. thr inercaM of rirtuo and nnitf I 
the snoae places, and tlte public woti and tntmioillity uf lUi 
onr realm, to the end we may tbcreupon further pron«d lot)* 
altering, making and e&tahlisbing of (hp unie and other (taiutn, 
ndce and ordiuaucts aceordiuit to the late act ' of Vmi^ 
thereof inade iu Ihe (irri ycor of our rri^fu. 

[XVI.] And vhcrciis wc sre also infonned that 
remaineth as y«t stilt within this nor realm div»rs 
and obstinate perwos irhidi do r«fuso to aekaowlrdge, 
and s<4 forth uur >up«iiority, jirEF^ratirc and pr 
within this our rraltn and uthcr our dominians a&ii^ 
ohsf'rve such cvrcmonies, tit<« and ortlers in divine leiiiBI 
which hath been established and set forth by the tawa 
atatulev of this train and by our iujunctioiM ; We the 
■■ijtn. depute and appoint and do give full power and autl 
aad jurixlirltuu In yon or three of yon, wheicof the Archfatdifif 
«f OsatMbury, the said Dirhiip^ of l^ondoD., ur Rochesiv U 
be «M^ 10 reteire aiul tahe of all Arclibisliops, Bishapa 
■sthcr f iiwiM. oSoen and tniuivtera eocleslastioal, af 
■ I Qu. II yaWr*, |>. 36}. 

' Hi^ Commission. 


dignily, |>Keiiun«Do« or ilpRree aoerer they be, n certain 

tmXh upon tlie lioly KTBng«li>t*, apoctfiei}. nirn(ii>ii«d 

wt foitli in the aibmaid ttatui« or art of Farlinmeot, 

: an Act rcitoring to the Cravrn the ftDui«ut jurisilictiun 

'tW fifttr cctloEUkaticii] and irpirituiil lutd abiilifbing of mtl 

powrr rcgiogiuLRt ta thn iurio: the imbd (Mtli U bo 

aad ircMTcd before you or three of ytn [special quomiu 

I Man] of the said p«r«oa* and erei; of tbem accuntlng to 

form and effect of the will act : willing and 

jog nr tlirm of yoa [vpecinl quomm us bcfom] to 

Xake tttd nceiva the wme oaths of aJl [xraoiu before n*hMir«ed 

nttj of Ihem, and to wrWty ub without dt^lar into our 

I <4 Chancer^ uf the rtH.-e)[)t of the t»nie undn- j«ur »eal or 

EMib of three of ruu [upcciiil quomm ni beAini] . , , 

At \Vciitmiiutcr the sx^ A»j of Julv. 

Fatnt a«U. 4 BiU. part j. 
(o) The Cmnntuuion o/ 1 57 1 '. 

I <)ir««ta archicpiMopo Caotaoriciui ct allii pro eccle- 
niaticia caoais, 
EliuLetb br the grace of Ood [Ac] To our triutj and 
red the ino«t iwcreikd fiitbcr id Ood, Msthew Arcb> 
lof Canterbarj, rrimnta of all EQ);laDd and Uolrvpolitaa, 
mvreiLd Jitthen in God, Edwiu Uislwji of Lundoii, Robert 
of Wi&ton, Richard Bishop of Etf, Nicholas Kshop of 
Vorrciter, Richard Bi«lMip of St DaviilV, Kdiuond Bishop 
if RtfchcBter, Richard Bishop Suffragan of IXircr, and to our 
(itht Irvstj and wclI-bcloved Couueillors, Sir FrnncU Knowles 
Kaight, Tre«iuniT of oar houwhoM, Sir Ralph Sa<ller Knight, 
(JWaceUor of our Dochjr of LsncuM«r, Sir Walter Mildiuay 
Kbj^t, Ctuuxellor of our Encliequer, Sir Thomas Smyth 
Ka^gbl, [aotl to 53 olhm] greeting: 

[XVI.] . . . And if any the archbisltope, bishops or other 
fiawns. uSic#r« ur minitlera ecvlesiaititul afuro ivlwanetl, or 
ttf of IhrtB, ahall pvieiupturily and olutiiiatciy rcfuM) to tak« 

' nu riiiliilislmi U tkc aune, but tat a Crw T*rfaal tt nnlmp nl«nl 
Mtataam, «IUi U>*t of i<6i, una(4 that tl tMt Id { XV] (1m cUum 
M i m UW*. ■oi •fter I XVIII ^t XVI of I jjyj il» >Kti<>ns imniUrnl 




and receive ihe same oath, theii to certify tbe Bain« iwtniwtiao 
or reoiHulioiid of tliem ov nijj of tliuui uato uh into our Court of 
CliiLDccrv witliuiit dnliiy likcwiiHi under your Main or the rcoIi 
of llirpc (if jou. 

[\iX.3 And ftirllier oar will and pleaBon ia tlwt jon tbe 
Bishop of Suiiit Ditvid'*, tbe Bi«liu[i Buffnfikii of Dorer [and 
36 othen tmnicdj do only int«rm«ddle in and about the txtm* 
tioii of this our commisBion for the refurnintion of inconigibl* 
and disorderud subji-cts re»d»ile ooly within tlie diocewa of 
C«uterbury, Winclicnter, TiV<ircc»t*r, Saint David's or Chieheirtcr, 
and that only where ordinary oonrw of oommon janliM or Uw 
ia waiiting or ildettlve, without tho prejndiwi or hiudiviice of 
the due Mcrution of unch things or orders as *hsH be dono or 
ajipoiiitcii by other our conimisHiuners resident at Lambeth or 
Loudon by viilue of our laid cotnroiNiion. 

[XX.j And that from thie day forwaid w* do revo«3itc and 
call in tbe lik« coimulHiiiun eccleelnslicu] Inat (cniTitcd to the 
•aid arclibifhop with oiliert named in the name, not mi^uutu^ 
bei'eby to derogat* or to hindf^r ouytbiug bcfjuii by virtue of 
any coinniissioD ufurei'iiid : nnd that thu sn.m« bi-guii eliall be 
determined by virtue of thin Raid coratnission. 

fXXL] Aod if any necessiiry wiluess or witnesses that shall 
he thought mewt and tonvenjeiil lo be brought to exa mi nation 
for the proof of any mnttiT dcjicnding in controversy befijre 
you by virtue of this our commiH^ion sba!) be (O nick nnd 
diseased thnt the same cannot come without danger of bis life 
to be Mainiued before you or tlirre of you, or elte if upon 
con.nidei'ntion of tbe poverty of luiy that thall Rue or be vued 
before you, it iih«U l>c thoaght' that his or their witnesMS 
cannot conveuirntiy bu brought to be examined before you 
without the greut imiiuverisbtiig of tbe »uid jiurlies, beoiu>fl 
they dwell or ho residrnt in places of long and gnrat dislauce 
from (bo place where you shall ait iu judgment, th<-n we grant 
and give autburily unto you or three of jou [quorum as before] 
lo apjioint by your letters missives rabwrihed tiy thre^ of you 
«ome puMiu iiotarj- to examine the said pmrmm nr [lenion* in 
the p\aKe of bis or their liabitation upon auch inti-rragn lories 
as you tliall jun in writing to your »aid letters misaives, and 
' The orl|[liul b*ro Iiu«rt« the word ' eonvetueat' 

The High Commission. 


! •ad nmintiMtinnii being »ri Uk<-i) aod cert'lieil to tou or 

' ;mi liy th« w\A nalarr iiixlrr his imtArr sro) to Iw of 

forte u if ibe cud examiiialiona wen laketi Iwfure 

At Wcdmiiuter tlii! xiDi dmr of Jiuic. 

fattnt Bell. If EKc |«rl 8. 

(d) TVCoiNintMtMt o/ii;;6'. 

CSabrtli, bf the grtux of God f&c], to the motl 
faXhtr ID Ood, our ri^t Irusty and right welMfeloved 
linmnd Artfiihiebop of Cuiirtiliurv, IViiuut*? of tJ] Entihiiid 
I Mriivpuliliui, aud lu Die rvvcri^iid fatUvn in God. oar right 
*t and incll>beloT(sI, the Biihopr at Loudon, Wimrberter, 
;. Worcester, Bt Dnvid'*, Norwich, Chicbestcr aud Itocbest^r 
rifce lime L«iDg, Itii-hftrd UialMp Saffrsgao of Dover, and lo 
ri^ii truttv and wvU-heloved councillors. Sir fWieic 
Kni;^!, Tre)uur«r of our hou««l*uld, Sir Tbooiu Sniftli 
bt, Knuicii Walaipgham EtM|uirv, our Principal So^ivUirics, 
Jfib Soitkr K&ight, Cliuinullor of onr Dachyor I^ocaatcr, 
' Walter Mildmay Koiglit, (liaDccIlor of our Kxchequer [and 
|l«i<oth«f»], gieetiiig. ' 

[IV.] . . . And rImi (o take otdcr by tout di*crclioni that fi^ 
pcaalliel uid forrcilom. limitrd bjr the taid act for Ulii- 
tA Common I'raycr tic agaiiiat (h« ofTcaders in lUat 
Bwy be dulj froai tine to time levied bj the cbuidw 
r ifeteiy parish wbrre any such olTviice altuuld he done, 
itbe mr of tlie poor uftbe «ami: punnb, uf tJw guodx, land* 
[ toeisriita of evct7 nidi ufirndtT by way of dJKtivw-. accord- 
! la the Uraitalion and trw mraning of the mid statute. 
[VL] And aim we do give and grant full powor and aiitLo- 
ttnto von or tbrei' of you, oa b aforesaid, from ttiu<.- to time 
M»d at all tirots duriiiji otir plcuare to enquire of, ncorth nut 
aad eaU before yon all and every auch |h.'is»ii or penons 
weiftattJCTi whidi havcor tball have ccclcAiiuilical livings, that 
(ball adruedly iBBiotain or afiino any doctriiw dirrctly coutrary 
' npf^aaat lo any of the Artidca of Religion which oidy con- 

I • TMf OMmiMimi oniu ^^ VI. Vll. XVU of ijt,. %ai » XiX, 
I 1171. The fUiiu or I IV priatcd briow, aad |l VI, XI, 

--^^, «biU 1 XVI lilScra ixauUccaUy fnon the cortv*fuiidia( 



t«rn the confenion of (Ii« trae CliriatuB fAlUi kail ti» i 
of tli« sncnnicirtii, compriscil in n Ixiok tmprintai, 
*Arlicl« wli*rcnp<iii it itm ngrwd by ttc Archfauha|M 
Biihops of both provinccn mkI tbr nbote dergy in the • 
cation hohlea aX London in Ihe year of oar Lord Ood 
[&e.] put forth Iiy Ibe Qu«*B'a «ulboiity ' ; odiI UibI if 
Euch p<irM>u or [ivtMHw being c«nTrntect licfirr* yaa or oar tbMJ 
of yoUi M it ftfomnid, for any rach mattcns »hnll pmiat tliimil 
or not rcToko his or Ibnir nror, or afUr «a(^ ntrocatiB ' 
MOOS Bflim) such nntrne dortriiM. Uiro to deprive (nim i 
netioiM eccli^uk«1iral &I1 and tvtry Rucb pcnoo and ; 
mctnUining or nffirmins or peraistisg or U cftaocu i 
M in nformi«l. 

[Xl-1 And ticonn** Wttn ti grmt divmitj in tU 
tb»t arf lo be coll"! bt-fnrr too, »oni« of them dH-cl)iii| I 
from yoD, soma brine fiigitiTr«, and Mmf to b» < 
UtieroBi ctitims and fHallit, lli« speed; redraos wbenofill 
mgniiili' slid tbenrfure more •peedf, edVctiu] and >tn*f^ 
pmcr" than liyj-unr Mlcm miuive u rn]air«d in ino«t uTtlMW' i 
caaea ; Wr, for ihr better execution anil forthennce tt * 
Kfviee bcrr. do gire full puver and ■Qlltorit; unla^i 
three of \xio [qnortun u Ix-fure] to cooinuud all and miTT* 
jusliCM ainl o'J>*r officers nod »ubj*cl» vtlhin tKb intr ratka 
in all placcx an veil nxcaipt u not exempt, by yotir btlaO 1 
apprehend or e»xttv to be afffchend(<d any pemn or ^ r w | 
wbieh von thall think meet to be convenled befrirr mn, I* 
aimrer to anr uMltpr toucbtog the premiGe* or any pit 
therMtf; and lo tak» mtcb nifficient bonds Ut oar dm 
you or tlirec of you [qnonim ai befor»J aliall by yanr 
pmcribe for hi* or Ibeir j>en>oaal ap|iearann> to be 
))efrrrw irou or three of you. b« aforesaid, and m to atlMid 
a]<[^rt«iiirth, AntI in ciue any «urh perton or pm— i m 
ap|irehetid«l be uot abtu or will ololiBately refnM tn pn 
aoflfetrnt bonda to oor lue for hi* or their pcnooal apftatiMt 
bcftire yon, an aforesaid, then ve will that In onr bbim na «r 
ihr«e of yon fqiionira as before] give conmaiMlDirat to tM^ 
jnsticea [ft«.J, tia^ wfaoae charge be or tbay ao to be «■«»- 
rent'd afore yo« (ball happen to rvrnniu. eithrr for tbe fati^ii^ 
him Of tbem befote rou, either eb« to bii 

The High Commission. 

ward or otlier mfti cuMody, ao to rcmftui until you or tliree of 
yuu [qiionim ns before] sball further order for bJM or their 

[XVI. J AiiJ wlii-Ti- rilw) wr nrc inforrai'd tliere mmaiuetli an 
yet utill within tlii« our rcnlm <iiviM-« porvirrxn niiil obntinate 
penon* which do rcfusa to acknowledge the jurimlictioti, power, 
privilege, sujiei-ioritj' and pivviuiiit^uee, sptritunl aud eccle- 
•isaticttl, over all itatei mid «ubjccli within tliii our reulm and 
othor nur doniitiiona, which ig ^!vcn to uit by virtue of th« 
Kfomtaid two acts, the one enCitlvd 'An Act' for restoring to 
the Croum the «Bcieut juriadictiou [&c.],' and the other en- 
titled 'An Act* for tlia amunuioe of the Queeu's Majest/a 
royul [lower \&e,\ ' ; Wc therefore do assign, drputc ntid appoint, 
and hy tliwe presente do give full power anil niithorily and 
jurisdiction to you or thi'ee of you, whereof you the Archhi^hop 
of Canterbury or the Binhopi of London, Wine hunter, Ely, 
Worctntcr, Korwich, Chichester or Rochoster fur tlic time 
being to be one. to teiidtr or miuiHter tbe onth eipresii^d and 
*et forth in tlie autd Act entitled ' An Act for leBtoi iur [Sc] ' 
to nil and evi^ry nrclibiihops binhnpK and nthi-r pcr*on>, 
officers and rninistei-s eccteHiaetical and alxo to every other 
person or persons nppoiuled or eompellabk' by either of the 
«aid acts to take tlic mid oatb, of what state, dignity, pre- 
eminence or degree soever be or they be, atiil to receive and 
take the eaid oatli of the said persons and eveiy of them, 
accurtliug to the tenor, form and efTect of tlie wid acts or 
either of them ; willing and requiring you or tbn^: of you, m 
aforesaid, aAer the refusal or refusals of the mtnc oath by any 
peraon or persons afori^said utude, to certify us accordingly 
under the sculi of you or tliren of you, as aforesaid, the refusal 
to taki> Xh» tamo oath, an<l of the name, places and degree* of 
the peiaou or persona so refusing the same oath, beforu tu it) 
our court commonly called the King's liench. 

[XVJII.j And that, for the lietter credit and more nianifeat 
notice of your doings in the execution of thin our comraisaion, our 
pleasure and conimandinent is that unto your iettrrii missive, 
pruceeMs, decrees, orders und judgments from or by you or any 
three of you to be awarded, «cnt fortli, had, raude, decreed, 
tiut. I QU. c. I. ■ Stat. 5 Kill. e. i. 




given or pronouDwd kt Lunbctli or Londoo, ytn or tkns 
jrou, ns nfar«ni>l, sl>«U miM to Ih put kdi) aCxol • ■ 
cugnved with Ihr row twd lli« cro«ra over tbe raa^ urf C 
letter E Lefor« and lli« tetter 11 Bflrr the Htmc. vili ■ tiif 
druimfvraiice alioiit the shiim) (wI, ntntatniBg M (uttMfll 
Sigil : Cominmr: BeR : Ma : ad Caiw. EedcsUat^ 

... At Cionunbatv, tW S3rd day of April, in the ittfcji 
of our reign. 8t»U Faptrt ^bmtMeU BU. utm. {' 

(e) Tttt Ctmmtitmn «/ i6a\\ 

p.] Flixnlwth [ftc] ta the moei KT«rend fathtr mt 
tnfty Abd ivell-bclovrd t<iaiuelli»-, Joliu Lofd ArcLIi'ufef 
Caiitertwij ... Sir Tlioaias Egcrton Rnifcht. \j.tri Efepcr 
our gnwl »«iil of EugUiid . . . Thomu Lord BndiJi«nt, KnifU 
the Dobic Order of tli« GiaUr iumI Lord high Inuoivr nf Eif 
land, «nd to the reverend fntlien, our ri{^ tn»lj tai 
1>«loTed, the Bt»lM)i>a of London, Wincbettcr, EI5, BwhaUi 
LioL'oIu, Hereford, SVorcentet, Norvick. tTiiebwter. OliiiKe**^ 
Kietcr, ^lifhury and Pcterburmi^ for lb« lime boJtg [lai 
38 other*] greeliBg. ^^ 

[II.] Wlierais In our I\tTltuncnt sammoMd to he hal^^J 
We»liiiiiiiler (lie 33rd day of Jauuar; in the Bnt yMrtR 
reign . . . hj^ one Act tlien niiulc nud olablisbed. eAtitkd' 
Act ratoring to lh« Crown tlw ancient jun»dictiati {< 
Udoo^ other thin^o it waa e^tablUhcd aud enu;ted {t«\ 

{111.) We tbi-refore for luudry good weightj' utd 
caosrc luid conpidemtion* us tJiereonto evpn^ally narii^ 
our mnv motion and certain knowlodge, \tj furev mad 
our tiut>n.'Ri« aullwirity and prerogative royal Ukd of tlw 
Act. do >.-«igu, uame and atitiiorize hj tlie*« our l«ttMS 
under our gn-nt veal of Eiiglund you Uie said John ArUn 

> Thi* cnpT, txtiif ■IpiRl I<j Oie Qucm. appon to b> i1m 
Til* CfiincDudun b iannrctly pfiaicil ia SMfjiw** L^c 

Apptndir. No. VL 

' Tliia C««iibiIbJii*, l)*M*l«a rteltiiiK llic Stawta m Blla. .. 

Ia addhtoii t« ibn* pravlo^f ntilajL and mpiMTiiilis lb* Ci 

V» cxecnto Ihna, Muni np ia f 111 tin ba%«n oindmd b|«b 
■liatonen In (anat nthar nor* nanuc U«« tboM prcvki 
O-.kvrwIw 1^ iximrtirfow diffan In no itaMKaal Mttlculsr ~ 
is;6. "^ 

,/■ Cf 


The High Commission. 


of Cuntcrburj- ["Ac] or any (liree or more of yoxx (whereof 
you tlie said Jolm Ardiliinhoii of Canterbury [and 31 ol)i«n 
tiiuui>dj to be; one), being all ou r nat ural bnm mbjncto, ^■*' 
from time to time and at all tiinea dunng our pkararo, to 
exorcise . . . under ua uU manner of juri«diotioua, privileges, 
un<t preiiniineiJi'e!! in any wise touching or coiic«rutn}{ uuy 
spiritual or ccclcniastical jurisdiction within thcM our rentmH 
of England or Ireland or any otlier our dominions or coun* 
tried. . . 

At Wertniinirt*r, the third day of February fn, r. 43]. 

Sj/mcr, Fiedtra, XVL p. 400k 

(f) Eoelctiaetieai ComvUtwion for Walts, ifi?)- 
Commissto pro cansts eccleaiaetida in Wallift. 
Elizabeth by the grace of God. &c. to our trusty and right 
vrull-btltived Sir Henry Sydney, Knight, Lord President of our 
Council within our principality aod marches of Wakx, nnd to 
the reverend fulher in Ood, John Biahop of Worueat«r, Vice- 
preeideiit of the mno eounciJ [and 18 other*] greeting. 
Whereas wc arc given to understand that divtrs and Rundry 
diaordcrK and lulsbeb^iviouDi, aa well lu causes eccl^eiaaiical m 
other, have bi>cn coinmitlcd and done by divera evil -die posed 
peraona, aa well spiritual a* temporal, and are very likely duily 
to increase, to the pernicious example of all our loving eubjects 
inhabiting and dwelling within our principality and marches of 
Wales, except »on)c spewly remedy be hiid ftir i-eformiilion 
thereof; hnow ye therefore that wc, having upccinl tnut and 
oonfldence in your a]>proved wisdoms and fidelities, hnr« 
asaigued. nomiruited and ap])oiiited you to be our commiHiioiicr*, 
And by thent jiriuenta do give full power and authority unto 
yon ... or four of you, whereof ye the wid Lord Preaideat or 
Biahop of Worcester ibnll be one, to cniiuire, not only l>y the 
verdict of twelve good ond lawful mtTi but also by all other 
good utid lawful means whnlaoever, of all niisdemcanmir!<, nii*- 
l>cbuviuurH, Crempassea and ofiencea whataoever, and them to loe 
rrfoniK'd and iitueuded from time to time according to such 
articles of in»tniclion» aa ye idiftll receive from our I'riTy 
Council in writing aigned with MX of their faouda, and the 
offender or offenders to punish according to the orders oi our 




laws Mt down in Um umit ioatntotioiw, or athirwuE tatitSt^ 
to fonuer injnnctioiu publiabed by u hntto&in l !>» ^w^a ^ 
cttuMB ecd«si«sli»l. 

Wltenfun ire will Mid conunaod all aod aiat(nbr onria&i> 
of jKSoe . . . uid all otli«r unr offictin, tninutera and *mig«itt to 
be siding . - . yoti in Uie due exeentifla oTtfaii onr conaiiM 
as I bey tvndar our pl«u«re aod will uuvcr to tb« eonlnrftf 
Ibeir uUcrniwt perils. 

[Dated] WmtniiMter, June 13. 

29. Proeeedinjr' tn oomuenm tnlA tA< apjfn'MfmAif of* ful^ 
y {1) TUeo«^d'Hin. 

De licentta eligvndi jiro eptseopo Eltenai. 

Regina, &«., dilecttt nobia docAtio et capitulo ttrrlwtrf WiMl 
catbedrntis Elicons mlntrm. Cum kcIcha txMtn catMnb 
praedicia per l«giljfiiun inde renMianem TliaBM nlliB 
«piicopi iUiIcm jiuu lit pastoria volatio dntitnta, N«* tBa 
vobia vl^duli in cpdacopuni et paatomn liMotiaiB yt |n>- 
Moitot diiximtia cumeedeDdani, inaiMUntM quod tales rtln 
•ligntis in rpij^ccpam ct pastorMii, qui aacraruin litrnns 
«ognitioiM ad id muiiuii aptna, Deo derolua, nabiHio* vt ngM 
iioKlro utilia et fidelia ecclcaiacijne pnedicta* ncoc^UM* 
ciiatat. '~ 

In cDJus r«i, &g. 

T«t« Rcgiua apud WMUBDoaateriuni sviii die .InUi [isuV 

Rjwut't f^itrm, XT. ^ •£■ 

(s) Re a mm a idatian o/a ttafay. 

Br THE Ql'xkx. 
, wd w^U-Wloved. we gnei jwi wtit. yhwi"^ 
of Ucrefurd ii now void bj tbe deatk of iIm 
incuinlient of tbu Mme, wc let foa wit thai, calliag in 
rtmeiDhranco the virtue, IviuiUDit and otfaer good ^naiiiiis H 
vnr IraMy and well-belovnl Uprberl Wcatpbaiiiis, lil>^ w« 
bave tbougfal good, li; theae our letten, to nanu Bod : 

WM-.] AppoitUmetti of Bisiiops. 




him nnto you to be elected «iid ohoaen to the said bishopric 
of Hereford. Wliprcfiire we rerjiiit* nnd pray you foribwith, 
upon the receipt hereof, to proceed to your election, nccordtnfc 
to the laws of this oui' realm and our congi tfilire sent unto 
you bcreivith, aiid the anine electioii » made to certify unto us 
under your common Mud. Given under our nitrnet at our 
manor of HichmoDd, the 33rd day of No^'ember, 1585, in the 
tventy-eiglith year of our reign, Stq/pt't IVAifgift, I. p. 466, 

/ (3) Oalh of tdUtjianee and hamagt o/a bithop tUet, 

Apud Wi'almr, [blnnk] die Fehru&rii, 1559. 

I Matthew Parker, doctor of divhiily, now vloct archbishop 
of Canterbury, do utterly testify wid declare in «iy CDuscienco 
[&c. nn ill tlie Act of Suprvratuiy, | ix] . . . the ttuperiul crotvu of 
this realm. And further I acknowledge and confess to have 
■ad tu hold the said archlushopric oi Canterbury aud the 
poaMSiion^ of the name nilircly, ax well the K|>i ritual it) ea as 
temporalities thereof, only of your .Majesty and crown roj-al of 
this your realm ; and for the aaid possetaiuu^ I do mine homago 
presently uuto your Highness, and to the aawe, your betra and 
lawful succcMorii, iiball be faithful and trua: no help me Uod 
and hy the contents of this book. 

Slatt fapir* {domMi«), SH*. 1 1, il- 

""(4) Command to eonttenite a liAap. 
SiKiiifieavit pro Elienai epiecopo. 

Rrgina, Sec, r«vercndi»iroo in Christ© Palri, Domino 
Ttlathaco Arcbiepiscopo Cantnarienai, totiui Angltso Prinuti et 
Metrupolitanti, mdut«m. Cum, vacanto noper aede episcopoli 
Elienn per Icgitimam dejirivatioaem ulttmi epiacopi ejuadem, 
ad humilem pelitionem Decani et Onpituli cceleiiae iKHtni* 
cstbcdndii EHenais piuedictae, cisdein per \U»n» noetn* 
pfttontM licentiam conoesaerimus Aliam ubi eligeodi in epis- 
copiim ct pa*torem aedia praedictae; iidemque Decanoa el 
Capitulam, vigor* et obtontu licentiae noirtrae praedictae, dilec- 
tom Bolna in Chris to ma^strum Iticardum Coxe, 1 

B 3 





theologise pror«Mor«>n, %\\a et tccltxtM prmdi ct at di^ 
ill e{iura]>uni et }jaatorein, proat per litcraa au* 
>ig)llD cunuii comiuuut tiigillaias, Dolns inde directM 
liquet ct npporet : Not eleetioMmi Ulnra xeceplAiilcs 
election! negiiira noatruoi uwDsam wUiiliaimai panba 
favonm. «t hoc robis tenoiw pnewntium Bigoiiicvau ; 
gKDt«* a« iu fide rt dilei-tiuiie ijuibua Dobis teoeouai 
prnecipietido mnndAiitCfi, iiUAtcnux euadcm nutfpctruni 
Coxe, in episeopam et pastorem ecdvaisa otliednla 
pra«dictiM tiic ut pnefertur vlectum. electioncnnqDQ pr 
vojifinaare, et fundem mkgititnini Bicardum Cosx 
ct putorera cccImim pTMdictne con*t«ruv, co«tenu]«« ' 
«t singula penffere, quae r»tn> in bac part« iacamtHsl i 
pMrtomli, juxta romam et cffMtsm aUtuUinun ia ea 
editoniin ct proviaoniiD, rclitit cam «ffn:ta. 

In cnJDfl rei, &c 

Teste Begins npnd WestaMaaaunum xriii die Ikro^ni 

\^(5) natitvtuM of umptra lki t a . 
[EpiaoopnUi] Eli«un per UcprintionetB inuanle. 

Rcgioii «K«etoiri tuo in comitata Cknt«brigiM tdo 
Vacant^ uaptv epincupata E)i«Din |wr depriTatioiiem 
Tburlbie ultirui eptHCupi ibtdm, Decautu at Cbpitnlsm 1 
GutbedrBlti ElicDstx ]>rni'ilictMs liccntik nwtTS pctila patitfrt 
obtamto, dilcdum m|wLUoiun oodtrum lti«anliiin Cose, 1 
tlveologiae profnaoreni, in eonun epiKopiuu ct paatatUB drp- 
mot. Cui quidem electiotn et penwoaA «ie dsctav nfis* 
uaeoMUB KMtmiu adlubaiiaua ct brorem. ip«iasqa« Mditkts 
nolua deUtoai pro dicta cpisoopatu recepUDua, «e teapcab 
ejiudam ttpiscopattu (exceplia unuilwA iiuumii* , . . nolo U 
manna noatru tigon eujuwlam acta* ' uidd ngai DOrtri prim 
ioda Diiper editi ct prariai akcUa «t o^tis . . .) ci m^ftnirr' 
par pTaraeolaa. 

Kt idea tibi powcipimtia qsod pnehto electa lM)pen& 
pncdicta cam partioeatii* (exccptb praacnwptit) in faaffin 
tua, uiM cau cxitiboa «t proficaia lade prOTcaientibaa rnn 

■ t Bh. i^ 1 1. 

Angiiean and Prcsbylerian posUiom. 145 

tilMK a fMto nocH Michft«lis Archnngrli nltimo pr>«t^ 
ptiMilitetioQclibem; caivo jore cujoiJibet. Testo Refill* 
. WviUnoittSteriura vic«aimo leHio die Martii [1560]. 

El tokndtttam tal roiliUbux, lilivru burotnibuii i-t omnibus 

trti«ntiba« itc «|iuco|hiIu Rlitinii pmctlicto, quod ptdein 
taitqiiaiii cpKcopo et domino too, ia bmnilnis qiiM ad 
pnedidiuu pertineiiU iDteiukutAS uut et rci|ion- 
ipraut deed. 
I nJBs r«i, &e. 

Tnto at nipra. Rgmtt't Padtrm, xv. p. 574. 


Tic A fglicatt and PrubjfbTian fotititmt. 
I(i) Ihiroatfnm Ilooktr'a ' Luw* 0/ EoHetiamttU Polity' 

Nl] The plain iuUiit of the Book oT Berlfjinitii-al Ditciptinp * 
) ifcew tbat men may not dcvLw lair? of church govennDent, 
; BK bound for ever to uw and to exec«it« ouly tlioM wbidi 
1 kimtdf hatb alr««dy densrd and difliverm! in lli« Miriptiirr. 
■df«anie drift Uie Admonilioncni nlm \aA. in urging Ibst 
(itngoogbt to be done in the Cbarch according unto any law 
ra| mane devising, bat mil according to that which God iii bin 
^kd bath roaunanded . . . Dcmnnd of Uiem, whcnfare tbcy 
^bbcm not tbcin*rlve* unto the order of oor Chnrcb, and in 
ftay puticnlar tlicir answer for tk« mo^t part is, ' We (\aA tio 
flscb tUng coniBiaudMl in the word.' [Bk. IT. cli. Tii.J 

[i.] ^M^tng poinla of doctrine, as for rSHmple tbe Unity of 
Uod, . . . Ibey havo been dne** the first hour tbat then was 
a Church in tha world, and till th« last they tnurt be believed. 
But aa for natteta uf r^^i^iment, they arc for the mmt part of 
•aiTthcr nature, la nuke new arliclen of faith and doctrine no 
mmn ihinbeth it Inwfnl ; new laws of government what eooimon- 
wealltt or church is there which maketh not either at one tine 
or apotb er t . . . There is no r»ann in the world wbercfom w» 
Bho«H ntevm it aa neccataiy always to do, as always to believe 
the mme thisn ; aeeing every man knoweth that the matter of 

• • A. Ml and plain UcelaMtloa of Rtriwfai>li>[ DbotpUnr, iU,' by 
IHTcn *Wk • |>*baa by CiutiTT!cl>>i *>* felaMd (in Lalia] ia IJ74 uiil 
- ■-■'• ■(inE»i^)ln is8i(«(fjj>f, <*«a«i(f,»i.4i3S 




bith 18 coiutuit, the mntUr coDtnriwiM of •etioo doUjr 
able, wpMiAlly the nutter of Action bvloo^ing sstu 
polity. [Bk. in. ob.x.) 

[3.] L«t not anj- mnn im^iiA, Hut (be b«rv unl 
difference of ■ f«w cernnonios oonld «illivT hare kindU 
muck fire, or have cauwd it to aBm« » long ; but thtf 
pmrtie* which burein kibaared miKhltly f«r diatiip and (•■ 
wf) for rcfflmiation, had somf^nhnt mute (ban ikia natii 
wbereal to aim. Haviug th^nforc dravn oat a tMoipbte 
OS (key niipomd, of public serrice to be dona to God, co4 
doirn th«ir plot for tbe office of tbe niiii9tr7 in that 
ibej' nir]r w«ll knew bow little their iDboun ao Ur 
beetowed w-ould avail Ifann in tlie end, iritkout a ctaim 
junMliclion to opliold tlie fnbnr ubick thcf had encWl; 
thie nrithor likely to be obtnincd bat bjr the Btrong Inal of 
people, nor the pMplo imlikdj to Earoar it : tb<r more if 
tiin were made of their onu icterest, right end title 
[Bk. VI. eh. ii.J 

[4.] This we boldly Kt down as a nort inhllibk tnlk, 
tbe Church of Cirict ii at tlii.t dny kwfally, and v huk 
sine* the Curat l>rKinning. governed by Inabop^ hattag 
■operiositf and ruling power over other minUtersnf (he 
•aoraneute . ■ . Let us not leer to be benttn boU and 
Ihfll, if anything in tbe Church's goveniiiKat, urrlv 
instilutioB of bithops was from li<*Ten. wm evra of Gal: 
Hftly aiioftt was the author of iL [Bk. VII. ch- iii. v-] 

[5.] The drift of ftU that Wh been eUcytd In prove |wr|wti^ 
aeparation and independency betwvrn the Church and 
Oommonwealth in, that tliia being held ne t e e iary, it 
GOius«<|uentiy be tlMiutrht. tbat to » Chliatian kingdom, 
o-boae power le greali-et over the CoBUD0Ow««Uh nny 
lawfnll)- hare supreoiory of power alto orer the Clwnk 
Wbrreupon it ia grown a <|uettioo whether power 
ov«r the Churcli. \<ovkt of dominion in cucb degree ae Urn 
oi thi> land do K^ut unto the eovc9«igu governor IberaeC 
liy (be asid eupreme Hrad and Goreraur lawfully be 
and held t . . . t'ntOLltbich eii preme .puu in kiim 
of edverfaries there are that have oppoeed - 
eort deftfodiug * th^t a^prtine puwer in cauti : nv . 

y/erian systait. 


it the world sppvriaittetli uf iliviii« rigbt to tli« biahup 
..■1. r -»rt ' tha t tJic laid £<>wer beluiigttli in e\-vty 
Lo tlie drrgy tiirreof imrtublcd.' Wv defend 
\» t}i« otiivr, 'that kings witliin xWexe 
- il." [Bk. Vm. ch. U.) 


(j) SxtratU from Bancroft a ' Daagtront Poatiotw' 

[Ctp, I.] For th« first fpn or ■.■Irvcn ytan of hor MaLJnt7*8 
t, liirongb the . . . outrrin itn<l cxdbnfttioiu of thoM that 
boue from UeiMva, •gainst (be garmpnls pr*«crib«d to 
I sod other nicb like itiHtt«n. im ntui of tjxy ex))eneiice 
what great contcuttoai umI ntiifs vra* rmised ... 
Abwt tJw twiirtli yc«r of bcr HighneM* gaTcrninont, thete 
Btmta ... begmn to btir up neir quarrels, canceming the 
iliacililiM . . . UereuiKin (tli« 14 of her Majettr) two 
silinoa weT« framed, and »hibit«d to tlio High Court of 
IbliAiB«nL The fir«t contuocd th«r preMtdcd grieff, witli 
dttUralioa, fortooili, of th« ouly way to reform them, vis. 
admittuig of tliat ptotform which ir«« there deMnbed. 
AdMnition fiading mtaU fatcnainmi'nt, (tha anlhorg or 
pfefarren therec^ being impriBuued). out cometli the 
Adoonitioiit, toiranii the end of the aaioe parliuinent . . . 
I lki> Uecood Admonition, the first i« wholly juxlified, . . . and 
I |i>iii ternu it id there affirmed that, if they of that aMenibly 
~«esld not tben foUuw the adriL-e of the First AdmoDition, IJiey 
weald •arely themvlven he their own carvers . . . Whereupon, 
jveseutly after Uie mid pariiuiMot (viz. the >oth of Nnvrmbtr, 
;7j),tk!re wai a pre*lyt«ry erected at Wandsworth in Surrey. 
III.] . . . Hilbcrlo it »boald feem that in all their 
pr^««eding« they had reliol chi^'fly Dpon the Fint Ad- 
and Cartwtjgfat'a hook . . . But now, at the length 
(ifaottt ih^ year 1583), the form i>C dJwipline, which \a lately 
■one to light, waa compiled : and therropoa an acMinibty or 
nvacil bciog held (m I tiiiuk at London, or at Cambridge), 
cvtaiB decTve* were made coaecrniog the enUliIiBhing and tJie 
pnetk« tbttwof . . . 

[Cap. V.j . . . About which time also [vix. 1387] ... the 
[utbcr pn^iee of tlx: diMtplinc . . . began to spread iteelfmore 





(tveXj ; . ■ . tiot etpeciallf ... it wu matt frieodljr i 
amojig tJbe minieterB of NorthkraptMuhuv, u it 
record bjr tome of tbeir own deposttioiu^ tfitli of May, t59C^B| 
tkem wvrla foUowing. About two j«an moA a half 

whole iliira vm diridcd into three €!>■>«•■ L The 

Xcrlluiinplomihire ... 11. The CUasH at DsTtotiT nit . . . 
III. T1i« CludtofKettering udc . . -Thia daTic«(akith) 
Jdutsoo) is amtraoDljr received in most ports of Bn g hn ^.. 
bit eepecialty in Warwickshire. Suffolk. Norfolk, Em. tt. 

[Cap. VL] The next yeu aft«r, viz. 158$, the Mid \TsmtJ 
•Ura dueca, ftc wacmbUng tbcmsclres together in oonBol (mAI 
aeenetfa. at Coveotty), . . . (h«re was . . . « gnat af^nMal 
ohtaiued of the aJbrewdd Book of DiKipline . . . ThU Utk] 
having tha« nt tJie hut recnrinl thu great aUawmiM 
anlh«iiticatly, was carried Ut and &ear. for a gnicral isllfcillMj 
of all the brethren . . . 

[Cap. Xm.] ... * Mntual ooo&rence ia to be pcaetitai b < 
ChoTch bj txHnmoa anHnblim . . . Sach a* are to meM ii 
anwrniblirT. let them be eboeen by (he mffiragcs of tba«e ( 
or HMObliea that have intertst or to do in it, and oat if I 
let each oulv he chaten as have cxtrcifvii the poUk ofin ■ 
that chutch either of a vtinittcT or of an elder . . . 

It shall be lawftU for other elders ai>d minifterv, fM, sal I 
deacons and ttndeots in divinity, by (he ^ipointment of < 
aasnnbly ... to he both |>r«Mnt, atid to be atktd tU' 
jndgmenta . . . Tet let iwne bn cnuntcd to have a nm ' 
Ikoae eoly that wen cboMO by the Church . . . 

It is expcitioit that in every ecclMtaalicai UMmUy tknel 
a pnatdcut, which may govern tJie saaemUy, and that !■ ' 
from time to time ehajq^td . . . The BsaembliM eocordiat 
their MTenl kinds, if they be grceler are of more, if thif | 
loe, th«7 are of lec« antbority. Tfaenfore it ia kwfnl td 1 
from a leas Msaably to a greater . . . 

AsMiiUwt are either Cleans or Synods. 

Cl a wte are oaafcrencee of the fewest minttters of ' 
sUn^ag near together, as ibr example of tweive. Ttel 
men of all the sevenl churches of tliat assembly are lo : 

' '*^"-" — ^' — rlilnHiyThTiiinfl Ihi. TTiial jf I 


The Prtsbyterian system. 


conference: that is to say, for every church a. minister and an 
elder : Knd Uiey nhal! meet every fortnight. They ahall cliieHy 
cndntTour tJie overnight And ceneiire of that Clnssis . . . 

A Synod is an aeaembly of chosen mrn from more churche* 
thai) those that be in one Cla§aiB or cooference. 

In tiieae, the articles of the holy disoipHuc and Hynodical 
must always be rend ; also id them . . . cvniurcs or inquisition 
made upon all that b« present . . . 

Of Synods there he two sorts : the first is parliculur, nud 
this CDTitjuncth under it, hoth Provinciut and Nnlionnl Synods. 

A IVovincial Synod is an assembly of those which be dele- 
gated from all the Classes or Conferences of that province. Let 
every province contain iu it 14 Claaaes . . . Let every Clnssia 
nend unto the Provincial Syiio<l two mintirtm and at many 
elders. It shall be called ove^iy half year, or moio often, until 
the discipline be confirmed . . . 

Iivi the acts of aU the Provincial Synods be scjit unto the 
National . . . 

The National is a Synod consisting of the d«le(ratca fWtm nil 
the SyuodH Provincial that arc within the dominion of onei 
common ivcatch . . . 

For the Kalional Synod, three mititBters and thrw; elders 
must b« chosen out of every Synod Provincial. 

In it the common Rffaint of nil the cbnrches of the wfaol« 
nation and kin(;dom are to he handled : as of doctrine, discipline 
and c!iTL-in»niiMi, cuuic* not decided in inferior asscniblin. 
appellations and such like . . . 

. . . Now follows the anivemal or Oecumenical Synod of the 
whole world. And this is the Synod that consistetli and is 
gathered together of the olioxen nieo 6ut of every purtlcular 
national Synod. 



First PARtiAMEur: First Session. 

Unrch Id— July 7, 1604. 

I Jac. I. Cap. L 

A mo»l joyfiii andjuit neoffnititm of t/u immtJiaU, lawful and 
widoubttd Succtneion, Dtaeml and Hight of lh« Crovm. 

OaKAT Mill nmntfold vr«re tha buiiefits, inoHt dread nnd most 
gnicioai Sovereign, when with Ahiiightj Ood bleued this 
kingdom nnil tiation by tho hnppy union uiid ocinjuiiction of 
Uie two Doble houses of York and l<atieast«r, tbci^'by prm-rvitig 
tliis uoble realm, formerly torn and almost wasted uiUi long 
luid toiMrable diraensiun uiid bloody L'ivil war; but more 
ioeatiniable and unspcnknble bleisingB are thereby poured upon 
U8, because there is derired and ^own from and out of that 
union of tboM two princely fiimliies, a more famous and ^7«atfir 
nuioD, or ratlii-r a reuniting, of two mi{;bty, fantous and 
ancient kingclome {yet anciriitly but one) of England and 
Hcotland, under one imperial crown, in your most royal 
person , . . We therefore, your mo6t bumble and loyal subjccta, 
the Ijords Spiritual and Temporal and the Commons in this 
present I'urlianient assembled, do from the bottom of our beurtfi 
yield to the Divine Majesty all humble thanks and pmiMK, not 
otily for tlie said uuiipeiikuble ami inestimable bi^neiite and 
blessings above mentioned, but nl»o that he hath further 
enriched your Higliness with a most royal progeny, of mo«t 
rare and excellent gifts and forwardness, and in his goodness 
\* likely to increase tlie happy number of them : and in most 

t] SuaessioH: Union tti'th Scotland. 

3'. I 

t tai lovljr nuuiixr do lie«L-i.>ch your moot excolleiit Ma3eet j, 

|w ■ mnDOtial to all ]>o»t«ri(ies, lunongit Uie rKordti of 

Uigti Conrt oS Btrlutment for orer to (rnilnn), of oar 

;, ulrtdienoe and hearty and !iuinbl« affection), it maj' b« 

[and dcclarrd in thiN High Court of Purtiuineut, and 

I bf ADtJioritjr of Hia tmxM, Tliat •m (b«ii^ bounden tliere- 

belli hj the lam of Ood and man) do rMOf|[iLut« and 

■ledge (and tboieby eipivta onr unspeakable joys) that 

w\y opon tbe diMolotinn and du(:«a»« of EiiiaWtli, late 

I of England, tli« imperial crown of Ibc ^^aII^ of £iigtund, 

(■fall liie kingdoina, donuniom and rights belonging to tbo 

ir.^ bj* iulicreDt birtlu'lght and lawful and oudoubted sue- 

dtscond and come to jour most oscplli-nt llujest}', an 

B—ally, juitif and lawfully next and lole heir of tlie 

. nj«] of thia realm as is aforesaid ; and that by tb» 

of God Almigbtj and Uwful right of descent, under 

I in|itrial (-rowB, your Majraty ia uf tbi- mloia and king- 

of Kng^tand. Scotland. France and Ireland, Uw mott 

at aed miglity King . . . 

I 5 AC 1. Cap. IL 

Jel aitthorisintj orrtam Commttticnfrt of iha feohn cf 
tmflaivl to treat irilh Committionen of SeotlanJ, for th» 
\ ^htA kingdom*. 

kia moat excellent Mitjvely balb be«ii plmited. out 
great vudom and judgment, itot only to ntpniMnt unto 
I* b^ kia oim pnident and princrly sprech on tbo first day 
rtUa Farliameut, boir much bo de»ir«d, in r^ard of his in- 
and gradoni affeclJoo to both the famooa and ancient 
' £oglMid and Scotland, nuvr unit«d in alle^ance and 
in lus royal pcrton to his Majesty and his 
itia fur ever, that by a speedy, mature and eotuid 
atlun nicb a further onion might folkw, a* abutild make 
. that mutual love and uuifbnnt^of moiinrra and customs 
Almighty God in hi> proridcnee for the itrength and 
tfcty n( both rcslm* bulb already so far begun in apparent 
^l of all tbe vorld, bat niao butb vouchMfed to cxprvst mtuiy 
bow likr it is and errr slinll be from bis royal and sioMra 


James L 


cttra and nflfclion to Ui« •ubjceta of Ei^ind to altar 
inaovnte t1t« AuulamentAl anil &i>n«nt Uwv, prniltfs 
good rtirtom* <if lliis kiug^nt, nbereby ugt only b( 
kutbority bat tha peopVa wcunty . . . «« prucmJ.. 
fiimamad) u tua 31a}e«1;'i bumhlp, fnilbfal •ah lonng 
have not only eaucaved the wtjght of bis Majcsty'i 
Hpprcbend to tbrir unnpualnble joy and oonifbrt hi* ptain . . 
t«iitioQ to seek go otbrr cbutgm, but of nicfa |wrticiihr. 
poraryoriiidiifereiit inanntT of statutes and coitonumaay 
previ-nt utid extinguish all future quMitiota or aobappy 
b; which lh« . . . frifodkhip nod qoiritiras betwmi ibc 
of both the realnu aforeaaid may be completed and 
aod also accompli&b that real and eCbctual unnn alrrady i 
in hill liiajrit^r'n royal blood and pcrmm. . .: beit tbereCcm 
hytli)! King'* moat DXC»11entM^j«8ty, l^anilvHOi tlie 
COKwnt of tbp Lords S{>intiial and Temporal and the 
in thi* pretrnt Parliaiomt aasemblcd, and by snlhoHtyat 
Huuc, That Thomni; Lord EUeeaeiv, Lord Cbancctlor o( 
[ftod 43 otbcra named], tommiuioncrs arleclrd and 
alcd by authority of thia pratcot FarliiutieiiL, or auy ri^ 
more of tbe said lord* of the aaid higher hotne and 
tvcoty or more of tbo said knights, cilisms and burjctaa 
the f%id houto of the uommons, aball . . . have foil povrr . 
before tbe next leMion of tliia I^liaawnt, to . . . tnst 
consult vith certain sclectvd commtsuonen to be notniiialcd 
aatboriscd by authority of Furliameut of tbe r»Im of 
. . . ooncemlng aucb an union of llic mid realma of 
and Scotland . . .; which commiBMOD«n of both tbe said mi^ 
•ball . . . rodoM their doings and proceeding thnmi i^ 
writings or imcnunents, . . . that llieraipon vnch furthtr pn- 
cecdJngs may be httd a* by both the uid parliaments tbsB l* 
thought St and ncocanry for the w«al wa\ oomoiao good of 
tbe said realms. 

I JAa L Car IV. 

An Att for At Jtie trteulion of the SlahU** agahut Jt 
Srmiiianf PrittU, BectumtU, ^ 

For tbe better and ■loredtw eacecutioo tS Ibe Stotnleshm**- 

10M.] Jesuits: Rogues and Vagabonds. 


for« made, as wi!ll agi\m»t Jeauits, Semiuary Priests, and other 
■uch-Iike prierts,' as also ngninst all manner of recuwuiU; 
b« it enacted, That all the statutes heictofom made in the 
reigii of the late Queen uf faiuous memory, mir.abctli, as well 
a^viiist Jesuits, Seminary FHesta, and otiier [iriest^, deacons, 
religious and (icclesinsticaJ persons whntnocvcr, made ... or to 
be mode ... by any authorllT and jurisdiction derived, clial- 
feoged or pretended fit)!!! the See of Uome. as those which do 
Id any wiae ouuceru the willi drawing of tbo King's aahjeots 
from llieir due obedience and the religion uow j^rcifcBiied, and 
the talcing of the oath of obedieDc« uuto the King's Maje«ty, 
his heirs and suceeasora, together with all those made in the 
■ud lute Qucen'a time ugninut any maimer of recusantt^ shall 

ibe pat >a due and exact execution. 

I Sm. I. Cap. VII. 

In AH for the rontinvanet and «npi<iw»tion of the SfatuU ntatf/ m 
tht lhini/-ninth year of the rvi'jn of our laU Qit^n EUsaictK, 
ttUitUd an Aet for puniahment of rogvu, twyoitrnd* and 
Kurdy b^yars. 

I. Whrrcni lij a StAtute made in flie 39th year of the reign 
of tbe late Queen Elimlwth, intituled [&c.J, it was enacted that 
all peraons calling themselves scbolars going about begging 
[&o., &C.J aliall ha tnken as nguea, vagabenda tnd atardy 
beggnri, and nball vulTer «uch punivhment on in the iiaid Act is 
appointed : since the making of whicli act diver* doobte and 
quextiuns liave been moved . . . upon tlie letter of the said Act ; 
for a plnin declarntion whereof be tt enacted. That from bencc* 
forth no authority to be given or made by any Itaron of thia 
rrAlm or any other honourable personage of greater degree 
. . . shall be aTnilabla to free and discharge the said peraons 
from the pains and puninhmenta in the aaid Statute men* 
tioned . . . 

m. And whereaa by the said Statute ... it was further 
eimcted' [Ac., &c.], which branch of the aoid Statute in taken 
to be somewhat dt-feutive, for that the said rogucn having 
no mark upon them . ■ . may return or retire themselves 

» Elii. 4. \ J. 

39 Elii. 4. i 4. 


James I. 


tBto M)tn« other piirts of this realm wbera the; Hre not known, 
and «u tscape the du« punubnwnl* . . . : for reincOy wbcreof 
be it oaftdcil, That neb rogoM m AaW . . .\k ailju'lged as 
jJoreMtd inoorrigiblo or dangeroos ehall alao by the Judg> 
menU of tbe mmv jtuticM ... be bntuded in the left ■boulder 
with n great Itoman R apoQ tbe iron, . . . that the Utter H be 
wen ani) msain for ft perpetnal mark upon tnA rogue during 
bis or her life ; and ... if toy rogue w> puuiibed ebtll offend 
afptUi, ... tbe petty m oSendtng . . . shall suffer «■ in caate of 
felony, wilhont t)eDelit of clergy . . . 

IV. And be it furUwr vnnotcd, That . . . cr«y pcnon shall 
^]n«beDd BQch rognes, vagnbomd* ftod stardy beggara w he 
dull Me or know to rMorl tu iheir hooaes to beg, . . . and then 
iJiall carry to the next co:uitabl« «r tithuigman, npon pein to 
forfeit for every dclault lo*. . . . 

VIL Proridid that tbi§ preMDt Act shall continue bnt until 
the end of tho oext Parliunieiit '. 

I Jic. I. Cap. Vni. 

Ah Ah U lake atcay the BeneJU of Cteryy from aonu kind 
of J/aiulaugkUr. 
I. To the end that stabbing and ktllitig men on the xndden . . . 
may froiu hi^uceforth be reetmued tliruugb feur uf dup puutBhroeBt 
to be ioflicled uii Buoh . . . ninlnfai'tors wlm bcretofDTV have been 
therennto emboldened by pri-sumiiig on the benefit of clorgy ; 
be it therefore enacted . . . That every peraon which . . . ahall 
stab or Uiruiil any [)er»oii that Iiath uot then any weapon drawn 
or that hatb not then fimt titrickea the party, . . . ao aa the 
person . . . shatl thereof die within the npnce of six montha, . . . 
ehall be excluded from the benefit of hia clergy and inSer death 
a< in CMC of wilful murdrr. . . . 

I Jac. I. Cap. Xin. 

An Act for ntm ererulicmt lo he tued aijainid any which $haU 

hrrtafter be dtliverfd out of OKCvtion by priviU^ of Portia' 

mmt, and for diteharge ^ (Aem mU of uhoae cuttwijf tueh 

per»on» rhtdl bt delivtnd. 

J. ForMiauch a* herctofurc donbt bath been made if any 

' Confiniwd by ji Jan. I. 18, f i. 

IWM.] Privilege : Marriage of Clergy. 


person beini; arreaUid id exeoution and by privilege of eitlier of 
lliu liousiHi »f jiiirliittneiit let ut liberty, whether tlie pnt'ty at 
vhoge »iiit HUch t^xeoution was purBiied b« for ever aftE'r barred 
aDil iltsuliled to sue forth a new writ of execution in ihnt tiue : 
for tkv avoiding of nil furthi^r doubt mid truublu which in liko 
cac«8 may hereafter ensue, be it ensctod • • . I'hat from hence- 
forth tbo pnrty ut or by whone niit auch writ of execution wofl 
pnmurd, his «>xeciitor8 or admiiiJKtraton, iiftt-r «uch time as the 
privilego of tliaT aession of parliament in which such privilpj^'c 
aball be io ^milted vball oeuae, may aue foi-th au<l exMutu a now 
writ or writn of execution tu nicb inanuer »• by the law of this 
realm ho might hare don* if no such fornKT itxecntion hait been 
taken forth or served; and that from henceforth no sheriff, 
ilkiUfr or other officer, trtaa whoM arrest or custody any budI) 
D to arrcatod in extcntion shall be dulivc^ml by any such 
privilege, shall be charged or chargeable ... for deliTering out 
ef exocation any such pririlrgcd person M) as ia afDrw*i() by 
•neh privilege of parliament set at liberty- ; any law ciutom or 
privilege heretofore to the contrary notwithstanditig. Prorided 
alwaya that this Act or iinytbing therein contained nbult not 
txtand to the diminishing of any panishment to bo hcrFaft^rr by 
cenaure to parliament inflicted upon any person which here- 
after ahall make or procure to be made any such arrest a« i* 

PI JAa L Cap. XXV. 
J It Act for eontinuing and reviving of divert SlatuU*, and for 
r«paiing of tom« ctfitr». 
Vin. And be it euact«d that [Stat. ■ Mary (a). 2] shall stand 
niKuilrd ; and that [HUit. a & 3 Kdw. VI. 1 ij, eutitled au Act to 
lake sway all positive laws mndc against the marriage of prieati^ 
and [StaL 5 &6 Edw. Vi. 11]. entitled an Actmndcfordeclara- 
Itianiif aatatute made for the marriage of priests and for tbclcgiti- 
atioD of Ihdr children, shall stand revived and be iu force for 
lever; • . . and the cliildron of cccleniastical p«reou3 in the auid 
[Act mentioned shall be legitimate and inheritable to all intents 
. purpc^eti in such sort as children of lay persona do ciyoy 
may inherit ; any canou or coostitution to the contrary 
Fiiotwi thstaudiog. 


/mms a 

First Pabuauent: Second Session, 
ju. n— lUr 97, iao& 

3*4 Ja& I. Cap. IV. 
Ah Act for tht btU«r dueovtring and np r$ mi t j cf Ptja^j 

I. FonBiDDCh aa it ia (bund by duly azperiena that . . . 
ptrrwn* popitlil; afleded do nevertbeleecbtbe better to ooraii 
hide tbcir &Im bearto, and vith tbe mote Mfetjr to >t]«id I 
<^])orttiuit}- to rxccatc tltrir tniw;hi<!naa lUat^nt, rt|«ir 
time lo cbun^ to escape the peiutltiet of the Uvi ia 
bebklT i)TOnd«d : for the belter diKOTery tiiBnfcn of 
pcrvunt and tbcir evil offcction* (o tli« King'i Uajtaty I 
>tate of this bis raLliD, to the vnd Uiat bdng knovn 
ptirpoeM may be the better pT«veu(ed ; be it eoaeted . . • 
' evefy po|iid reouaut couviclod, . . . which bavtofb^ faith < 
' fonncd him or her wU or vbich thai) beratSK_gg3|Jann Hat 
her self and repair to the church ... aiMOrding to the tan< 
statutes ia that behalf modu, AaU, within the fint 5Mr ' 
after the end of thia MHioo of porlianicnt . . . and . . . i 
crcry Tear following at the least, receive the Ueaeed i 
of thie Lord's Sapper in tlie cfaordi of that paridi when faa i 

abe shall moet usually abide ; and [f any nctuonl to < 

fonoed shall out rccctTe the said sscnuaeDt of the 
Supper aocordiugly, be or sfae >WI liirieit for the first f 

' Xio, and for the seeand year '^o, and Tor every ynsr sAtf 

. , .'jC6o, until he or she shall have n«i-irod the nii) atcmn^ 
as is alensoid — ; the one Bioif^ to be to ottr B tf Twiga LbiI 
the King's Majerty, liis beica and saoceevanfc and Ite 
moiety to him that will sue fin- the same . . . 
-^ n. And be it further enacted. That the chnrcbwanlaiK : 
constaUea of enry town, panth or chapel ■ ■ . slssll 
■very year preeent the month^ ahaatiM frm dioMli <tl ' 
popish neosants within such towns 'Od |"* **ti. and . . 
naaNs of even- uf tbe cluldrrn of the nid ruuuits. bcis 
the age of nine years and apwvd% abidinc with their 

Popisk fitaisanis: penaliies. 


I >l*o Uw DHinea of the Mnwnb of finch recnwits, 
I or ([lurier BmnoM of Ihnt nhire ['tc.]. 
Aa4 be it further Miai:t«d, That »ll fvcli prMentmeDU 
bt . , . Kcordnl in the aid MUiooa b; the clerk of the 

' lewtt^Ierk 

r. Aad tc it fortlivr onncted, Tli*t the juctiou of SMtn! ftod 

I •MiTcrj' at their Mstses and the noid jiuticcM of p<«co ml 

' llKtr Mid seKKioe thall have power to emiiurc, hr*x and 

! ot sU KctiHuilii mmI offencee, as well for not receiving 

. . . . ai for not repairing to church . . . 

be it further enacted, That «nry oBiradcT in not 

• to divine acrvii» . . . ehall . . . pay into lli« receipt of 

ndcrqur aft^r the rate of Xio for nwty toonth ■ ■ ■ , 

in MKh CMta where the King nhall . . . talio two put« 

t laailt [Ac] of meh oBeiMlcr, till tbo eud partj' . . . shall 

L hiBiMir and come to ehorch . . . : aud if default shall 

tiwie in any part of any payment afomiaid. . . . that then 

often the Kings Majesty — may . . . scixc aud enjoy 

[lie goods and two parte ... of the lands [Ac] of anch 

. And wbercBH by an Aol ' made ... in the 13rd year of 

tnign oT the liil« Quoon Elizabeth, intituled, an Act to retain 

I HljKtB <rf the laid Late Queen iu their due obedience, it 

. otlier thing* enacted. Thai every jtcntun above the 

|tf ortcm years which ahonld not repair to tomp church, 

el or uanal pUee of commoo porsypr, . . . oootraiy to tha 

' of a itatale * made for muformity of eonuuon prayer, 

, beiag thereof hiwfnlly couvictvd, aliouk! forfeit unto the 

IQumd for enry month . . . Xio . . .; and where** after- 

1 fcgr another Act * of parliament of the said (jneen it wsa 

. . , That if default rhoold be inado in . . . p*y- 

FtW aud S30 . . . that then and no often the stud Queeu 

: and might . . . take ... all t)ie goods and two put* as 

i all llH Inodl, tenemenu and hcredilanwDte. leases uid 

L cAsider . . . : now runumucb ae the said peoahj 

BODthly ii a greater burden unto ntrn of snuJl living 

sbIo tacfa as u« of belter ability . . . who, rather than 

' will \mT9 two puts of tlieir Uods to be seiaed, will be 

''•(jUbt.l*. ■■EKs.j. * 19 BMi. <. f 4. 



James I. 

reuJy aUnp to puy tlie tud Xao . . . ati<I yt rrUia tht : 
4>f th«ir IJTinga uul inberilMiee in their own bunls: . . . Afl 
fore Id the inUnt that bcredit«r the penalty fix- Mt 
to divine seo'ite might be inflicted in l.ett«r [u 
mon of grviit BbiUty, W it etiact«d, Tiint ihc King** 
tuB lioirH nixl RUccoMTS, sliall — liara fuU |>ow«r t« ) 
I>eiialt7 of Xio a month . . . and thereupon lo tcUe aa4 1 
lii» own uw and tlte uws . . . herraflw limited, two pate] 
three ... of all the Undii [dtc.]. and tli« t»nw t« rOaia... 
every m«h offender aWl confonii him or her Mif . . . 

VII. [TiM nuDuoo-hoDse of a ractuunt not to be iacMei f 
the two parte t«keu hj the King.] 

Tin. And for tho I)ott«r trial how hii Mjijislj't nl< 
»t«nd afliMtcd in pMnt of their lojalty ead due i>bedi<n(»f 
alM enacted hy the authority afomnid. That from and < 
rud uf tliin prr9«nl M-stiun vf parliament, it shall he U* 
■nj liiiliup in hia dtocew, or bu; two jutticea of the j 
vrhrrrof one of tbem to he of the iiuorura, . . .out of the i 
to rvquire any person of tl>e age of i8 years or ahaT«|i 
shall he coovtct or iudieled for any recnaanr; (other ilia* I 
men or iMhlewooien) for not repairing to di*iD4 Mrnce : 
ing to the lawa of tliis realm, or wliich ahall not liaTe 
the nid M^raaeot twice within the y«ar then next paM . 
or any pereou pawing through the coontry. shire or 
and unknown (except as in hut hefone exocptni) that 
Ckaminixl by them upon oulh eliall ooafiHe ... to W a i 
or aliall eoiifeiia . . . that be had not tvceired ihc 
twice within the ytmr (hen laat pant, to tnke the uklh 
following npon the Holy KTangeli^s . . . 

IX. And be it fnither enactnf. Tlut if any soch peiaso,! 
Ilaui oohknien and nohlvwouKrii, nlnll refnae to aomer 
natk to *aoh Inebop or jufrttc«« of pc*e« exatnioing tun < 
afar«Mid, or to take the naid math ao doly teudereil ... by t«k 
bitliop or two such jua^cea of peace out of twiune. thai 
tho aaid biiliop or juatiocs of {lesce shall caminit the 
peraun to the oooubob gaol . . . until the nrst vmmt or i 

or quatlef ewinna, where the said ealh shall be a^aia I _ 

the laid open aaMUS or imiona n^ioired of anch penes \^ thr ' 
aaidjoMkeaofantMcr josUcwof pe«ce; .. . and if theiudi 

lal tiU 


looe.] Popish Jfecusanfs: Oath of AlUgiaMce. 

. . . aUall refuse to take the said ottlh . . . every person so 
rcfiiBlnii Filmll incur tlie jienulty of prBemunirr ... ^ 

T}ie tciiDiir of wliii^li luiid iintb hcrrnftvr followcth : I A. B. do i 
truly aud sinrercly acknowleiJ-ie, ]irofc«i, testify nni) iWljire in 
my fousciein* bt-fore Ood aud the world, lliat our sovereign 
loril KitiK Jiiineti i» lawful luid rightful Kiug of this realni nnd 
nf all othur Iiih Mnjnrty'ii dominionf nnd rountriea ; and that 
the PopB, neither of himwtif nor by any authority of the cburch 
or S(« ijf Rouie or by any oilier iiimnn witli »ny other hntJi »ny 
power or authority lo deiiosc the Kiug, i>r to dtKpoM ajiy of bis 
Majesty'^ kinf^doms or domiuionti, or lo aathorisc any foreign 
prince lo invade or aunoy him or hja countries, or to diaohargo 
any of hi> nubjeclH of tlieir alleginneo and obedience to his 
Majesty, or to give lii'once or leave to any of them to Iwnr nrmi", 
raiw tumult or to offer any violence or hurl lo Iiis Majesty'i 
royal pentou, titntti or government or to any of hin Miijeaty'i 
suhjects within bin Jlajpity'n dominioua. Also I do sweitr 
from my iieurt that, notwithBtnndliig any drclanilioa or sentence 
of Rxciinunuuirittion or dejirivation made or granted or to be 
made or gmnlcd by Uie Pope or his successors or by any 
authority derived or pretended to lie derived ^ni him or bis 
see against the nnid King, bis heira or niooeMiorf, or any 
nhoolution of thn said suhject* fVom their obedience, I will bear 
faith and trueallei-taucc to Iiih Majesty, his hdr« and suec«wore, 
and hira or tlicm will defend to the nttermoat of my power 
against all conxpiracies and attempts vrhatBOerer, which «ha]l 
be randc against his or their pwnons, their crovrn and dignity, 
by reason or colonr of any such sentence or declaration or ■ 
iithcrwiiie, and will ilo my best endeavour to diBcIosn and mult*- 
known unto hits Majesty, hia heira and Nacceaaoni. all treumns 
and traitorous ronspimcien, which I abBll know or hear of to be 
ngainut bim or any of them : and I do farther jiwear th»t I do ** 
from my heart abhor, detent and abjure, as impious and heretical, 
tbim dumiiahln doctrine and porition, thai princen wbtch tx! 
excammunii^ntrd or doprirod by tJie Pope Bi»y ho deposed or 
murdered by tlieir snbjecis or any other whatsoever : and I do 
believe and in my conwieuce am resolved that neither the Pope 
nor any penon whatsoeTcr hath power to utiMolve nie of this 
oath or any part thereof, which I acknowledge by good and full 

S 1 


James I. 



NAtitUority to be Iflwfiill;^ tniaistcred unto me. kdA do renounco all 
9^'^^ pHrdous sii<l ilispeii^iLtions to thr contraty : and all those Ibings 
I do pluLuly and niuci-rely uekuowtcdf^e and swear, aci.'oixling to 
tliMe ex pretw words by me sjiokeu aud nuuunli&g to (bu pliiia 
and common scnso and understiuidiiig of tlic mlidc words, 
without any cquiTocation or mental cvngion or aocrot reserva- 
tioB whatsoever : and I do luake this recognition and acknow- 
led^iuciit heartily, wJllluffly aud truly, Uftoii the true Cuth of 
» Christian : so help me God. Unto which onth no taken, the 
said ])crsou shall ^uhscribe bis or her oanie or mark. 

\1I. And turu£uiach as it is found . . . that audi aa go 
voluntiuily out of tliiK ri^ulra of England to serve foreign prinoM 
. . , ai« for the most pnrt porvcrted in their religion and loyalty 
by JesuitB and fugitivea, ... be it therefora cuaotvd. That every 
rubjcct of thin realm that . . . shall go out of tim realm to terre 
any foreign pi-ince, ... not having, before his going m aforewid. 
taken the oath aforesaid, . . . uliull bo a felou - . . 

XIV'. And (urtiicr be it enacted, Thut if soy ptinion . . . shall 
. . . put in practice to . . . withdraw any of the nibjccts of the 
King's Mujeety . ..from their natural obcdieuce to bis Majesty... 
or to reconcile them to the Pope or See of Borne , . . that then 
every such pernoii, their procnrem [&c.] . . . shall bo to all 
iRteiila adjudged traitors and being thereof lawfully cooWcted 
shall liATC judgment, sutTrr and forfeit as in cases of high treason ; 
aud If any such peraou as aforesaid . . . shall be . . . absolved or 
withdrawu as aforesaid or willingly reconciled . . . that then erery 
mch pcr«oD, their procurers j^&c.] . . . shall be to all intents 
adjudged traitors aud . . , suffer aud forfeit aa in caaea of hi^li 

XVtl. [Peers to be tried h^ Peers.] 
^ X^TII. Aud bo it further enacted. That if any subject of this 
realm . . . shall not repair eveiy suuday to some church, chapel 
or Eome otlior usual place appointed for eoiuiuou prayer, and 
tlKre hear divine nerviue acconling to llie statute ' made in that 
behalf, in the first ycnr of the reign of the late Queen Klizaboth, 
thiit then it shall he lawful for any oue justice of peuM of tlmt 
limit wheri'in the said party shall dwell, upon proof unto hint 
made of such default by confceaiou of the ]inrty or oath of 


Popish Rttusants: peiialtits. 


witneea, io call the said piirty before him ; and if he shall not 
nmlce a BufGcipot cxeune nud Jue prf>of thereof, lo tlic satis- 
faction of the nniil jiiiiti<:e of peuc<?, that it nliall be lawful for 
the said justice of peace to give wHirant to th« churchvardrn 
of the said parlali wherein the said party shall dwell . . ■ to 
levy \3d. for every iiucb default, by diirtruBg and sale of tli« 
guodR of every such offendi-r . . . ; and that 111 default of rntrh 
distress it shall be lawful for the said justice ef pc'ace to 
commit every nuoh offender to some prison wittiin the said 
■ihire . . . wherein kucIi (iffnidcr shall he Inhabiting, until pay- 
ment be made of the said sum so to be forfeited ; which 
forfeiture shiill lie employed for the usi- of the poor of that 
puri«h wherein tlin offi-nder hIihII be reRidoJit ... 
*<XIX. And bccaiiw in one Act' of parliament ... in the 35th 
year of the late Queen Elizabeth, intituled [*c.], there are two 
br&uches [clausen 5 and 6 are here Kciled], whidi said two 
branches are found defective ; be it therefore enacted, That the 
said two branchfs , . . shall be . . . repealed and made void, and 
in lii'o thereof hi- it enacted, That i-vcry ixTnon which . . . 
shall willingly maintain ... in hi» house any servant, sojourner 
or stranger who ahatl not go to some church or cbupel, or ukubI 
place of common prsyvr lo bear divine MTvice ... by the space 
of one month together, not having a reasonnble excuse, , . . sliall 
forfeit £10 for every month thxt he shidi so . . . hitrlH^ur any 
such servant [&e.J . - . ; and thut <ivcry pernon which nhall . . . 
keep in hi« service, fee or livery any person which shall rot go 
to some church [&c as before] shall forfeit for every month 
. . . £10 . . . 

XXII. .■\nd be it further eiinetod, That cveiy offence to be 
couitiiitted against this present Act may be . . . deterroined 
betcire the juttticea of the Kiuk's Bench, justices of antine and 
gaol-delivery . . . ; and all offcncca other than trenaon *ball be 
. , . determined before the justices of peace in their goDcnd or 
quarter teKHions . . . 

X\Y. Previilril alwavii, TImt tbiit Act nor luiytbing therein 
ooutMDed shall extend to take away or abridge the authority or 
juriiidiedoii of the eccleeiaatical censnres for any matter, but 
that the commiKxionera of bin Majesty ... in cnuseR eccle- 
' ss BIx. 1. M s, 6. 


Janus I. 


Huattun] . . . aimI the utehhuhopK biahop* moA other i 
jodgcH m*}- proceed us before tlio Duking of Ur> Act tk^l 
fuUy did ur uiictt bave done . . . 

XXVII. Provided itbo . . . Tbal to nil 
bUbop oi- jnsticca of tbc ptace inn; . . . m^uire ct muj ) 
tbe oath aboTe-meutioDcd, that Ibe Umla of the Priv; I 
... or auy olx of tbt-m. wlier(«f tlio Lotd CbuKcDeci i 
Tmmrer or tb« PrincigMil Bvcri-tjuy for tlte time to 
sbell bave fall power . . . 1o rn^uire (be Mid o«tl» 
meulioued of any Dobletuui or uolOewrvm&u, then being 1 
tbe ngv of eigbteen years ; and if aiif Meh . . . iball nfu* I 
lake Boch oaths, (bat Id ercrf aucb am eneh noUeflua i 
noblewoiuau aball invjr the p&iuanddaDgHT of a piaMnniK.' 

w'j & 4 Jac. I. Caf. V. 

Jn Aei to prmmt and avoid lioHj/n** idU'(A m^ fnu h t 

I. Wbereaa diron J(«uit«, Semiiurien and Pnpah 
daily do withdraw mauy of hia Majesty's rabjeets frein 
aerrice of Almighty Ood and the reliipon eatablitbed 
tbii nalni lo tlie Koniish religion and from their tuyal 
to bia MajeMy, and have of late mentiy pvrwadad 
recnsanla aod Papists ... to ownmit moat daauubU b 
I tendiuf; lo thi* overthrow of Ood's tme relifciou, tV. daUvtliM 
) of hi* 3Iaj«*ty awt hi* royal lanic, and tluc nvertbrow of lb 
■ WR * ) wbok iitale and common wmllh, if Ood of bia gwAotat «ri 
\ mercy bad not within few boors beloro tlic intcndot tiat ^ 
the ezecu^oD thtnof revealed and ditdowd the aame : «bav 
lore to dboover and preTcat each seeitit damnable oo m ja n aa 
and trwwosie ae bereafler may hu put in ure by vaA vA 
diapoaml peraoms, if ramedjr he not tbifrcfon! provided; W ' 
^ enacted . . .^hat each poraon oe shall &nt discover to sQ 
Jastiott of peace any rvcuwut or other pcnon which iball Miff- 
tain or tsliere any Joanil, Seminar; or Poptafa pricet, or thai 
diaoorar any loaea to have been *aid and t)rt |ienone that wtt* 
pnaent at aoeh maaa and the piie«t that *>id tbe mbmi. witU* 
three days Mat after tbe oITbixv committMl, and that i^ rrmm 
uf aoob diaooftfy any of tbe said oOuMlars be Ukm and om- 


Popish Recusants: residence. 


victei] or nttitintecl, thftt. ihtn the ppreon which liatli m«do such 
discovery elmlt Dol only be freed froni the [>i<iinlly of Any Uiw 
for fiuoli oflcnoc, if hi« be an offeoder tbi-rein, but nl»o have 
the third |nirt of the forfeitum of nil mich sums of money . . . 
wbii'h sliitll bn forfeited by rwAi ofisncc, so as the dame total 
forfeiture exceed not the sum of £150. and if It the sum 
of £150 Ihe said jtersou . , . shall have the nam »f jCjo . . . 

II. And whereas the repair of luch cvil-niErctcd persons to 
the court or to tlio city of Jjjndon may be very daufj;eri>ua to 
his )liije«tr's persi'D, and may f(\\a them more liljerty to meet, 
cvuKult nud plot thi^ir tFcawitui mid pructicuK nj^inst the state 
than if tlxty should be re.itrntiicd nud cudlneil unto their private 
houses in the country; for winody hereof be it enacted. That 
no Popish recusant convicted shall come into the court or house 
where the Kinjc's Majculy or bin heir upparent to the crown of 
Ertfflntid ii)iiill be, unlemi hn bn commiiiidcd on to do by the 
King's Majesty, his heirs or succoisors. or by warrant ill writing 
from lint turils und olburs of the raost honourable Privy Council, 
, . . upon pain to forfeit for every time so offending ^£100, (he 
one moii^ty to the King's Majeely, bis heira and euccessurti, thu 
other iQuivty to him that wtU diAcuver and sue for Ihe xame . . . : 
and that o\\ Popiib recuennts indicted or convietctl und nil 
other pfirxoQx which have not repairod to some nsiaal church or 
chapel and there heard divine Mrrice ... by the space of three 
mouiha last past, . . . dwelling within the city of I.ouduti or th<! 
liberlieH thtTvuf or within teu luilea of the said city, shnll within 
three nionthn next aft'.-r the end uf this session of purlinment 
depart from the said city of London and (en miles compass of 
(he name, . . . upon pain that every person offending herein shall 
forfeit to our Sovereign Luid the King's Majcfity, his heirs and 
•ucc«si>ors, thu Kuui of X 1 00 - , . 

til. Provided alwiiys, That such persoD or {wiaoiis as now use 
Miy tiade, my^t^ry or niiuiual ocimpation within the siud city of 
Loudon or within t^'ii miles of thu ame, imd sucli »s have^ 
their only dwelling within the said city or ten mites compnas of 
the same, not bnviuf; uuy other place of abode eluewhere. may 
remain in kiicIi place witlitn the said city or tm miles uf tbi! 
same s» tliey hnvc dwelled in by Uic rpnrc of three months next 
before this present se^Biou of parliament . . . 


Janus I. 

IV. [Slal. 35 Elu- i- f| i, a coofirnnd; ( 7 {of 
tniTcl liCfODil five mile*, tu be gnatcd ttf t«« joitkn 
peac« and cirrtnin otben) repealed.] 

T. [&vcb LinncMi mty be gnnt^ V ^^ ^^i^V "^ t^'™ ^ 
Ihiii'y CuuucU withotrt otiM iiMtgnrd, or by four Jutiaol 
pesco for cuiae amgnMl on oath.J 
v^VL And be it furUier enacted. Tliat no ncoai 
slall at any tine after tlie end i>f tliis aeaaioa of 
piaoUse the commoi) Uw of tbw rtabn u a cmiMalkr.i 
tXXttmej ur »oli«ilor in tbe asmc, anr slull pncttte tht 1 
lav u adroeak or )irocU>r ; u«r practise ph^c, tinr 1 
use tbo tnde a- art of au eimllmaty ; dot aliall b* ', 
mini«t«r. dart: or rtvwonl in any ctiurt, or keep any «oart. < 
■belt be rtKieler or town-cterk or oUmt minuter or albvlj 
•ny coart; nor shall bear any offi<« or cliiirp ■• 
licntriuint, coTpuml, aergeaut, aocieat-lMArer or otbw cAeb ■ 
ctuup, troop, banti or compaoy of sol^eiv ; nor shall be 1 
nuutcr, gorenwr, or bear any oHica or ehar^ in >8f ^ 
cftftir or fbctraa of tbe King's Mf^y's, bia hMia ani 
ccfieors; . . . and every pcrrao offending berein shall also I 
for every «tich olTeiioe £tOO . • . 

■^ VII, And be it also enacted, Thai no Popiab ncunDt «oi" 
nor any bavia^ a irife lieiug « FopUh rMUtanl cvovict ifaaU . i 
merciM nay pnblic ul!icc in tliv common wealth, but dial! f 
utlerty disabled to extrcise tbe same by hioiMlf or bf 
deputy, except such bnabaod hinuelf and bis childrm 
diall be elxiTe tbe age of nine j-eaia abidtm vitb bin udj 
(crvunta in Itoosebold fdiall ouoe every ntontb at IBe 
having any rvasonablc cxcum to tbe contntry, rv^r 
cburcb or cfaapel nraal for dirinc Mgrvice and tbave bear dirisi 
t«rrice : and tbe eaid husband and sitch hia childien and semsAi 
ns are uf meet age receive tbe sMcnmcnt nf the Locd's ["iwf|W, 
»t such limes as are limited by tbe lana of this umIu. aad 4c 
bring np his aaid children in trtic religion. 
/ VIII. And be it also enacted. That every BMuricd wtmsu 
boug a Popbb tecuaant convicted (her bnsband ■«< iHiv^ti 
convicleil <*f Potii«b reconuncy), vrliich nhall not eoMliini baft 
... by the Tpnco of one irboir year next Iteforo tbe daatb of bai 
Mid hutband, aball forfeit to the King's Hajeaty ... 

Popish RausafUs: dlsabUUies, &e. 


ffnAta of two p«rt> of her joinbiT* iuhI two put* of her 
r, . . . toA aha be diuLIcd to be executrix or aulmiiiifltnitrix 
W nid Lmtband, mnd to liore . . . tinj lurt of her nid 
I bufaukd'a ^ood* and cfanttcU . . . 

And br it furtlur vnaeted. That eveiy roplsb rccnmnt 

■■■■•loll itaod . , . diasbled as a peraon lawrully and dnly 

nniuated. . . . aud tbat everv perton Ritd b}- Huch penon 

I iiitUed aliaU picwl the muim in dituhllng of Kudi plainlifi*, 

f u if Lf wen ncommanicattd hj kMxoc* in tbe eccl«uasti£«l 

[actMDa proaecntcd by such nctmnt coneeming hia real 

xy ool; excepted J. 

And ... be it farther CBactrd, That every tnan being 
t^ifiab recasant cooricted. or wl>o aball he hereafter married 
than in aome open chDrcli or chuptl and i>tbcnri*e 
■cearding to tlia orders of tho ClinrcJi of Eiigland l>y 
■ auiEtcr lawfully autliottW, shall he utterly dbahl«l to have 
estate of freehold in any tJie Unda [Ac.j of ht« w'xiv tm 
■ by the corteay of England ; and that every woman bvinz 
tPopiah ncnaant convicted and who shall be hereafter married 
ettter form than aa aforeuaid shall be ntterty dinUed not 
to claim any dower of the itilieritanoo of her hunhand 
, . or any jointarc of the lands [ftc] of her hutband or any of 
> sacntora, bat alao of her widow's eatato and frank-bank in 
cnatooiary land* whereof her hnabond died itctaed, and 
VIM be diadih^ to bava any part of the goods of her »id 
: by virtue of any custom . . . : aud if any such man be 
with any woman contrary to . . . tliia Act, which 
tuitli no lands (ft«.] whereof he loay be entitled to bo 
tenant by the cartefy,th«n auch man . . . shall forfeit £ioo...: 
aai that every Pojiisb r«cuaant which tJall hertafler have any 
cUU bora sImU within one inotith . . . cnun^ thtr Fame child to 
tc baptieed by a tawfnl minister according to the hiws of this 
realm in tbe open church, . . . upon {win that th« father ... or, if 
be he dead, then the motfaor of nicli child aliall . . . forfeit ^loo . . . : 
aad if any Popi>h recnaant man or woni«D, not being excom- 
alc, shall bi> buried in any place other than in the 
' churchyard or not accciding to tbe «eol«da*t{cal lana 
ealm, that the executors . . . ihall forfeit tbe Run of 


James I. 


XI. And be it forlber cittctnl. That tf the childnn of uty 
snltjeet within this renlm (th« mid children DOt bving lotdiera, 
nurinm, mereiumts or their ■|>prenticeii or bctors), to prerenl 
Lbeir flood education in KngUml or for »tiy other flrntc, »]ia)l 
hereafter be Mnt or go beyond aeaa without licence of Uic 
King's Majesty or ax of \C\a booooTkble Privy CouDCiI, wbenof 
the Principal Secre<«Ty \tt be one^ . . , tlui then erery niich ehild 
•JmJI take no benefit by «ny gift, oonveyanpe, deseeat, derise or 
MkerwtM of any Uads . . . goods ta challeln, UBtU be. beiag of 
tile Bge of eiRhtMn year* or uborp, take the oath mentiofted in 
an Act of parliament ' mad« thU prrjimt searion, intituled [ftc.]. 
before eome jascice of pean; of the coanty . . . ; and that in the 
meaDUnie tbe next of kiu which shall be no Popish recmatit 
tlittl] hare aud enjoy the wud land* [&«■] until aucfa time aa the 
pcraon kt aent or goiM beyoiMl the >cas ulintl confonn lunt or 
her »clf end uka tbe aformid oath kimI rcotivo the sacrameBt 
uf the LiUrd'n Supper . . . 

XII. Aod for that many mhjecta of this mim ... are of late 
gone beyond tbe mm without titeoce .... be it fnilher etiacted. 

That if any of the aid pi-rMinK aliall not within sis moothB 

next after th«tr return into this mini, then bctn^ of tbe age of 
ei^itfen jTMn or more, take tbe oetb nbore >p«ici(ied . . ., 
•vary anch offender Hhall take do ben«fit by any gift . . . devise 
or otherwise of any land* . . . good* or chattels, antil he . . . 
take Ibo raid oath ; and that likewise in (he meonlime the next 
of kin . . . which shall be no Popish recusant chall enjoy the 
mid londn [&c.J . . . 

XIII. And U it fnrtber enacted, That nrery pervon tliat 
is a Popish recusant convict, during tbe time that lu; ahall 
lie a reramiiil, iholl ... be utterly disabled to present to any 
benefice with curi: or without cure, pieliend or any other 
ecclfBiustical living, or to collate or nominate to any free Kbool. 
hoKjiitnl or douative wlialaoever. and . . . shall likewi*** be 
diiwbled to grant any avoidauce to any benefice, prebend or 
other ecclesiastical livinf;; and that tbe clwncellnr and acholan 
of the TTnirersity of Oxfoid, so often ss any of them ahull he 
Toid, »b«ll hare the jireaeiitation ... to every such benefice 
f&C-] lying within [certain couutia], and that the uhancelior 

■ 3 and 4 Jac. I- 4- 1 9 (above, p. ijjV 

Po^sh Reaisants-- disabilities, &c. 267 

kUhs or Uw Unircrnt^ of Cambritl^ shall bnve [the 
I prinb^ witlitD c«rUin otWr couoUea]. 
IT. Horeuver, bHauae rttcunaiiU cunvict are nol Uurngbt 
to be cxncalon or ndmittutrnton tc nnj peraon nor to 
tke education of tbeir own childron, nmch t«M of (he 
of aaj (itb«r uf the King's wibjccN. uc<r to bare the 
■ tii them, be it therefore cnfti;tnl, Tlirt «ich rvcusniits 
.ilisU be dicsbkd to b« execator or silaiinUtrator .... nor 
bve the caslody of any «hiM. &« ^ardiso iu cliivalrjr, 
in aocngc or (inardiiiii in iitirtun: of uii}- LuidK [/te.'\ 
: bvehold or copyhold, . . . but shall bo adjudged disabled 
■fc inch wanlilu|i or custody of auy such clitld or of their 
I [ftc.] i and thnt for tho bettor rdunation and f rc»crT»tioD 
lib Mid chtldren and tbeir estates the uext of kin ... to 
the miA tmids [&c.] . . . cannot biwfully iIcjtMDd, who 
I niBlIy m»rt to some church . . . and receive the holy sacni> 
of the Lofd*fl Supper thrice in the year next liefore .... 
I hare the ciutody and education of the saine child and of 
I ttid binds [SicS] Iwing botdcn in knight-ftnicc. nntil the 
age of the said ward . . ■ , and of his faid lands [&c.] 
by eopy of court-ruUs of any manor so long as tbe 
: of ibe «a!d manor shall perniit the nmo . . . 
V. Aud hv it further enaded. That no peraon aball briiis from 
. the acBs, nor ehall priut, sell or buy any Popish primer*, 
maauaU, ruouties, Ptqiiih cntechisnis, mtwals, 
. portaU, l«g«Kls and livn of saints containiuj,' euper- 
imalter, printed or trritten iii_any languu^ nhatsoertrr, 
^SBf other saperstitious hooks printed or written in tile 
tmgue, upon pain of forfeiture of 40*. for cvory sncli 
I. . .; and that it aball be lawful for any two juHticea of 
e, and to all mayota, bailiffs and chir f oHicoi-* of cities 
I eorporate ... to search tho houMs and lod^n^ of 
[^({uth recnunt conrict, or of erei; person whose vite it 
Popuh rvcuaant courict, for Popish liooks and relics of 
hnpery: and thai if any altar, pyx, beads, piclnive or snch-Iike 
h|uh nlice or any Popish book shall be found in llieir 
ly, as in the opinion of tbe aaiil jastices ['^■J shall 
kt unmeet for such recusant to have or use, the 
skaU be pmenlly defaced aud banil, If it he lueet to 


James I. 


be bttrnt, and if it be a crucifix or oUier relic of my price. 
Uie nine lo be defaced . . . and ... to be reotored bo tbe owner 

<X\\. And be it alto oucted, That all «ach armour, gun- 
powder and uimitioii . . . a* miy Va\>w\i recnsant conriet witJiin 
|]lis mlm of Eugland hath in hii hou«e ... or ebewbrre . . . 
■hall bo taken ... by warrant of four jneliccs of pence at thdr 
general or quarter aceuona . . . (otjier than Hich oDccaiary 
weapona as ahall be thought fit by Ute aaid four jostioea of 
peace to rt^ain and be allowed for the def«nce of the penou of 
audi recusant or for the defence of his houac) . . - 
XIX. [Proviso oa in 3 Jac. I. 4. { 15.] 

First Parliament: Third Sessioh. 

Vov. U, 1806— Jolr «. ieo7. 
4*5 Jac. L Cat. I. 

An Ah for Oie uUtr obolttitm of all memory of hmSit^ omdAt 
dtpendtnof* thrrrof hfttottcn England and SecOmd, mtifor 
tkr rrpremng of oixtuioiu ofdiieord and ditorden in (iW 
to eamc. 

I. For the honoar, wtal and good of the** two miRhty famous 
and ancient kingdoms of England and Scotland, aud fur the 
furtherance and advancement of the buppy uuion alrmdy l^egun 
in Ilia M^eety'i mynl person, be it euucted. That [Stat. 4 H. 
V. (i) 7 (letters of marque)] shall be utterly repealed. . . , 

IL And be it further enacted. That [certain other utAtutm]' 
ahaU he utterly repealed ; and if there had appeared any other 
ttatnte of this rmlm of England, wherein anything is ordained 
vzpnadjr against Scottifchmen as enf^mics or Scotlnud as an 
enemy country . . . , we nhould, for so much of them as hod 
ao concerned BGottixhrnen or Scotland, have utterly abrogated 

IL tfi: ji n. Tl. 3: 7 H. VIl 6; ij B. Vlll, 16; » laiA 3 

wft'ons tviih Scotland. 


I nosIM tlio mine, M-'titi^ uU enmtlj nud bustLlity of fonnrr 

I bdnrn tint two kingdom* si»l peoples in now happily 

n »ny, uid under Uie governmeot of his Majesty u aiulnr 

eparait and btad tamed into fnteroit; or brotherly friend- 

in. ProVMled n«rerili«l«a . . . Tbat ooiie of tbn nrticlcii iu 

I diiAd bcCim oouUuimI shali take effea . . . uutil Uteae Acts 

<i fullaaiaat of tlw reolia of Scotland bereaiter following ' . . . 

Ad W act of parliunietit of tlio «aid rvnlm of ttcutbuid be 

lUcfif itpMlcd ; aoil until nJw) thi: noiil parliament of the 

I of Scotland ihall . . . mako as full anil ampl« declaration 

■Htntisg llxtr clear inteution and dcairo of repeal of all other 

I kA laws of their part not before mentioned, if tiKij wcro 

IbtTD, u on the part of this realin of Eogbod batli been in 

ffei preanit Act espreased. 

IV. And be it furtlier enacted. That one Act' made in tbu 5th 
Piiv of King BicWd the Moond, concerning the restraint of 
■gc of bti M^jeatj'e nbjeete out of this rMlm . . , ahatl be 
I feocafbrth utterly repealed. 
F. And be it fiirthrr enacted. That no ptrwn subject of either 
diall be . . . any way troabled or c»Ile>d in ijoMiiun . . . 
of any odTenceo . . . (before the deteaMc of the lat« 
Qann Elizabeth of fanouii menuiry) which wei« determinable 
' iha law* or constitutiona of the bordera nitbtn the marts 
1 JQXiadictian of tlve late wanletiH or othenrLtc . . . 

And fbrumuch aa no abolition of hostile laws or of the 
' of hontitil; . . . can preeenUy extirpate those inveterate 
ctutoms and diaorderit . . . whetewith the wor*t aorta of 
•lanta nnr the limit of both rtalme wrre infected ; . . . and 
experience (c*cheth that tbe ualefacton of eilber 
raalm barinfC eocnmill<d tli«Ir offences iu tke other realm do 
Ibrtbwitlt eacape many times into Ihdr own country, thereby 
to porchaae their impunity; . . . and whereat in regard of tome 
(SAueDCe ... in coacn of life between tlie jastion of tbe realm 
of Engiaud and that of the realm of Scotland, it appearetb to 
\m noet conTcnieut ... to proceed iritit all poeaible taverity 

' Cwwi* hoMila A/t* of tbe ParUaiuant ot ScxAUnd ate ben UMtitJonod. 
• J »■ U- to i- 


James I. 


agninit Dfienden iu U»eir own country Bcoonliug to the t*«i4l 
tli« wuDc; ... be it tlinvforc eiMctt^, TUal alt (>flcii(c*'...{ 
COntBUtled by uijr tuhjdds of ibt* tmIdi of EDgtomj . , . »iilaj 
tlw realm of S««tlatid . . . bImII t« troni hvncefortii uqiiin 
hrnni mid deU-muucd before bU MnjcHtiT'i juatice* of i 
h» comminioneni of oyer anil Immoi'T or gnnl di-lircrj- ...,lf~1 
good Mill Inwfal men of the cotmtie* of CnmbiirUad. V«r^ | 
nmberiftod. Westmoreljind .... in liJtr manner . . . m if nl , 
offence* bad boon oommirted mtbiu tbe unie Bhini vbse llq' | 
»lmU be no oi»iuinNl uf, beiutl «nd determtnod ... 

XV. And b« it furtbcr enacted. That no iwtnnl bora w lja t { 
of tbe reaUn of EngUiMl . . . tJull for any bi^ tmaua • ■ > 
luiy otb«r ofr«[K« or catise committed within Scothnd t» MtJ 
oat of Engtand wbere 1>e b «|iprebeiided, la ronire in* I 
until sDcb tine u botb mlmi rIuI) be made one in U«i) 
govern me ni. w bid) is tbe Ibing BomadideuRd u thati 
tbe full perffctiou of tbe blesed union aln^j bejgm il 
)Uje»t}-'> rqf«l petaon consiatctb . . . 

First Parliameht: Fourth Session. 

tvb. s-^Dir as, iO)(x 

? ft 8 Jac I. Caf, I. 

An Art far the bHirr emeutum of jattift aiti 
criminal cffeuJert in the nvrtk ftarU of tSu 

i. Wboreiu in n »tiit»t«* made is tbe Ibinl fcarioa al 
jiTmcnt ptu-liament, intituled [&c.), it wm uwctcd [*c.], i 
the making of wbicb ttjilute , , , tbera hatb not li»-_ii taj i 
offender committing onj tbo oAincee aCMreeud in StutUad 
haUi been prowenlwl ... in Eogbuid . . , ; wbereb^r il i 
appearetb that tbe said cUiue in the nU ttelnt* . . . 
bnwght forth that good eficct ss v»s hoi>ed for . . . ; l« 

* VwfMt affeneN of a mir* n fdooloai unm b* k«s ■■llil 

* 4 Jm. L I. f 6. 

i«IO.] Scollatid: Rogues and Vagabonds. 471 

tomcl'-'I . . . Thai if . . . any poreon ihall commit any ofTunce 
withiu the ri-alin of Scuiluui] . . . wliich l>y Mic luwn of thin 
reulm of Enir^'^')'! ><■ dcctnred to Ixi ])elty treuiuii [ur koido ons 
uf variouN offrnci!" mciitJoni'd] iui<l oncnpn itito the realm of 
Hngliutd and be appraheniiei] within aiiy the couuticH of 
Nortliuuiberliuid, Cumbi'iluud, Wi-atmoroliuid ... or vrilliiii 
the parts Ijiiift on the north side of the river of tyae . . . , it 
nhull bv lawful for the; jiiiitinri' of iiuitr.e [&c.] or tbc jiJtlicra of 
pnaco in tli«ir grneral or quarter stveionB ... to remaud eueli 
offeudera iuCo ibe realm of Scotland, there to reutivc tbefr 
trial . . . 

II. Provided . . . Tlint tbiH vtAtutc nor any clause thereiu 
contained tlintl tAkn effect . . . until n law by Act of parliament 
be mude withiu the realm of Scotland for the eeuding out of 
Scotland into EnfiUud all persons boru within the reulm of 
Seotlaud wliicli tifaoll at auy tim« lierciifW commit nay the 
ofTencos nforcHaid within Uie roolm of England, (o rtccivo Hunt 
trial in tlie realm of England . . . 

J & 8 Jac I. Cap. IV. 

An Aa for the live taxeatiim of divert laws atui Hatttlu herdofon 
mad« ai/ainM rogue*, vagahondt and tlurdy brgjarg and 
other Ined awl idle ptrtont. 

I, Whereaa heretofore diverx good and necvtuary lawf and 
Rtatutca linvo bei-n initdu for the ('ri:ctioii of 1ioum:k of ciirreclion. 
for the BtipprvMing and punishiTig of rogue;, VBgnlionds and 
otiier idle vagrant and dieoi'derly pei'sons, which lan-s ha%~c not 
wrought 10 good eifect aa vna expected, 08 well for that the 
uiid bouMTH of correction linri! nol been built . . . a« oIm) for 
that th« eaid statutes hnvc not bpcn duly and unvercly put in 
evocation . . . ; for remedy wfaereof be it enncted . . . That all 
laws and ntatulei now in force made for huildin^' of houses of 
corrootiun und for puiusliing of rogueti . . . and idle per»oiii< 
kholl be fiiit in due execution. 

II. And be it further enacted. That before the fcii»t of 
St Michael the Archangel ... 161 1 there shall he . . . hoilt »r 
otherwise |>rovided within every county of this realm of 
England and Wales, where there ia not one houw of currectiou 


James I. 


already .... one or toon fit oiul conrmuut bnoKv of 
vritli coDTeuirat Iwck-iude tbomnto wijoiiiing, tognhcr 
. . . ncccuarj impUnncnta to tot the said , . . idle 
work . .. 

tn. A»d be it fnrtlier Minctcd, Tfant if tb« wd hum.. 
shall not bo . . . provided belore the f«Mt oX St Miehwl.. 
1611 ■ . . that then evei^ jostica of p«c« wiUun vtry 
, . . vbere aucb Iiouse . . .. Khali not be prorided *b^ 
fer 1u« tuid nngli'cl X5 . . . 

IV. And b« it further eiuict<d. Tltat th« JHftien of 
«rei7 county . . . st their ()tiut«r aeauoos . . . rinll . . . 
. . . one or UKue boutst, fit iwrveiu to be governor or 
the nid bouan . . . ; which pcrMn* ao cbown . . . diall 
power to »«t mch . . . idio and diaorderljr penoBt as ihall It 
brtHight or sent unto the raid home to work and labour ( 
able), . . . and that tbe mid . . . idt« pcnona, during (oth 
■a tlwy ahall continue in tli« said bonao of correction. AaU 
no Kort bo cbargrable to the oounti; for any allowanoe . . . 
ehall have aueb allowance as they shall Jtaane hg thth- 
labour uud work. 

T. Aod b« it further enacted. That tbe e&id jiutien «f 
. . . within every of thdr »evt;iul dtviaioia, twiov in ewry 
at the lost and oflaDcr if there be occasion, shall meet 
for II1C iK'ttcr elocution of this statute, and at some Ibar or 
days before their meetioi; . . . shall . . . coounaad the 
and tltluiif[-meu . . . within their said several diviaiona. 
fthall be unated with suflki«nt meu of the nine pW«^ to 
a general privy »ear«b in one night ... for tbe finding out 
apptebending of the said rogues . . . and idle persons ; and 
Bueb n^nee [&c] as th^ ^11 then find . . . shall by dieai 
brttcghl before the nid justices .... there to be exarai: 
puuifhed or otherwise . . . conveyed uuto tbe said 
correction, . . . there ... to he set tu labour . . . 

\'T1I. And for that many wilfiil peopU, . . . sU* to 
and thereby to relieve thenMslvea and llwir fstulies, dn 
thelesa ran away out of tlieir parialiea and leave ibetr 
Upon the parah. ... be it further eoadcd . . . That all 
pctwna . . . alial] be deemed to be incorrigUile rofjoea, 
endure the pains of incorrigible rogues . . . 

t^ AlUgiaHct. 


7*8 Jac L Caf. VI. 

\l^f0- mdmumiMtrimg du catk ofalkffiamM, ami nfurmatiom 
</ Horrwi KTMwn neuMnf . 

VWtMt b; a statute ' made in tlie tliird ^r of jrour 
]>'■ R^R. intituled [Ac.j, tlie form of an oath la be 
tn certain pcnoos in the «in« Act mcntioued ia 
, t4-i>diDg ool; to tbe diclaratioB of anch doty, %* 
■ tree wxl well affected MilJMt . . . ooglit to hnr to yoar 
E; - . .; and to abew how greatly ymx lornl aubjecta do 
tki mid Mth, they pnwtrat« IhcmaelTea at jour 
■j\ CnI, b«Eeec)itng your M»j<«tj that the aama o«th 
be adnliaatered to all your aubjecta; to wbicb *nd . . . 
il cnadcd, Tbat all p«rMat>, a* ircU cccli^sUilical as 
, . . . aboT« tltf agD of rigfateen yoars, bring bereafler 
L Act neotioaed aod ij>luid<<d, sball nake a corporal oath 
tbc cvaugettita a«cor<ting to the t«iu>ur and offpci of tbe 
! oalb Mt fbctb in tbe taJd fomarotioDFd »tatn(e, before 
prtaoa or penons as bemfUr in thin Act ia cxprcMcd . . . 
hxA tu tbe intent that due execution may be had of the 
vithoat detny, it ia fnrtlier enacted, Tliat idl tbe 
' t«far« namod, who hav« any ceiiaiii time limited wbi'O 
b talct iba abrenid taih, ahall at the time thrKiu preacribed 
take the woe, and tbe rtst vitbiu lix muutba oesl after tbe 
Md of thia prvaeut * eanon of parlinmcnt. 

UL And bo it fuiiber enacted, llial it ahall be Uwfnl far 
tBf ttom of tbe priry council . . . and for every bisbop irilhin 
In diooMr. to nquiie any baron or loruue«4 of tlie age of 
e^bleea or above to IaIcu the *nid oath, and for oiiy two 
jmieea of ptsce within any county, city or towu a>q>ciral*, 
«hee«of oae to be of tl)e quonim, to require any person of the 
age of eijgbtnn yean or above, under tbe defproe of a baroo or 
baraaeaa lo lake tbe utd <w(b ; and if any penwu of or above 
tbe Hid a^ and degrte . . . stand indictt-d or eonvictnd for not 
oMoag lo church or not receiving the Uoly Commnnion . . . 
■warjii^ to the law* and ttatulet of thb reain . . . , tbeti 
B privy conocil . . . wbeteof tbe Lord Cbanoellor, 
m-r, Lord Privy Seal or Principal Secretary to be 
' } J*e. ]. 4. f 9; Uibv«, p. »58. 


one, apon kDowlo<lgc tbcrt<of. tball irqnire Kicb p«nui to I 
Ui« said MUh ; ami if any otW iwrxm of or Bbove tii)! «Ui 
aod under th« taid degree . . ■ stand nnd be pnnenleiL ia 
DT oanrict«id for not coa)iii|t (o cboich or i«ceini)$ tb« , 
OommunioD . . . ncMrding to the Uwh and sUtvtM of I 
realm . . ., or tf tliv minister, petty ooaetalite umI 
w&rdeiis or any two of tkem aba]! . . . compbin to aoyj 
of peace new tMljoimng to the place wLera any penos 
plained of ubiill dwdl, and tlie wd ju«liee« aball find < 
aiupicion, tliat then any one jartioe of |waoe, vtthin 
commisaion or povrer such person shall be, or to wfaotn < 
ahall be made oa aforenid, nball Upon notice tWacf 
such perwin to tidco tbc aatd oath . . . ; and UmI if 
, penon . . . sball refuse to titlte tbo «id oatfa .... ibat lk« 
peraoBs autliori^d by tbia law to give the wid odk 
coniuiic Ibe bbiim offcDder to tbe common gaol, tbere to i 
. . . until tlw next oiunses or gent- ral quarter aeeaaotia, . . . < 
the raid oatb shall be agun . . . rrqninwl of ntch peraot. 
and if tlie said peraoa - . . ehall refuse to taks tJic sndotli,- 
erery pei'tuu iM> refusing (ball incur tbe penalty of pr 

IV. And Ih! it liirlbcr tnncted, Hiat orery penaa nfwmf* 
take tbe mid oath as above tJwll be ditabled ... to exetoie ^^ 
public plac« of Judicature or bear any other office (bcuf 
ofiBce of iuheritaDco or miniitrrial funclioo) witluu tliii ; 
Uigbnesa' mim of England, or to dm or practise the ' 
law or civil law, or (be science of phyuc or (uigtij, or tla i 
of an apothecary, ur any liberal acieaoe, for hia or (Iwir | 
within Uiis realm, untit nich tini« a* ibc name perao* 
Kceire tbe tame oatb nccording to the intent of thie italote^ 

T. And be it further euacled. That if any Btartied iin — f 
being lawfiilly convicted a* a pipixb recuaant for oot cowtiaf V 
cburrh. iball oot within three months next after sucb ennvielMa 
oonform bcrtclf and repair to the church nnd recein tb 
Bacnment of tbi' Irord'a Supper ac<xirdiu|i to tbe 
Jaws . . . , that then ihe shall tie committed tii prison by ' 
of the privy council ... or by tbe biahop of the dtocew if ' 
be a ban>n«M, or if slur be under that dejpve, by two jt 
nf the peaice of the tame county, whenof one to b« of 
qaomm. tberv to remmn . . . uulll ahe shall coafbcn betwlf . \ 

I Ibe Imsliuid of ineli nite ■hall paj ... for ctctt idddIIi 
> ... or tlm the third p*rt . . . of «ll bis Und* and ' teu^ 
, tt the cl>otr« of the hiuband whoac v'[f« ie so connctcd, 
t to long lime as she reraaiiung a recii«uit cuDvict«d'*likll 
tiniw out of praon . . . '■[>' 

First Paruaije.nt; FirrM Session. 
ooi. 16— i>M. «, leio. 

(Ko SUUtc* f— ad.) 

Second Parliament.- 

ApcQ S—Juaa 7, 1014. 
(K« StatatM f Miri.) 

Third Parliamejit: First and Second Sessioxs. 

Jbo. so— Jtua» 4, and Nor. 30- Dec. 18. 1011. 
(Two Aete of Sa!mt)i«* -hot paMod.) 

Fourth Parliament. , ' 

Vb. IP— IC*y SA. 1834. 

»i ft 3t Jac L Cap. IU. 

i« Jet MvKvrmiwr saonope/iM, ai'd diipttuattotu wiiA /-eitat 
/mm, omf tlu forfeitttr* tktftof. 

' t. PaTUmaeb as ^ur most «ice]]«nt M^JMty, in your rojal 
at oaA (if your bleswd iliapMition to Uw weal and quiet 
'■fjour ntgaeU, did in Uic ynr ofonr Lord (iml, i6io. pnhliih 
ti prist 10 the whole r««)in and to all poeterity, That all graitls 
rf BOBopoUcs, ao>I of the benefit of any ^teatH Uwb, or of power 
to ditpinM with the law, or lo eompound for the forfMtniv, are 
oiBtnrr to your MaJMty'a lawt ; which yoor Uiyesty'a dt«lar- 
atioa ia t/«ly oooMnant and agreeable to the ancient and 
hedauental bwa of thia your rtslm : aad wImthm your Hajraty 
WM* fbltber graeionvly pleit-ird cipncily to command, that no 
MBtor aboali) prerome to mOTO your M^jeaty for matters of ibat 

T 1 


James /■ 


native; jet iwTerthclem, npoo mininforostioiia Bud 
pretence* of public Rood, uuny such gnnti hiTe b«B a 
ofalained and nnlnwfiilly pat in «xecatMO, to tlw ^reat gtie 
Mul iiiconv«nience of yoor SUjirrtjr's subjtwt*, cootnin to ' 
laws of tliiii your rvalrn and conkmry to j-diu Majmy* 
and blcBccd intention so polilished m aforesaid : for ar 
whereof and prorrnting of tlifl liliQ in tiin« to rAtao. n^ I 
plea>« yMir moat excellent Majesty . . , thai it may b« < 
and cnactMl, imd be it declared and coactod . . - Thai all t 
Mid nil cominiwiiHiM, (ctuiiIh, Uceiic«e, diartcn ami irttnt |>)ci 
. . , t« any peraoo, liodiei politic or corporate whatjortw. i 
the Mle buyiuf,-. selling, multing, wo<rfiijig or uuofc of i 
witbin thin realm or the dominion of \V«Ip«, or of any < 
nMn«p(ilie«. or of power lo dtipenw with any otlwn, or bit 
iiccnci! or toleration to do anything against the tenoor ofl 
law or ela(ut«. or to give or make any wammt for aay I 
dispeosatioQ. lioenco or toteratioi^ ... or to agree or i 
with any otlms for any penalty or li>tfeitnc« United lir I 
atalote, or of any gruit or promiw of tlw lititeSl «f i 
forfntore, penalty or sum of money that alialt be ilat ' 
any statute, befon! judKrornt thereupon had, and all pr 
tiouH, inliihiltoni, mtratDt*, vamutta of aa^tanoc. •>' 
other tiling* whataoetvr, any way tending to tli« inBtitotio|t- 
or coantenancutg of the eame . . ■ , arc altogether ronlrarf I 
the laws of this rtvlm, and ao are and shall be atleHy roidi 
of none effect — 

IL And be it fnrther enacted. That all nuuK^nlieo lodi 
Buch comniasions, j^rants [Ac.^ and all other things 
aforesaid . . . ought to be and altall be for ever bm«fttT .~ 
tried and dotmnined aooonling to the commun laws a( tkl, 
realm, and not olberwiM. 

V. I'^vided DeTerlheless. . . . That any declantioa 
mentioned aball not extend to any letten patents and i 
privitc^ for lbs lenn of one and twenty jtan or nnder, I 
lore niida of Ih* sob wotting or making of any nssaer^ 
HMnafaeturc within this realm to lb« first and true ini 
isrentora of such manolaetures, which oUiere at tht 
making of sodi letters patents and grants did not vae. aa i 
bs not oontnij to the law, nor wiachieroos to tlw Ms 

tment of Wales. 


[ fif tbe priMs of commodities al liome or Imrt of Inile^ 

' faanOf IneoaTciiiciit, l>nt tlint the mjim bIuII bo of sucb 

at t^ were or ahould Ii« if this Act had not bevu 

TL Prvtided kbo, Kod bo it enacted, TliAt uxy declaration 

H^watkiuiii ibaU Dot extend to any IcUere patvuts and 

ti privilege for the tenn of fourteen jciin or ander, 

IwftiT to be made, of tlie •ale iroeking or making of aaj 

■otaim manubctarae wilhin this nalm. to the tnte and 

fat invator and invrnton of such maoufactoree . . . 

(X. IWridcil olio, . . . That tlii« Act . . . aliall not in nnjf 

icalznd or bv pr^ndicial nnto tbe citjr of London or to on; 

1^ bonvgh or town corporale within this rvalm. for an;r 

Wl\ fiarten or letters intrutii (o iLem . . . granted, o«- for 

reintoma naed bj or witbtn miv uf tbcm, or unto an}' cKirpor- 

■a, Mcn|aiUM or fcllowahip* of any art, trad?, occupation or 

f, or to anj companies or Bocieties of murcbautji witJiiu 

(!■ n«Im anstcd tor the maintenanoe ... of anjr trade of 

Mtfthanditf ... 

X-XIV. [Vanoui EpeciaJ eicniptiona.] 

zi A 33 Jac: L Caf. 3u 

in Jtf ^ rr/fif «f om &rannb of a ttatvU mocfc m lAs }4lh 
jWttr 0/ King Henry th* Kiyhth. 

L When*! the nlijecta of tbe country and dominion of 
Talei hftTe bcca eooctaatJjr loyal and oMicnt, . . . and whfre*a 
^ aa Act * of partiaBient made in tbe 34th year of the leipi of 
lie laic Kiii)( Utury tbe Ei^bTli, intituled [Ac], it is enucted 
- . . That the Kin^'t moat royal Majesty may . . . from time to 
tiae . . . make law* and ordinance* fer . . . his sud dominion of 
Wales, . . . and that ... all 6urb laws and ordiiMWces . . . tball 
W of »• good eBeet u if th«y bad been made by antheritT of 
psHisiBent . - ■ ; for ibe nbulitton of di«itnction betvcrn the 
of England and Walt*, his most excellenl Majesty . . . 

gAciofuly pleased that it may be eDScled, . . . and lie it 
That the Mid recited branch of the lai^t .Act of pariia- 

' H aad JS B. VUL A. S SJ. 

^78 James I. 

BCOt ... lie ultrrly repealed. . . . and that the King* V^ 
Ilia bdra or necdwon, aludl uot by virtue of ■ • . tlic ml j 
ut any Uroe ItcicAftn', a]t«r . . . uijr lav*, BMfC or CQf 
tnakc any ii«vr lawn for the nid damiuioD or iinndpaLIf < 

It & 31 Jac. L Cat. XXVUt 

An Actforcmitimtingandmifinyiifditfrt^ia¥tr»amitiif»i\ 
of divert oiAan. 

WL Be it abo ei»ct«d . . . That no ssnctuu; or pcmlcp 'i 
*iu)ctuu7 sEoU be lien«fUi- aIIowmI la any case. 

T ' /21 ft 2« J*c. I. Cat. XXXra. 

£' jln Aetfiir foymmt of thru nihtidia and tkrttJ^fimMlflit] 

I. Mm! gracioaa Sovcrngn, v» yovr Majctiy'a auai bnii^ < 

faithfol aiid loTiog subjects, . . . having entered Jnloami«iirf 

due ooDsideratinD of Uw weighty and meet imtMrtant <*anj 

wych al tliia time more tbui at any alber time berdoliK^I 

pr«aa your Majeaty to a much greater cxpensa than jxnt < 

tratnn aloue eaa at thi* preernt soppoit, aod lilwwiic •( ' 

injaiira and indigntti w wltich ban b«ui lately oilend to : 

Hajesty and yoar chi l dw , wder coloor and dvnng the tiaict 

IW tRKtM* fcr tW ivrril«« vil& ^wtt and tbe rcstitati«< 

tbe IVlMiHta, vluch la IIm iMiUaBenl ban been clorly I 

ate aa: and wiUml «b*t bmable adnc«, •ritb 

: a«d TOHt, «» ban girca onto your Utijettj to 1 

tkgae ireatMs, «lud ynv V n j &Ky batfa been gncioaaly | 

to ««r mumJIn^ jor ari 1— Ijit Iklly to yield unto 

aB Inmhkmmt mtat nadf and wilfisg in gin 

Mi«Mtv ul tfe «Wle ntU as a«|l* tcatJMMy of out di 

aCK«MM aad ■bwit iatntiaaa t« aaax yMi tbcrvin, 

im twia ri 0* tfcaK war that May WKupoa cneve, 

fa it ii a l ai b fer iW i l i tmu uf tte» yaur wal^ of 

rfy^gfUl of fahai. tlw 

ha&iiMii' Ife UaitMl Pnmaoca a4>d 
ri feHBd* »mi aSi^ Md te^ Ac Mttiog fiicth 


Grant of aid upon eondUions. 


royn] luvy, w« havo re^olvei] to ^vr for tlxi preMut the 
greatest aid which fv«r was granted in pavlianicnt It) Ijo luviiid 
in Hu ehort a tiuit?; aud lliereforo . . . Iw it dHL'lared hj the 
ttuUiority of this prMUiit iinrliaiiiMit, Tliat (lie siiid two treulits 
lire by j-our Mnjraty utterly tli8solvi'<l ; niiil ibr tW niaiiiti^uuitce 
of the war which may ensue tlieroupoii nnd for tlic muiii'S nfori'- 
§aid, be it enacted, That three whole flfU'ens and tenths »liall 
1)6 levied ... in nmiitier a(brL>tiitie used, ... to be puid unto the 
htnds of Sir Thoina* Middlcton Knight iiud Alderman of 
London [and seven others named], treasiirprn Bspccitilly uji- 
poiiited by this Act to i-ec«ive and it^eue the »aroe , , . 

IV, And furthmnore, for the great uud weighty oonaider- 
atioDs aforesaid, we the Lords spiritnnl and temporal aod the 
C'ouiiuous . . . give aud gmut to your Uighness . . , three entire 
Kub^idies . . . 

XXXVI. And t><j it further ennctcd, That all thn fuin.i of 
money by this preient Act granted to the uses aforesaid shall 
be paid by the novoral coliectora tbereuf . . . unto the sujd 
treasiirrrs . . . 

XXXVIL And to the end that all the sums of money by this 
present Act granted , . . may be truly exjwiided for the uses afurc- 
aaid uud not utherwhe, uccording to your Miyuiity's own grncioua 
dcnire; be it further enacted, That the motleys to be roooivcd 
by the said trvaourers by virtue of this Act shal] be issued . , , 
to such [fersoiiB und iu such niimrier as by the warrant of George 
Lord Curew [nud nine other.i named], which ten piTWHin his 
MajcHty hath ntnindy nominated to be of his council for the war, 
or Miy five or more of them, whereof two of them to be of his 
Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, . . . sliall be directed, 
and act otherwiae . . . 

XXXIX, And bo it further enacted. That as well tho wiid 
trenxtirrra as the said persons uppoiuttrd for llie council of war 
and all other persous who idiall bi; truoted with the receiving, 
iMKuiug, beHtowiiig and employing of tbc»i moneys . . . shnll he 
uiiwerable ... to the Commons in parliament, when they shall 
be thereunto rcijiiireil by warrant under the hand of the Speaker 
of the House of Coiuniuus . . . 

XLl. And be it fui-ther enacted, That when tlie Commonn in 
parliament have hoard . . . the dealings of any the peitons afore* 

ftSs James L [1004. 

2. Sputh of JaMe» I at Ihe opening of Parliatw*!, 
19 March, 1604. 

It did no Ewiner ploase Ood to lighten his hand, and relent 
tlie violence of his devouring an^el agaiual tlic poor people of 
this uity, but us Buon did I rcsolvd to call thin pnrliiuDetit, aiid 
that for tJiren diief atul principnl reasons. Thr Gnt whereof i* 
. . . that you . . . may with your oivn e&n hear, and that I out 
of my owu luoutL may deliver unto you, the assurance of my 
due tliiLuk fulness fur your so joyful and general npplnuiw to the 
declaring and receiving of tne in this Bont, which God, by my 
birthright and Unoal descent, had, in the f\ilnmB of time, 
provided for me , . . 

For exprpBsing of my thunhfuloese, I must resort unto the 
other two rcaciona of my convening thia parliament ... As to 
tba first, it is Ibe blessings which God hath, in my perwD, 
bestowed npon you all . . . The Brut then of these btcsningH 
wliich God hath jointly with my perxon »ent unto you, is 
uutwnrd ponce ; thnt in, p<!ace abroad with all foreign neigh- 
bours . . . But, although outward peace he a great blessing, yet 
U it as far inferior to peace wilbia, as civil wars arc more 
cruel and unnatural than war* ubnind. And therefore the 
neeond great blessing that God haih, with my pcr«un, aeiit unlo 
you, is peace within, and that ill a double form: fimt, by my 
descent lineally out of the loins of Henry Vlf is reunited and 
confirmed in me the onion of the two princely roaea of the two 
liouEes of Lancaater and York . . . 

But the union of these two princely houses is nothing com- 
parable to tlio union of two ancient and fmnoua faingdoms, 
which if the other inward peace annexed to my person ... If 
w« were to look no higher Uian to natural and physical reafon*, 
we may easily be persuaded of the great benefits tbat by that 
union do redound to the whole island ; for if twenty ihouBftod 
men be a strong army, is not the double thereof, forty thounnd, 
a double the stronger army t . . . But what should we stick 
upon any natural appciarnncc, when it is manifcul that God, by 
his Almighty IVovidence, bath pre-ordained it so to be I Math 
not Ood first united thcie Iwu lungdunu, both in language aod 
religion and similitude of mannan I Yen, batb he nut made 


in Farliament. 

■ •B in on* ulaud. oonpaaaed with ooe sea, and of itself hy 
■an* n iadiviuble, u oltnoct tbMe llint w«rt! Iwrderers UiT<m- 
•iIn« on Um late border* nnoot ili«tingu!sh nor know or 
tlM«r oirii limita I . . . What Ciod Lath oonjciiM^I th«n, 
W BiMi eeparuie. 1 am the hubbaoMl waA all lh« wliulo isle 
nj lawful wife : I am tbc bead and it is niy body : I am tlM 

sad it i» my flock . . . 
Bit ... all worldly blcBsingB ar« but like awift paanng 
fitdlng Auwen. i>r cliaff blown before the wind, if by 
prof wi OB of tmc religion and wuvki aooarding thereunto 
be Dot moved to muntain and Mtlto the Ihronrs i>f pi-ineen 
- . . At my fiivt coming, althoiif[h I found hut oitc leligion, and 
that which bj- myaolf i* profmiKd, publicly allowed and by the 
law mainloinrd, yet fbaod I another Mirt of ruligiun, IvsideA 
a private y et, Itujuu^^thin the bowels of thU nation. The 
fnt ia the true religion, which bj me is profcased and by tbo 
k« ia eaUbUahed : the second is the fiilsely called Catholics, 
hnl truly Papiata : tbe_lb>r(l, whidi t coll a sectnlher than 
a triipon. is the ^iri lana and Nowliala. who do not so far 
diler from ua in points of religion m in their confused form of 
pcEcy and parity; being ever diaoontentcd with the preaent 
(■nrnment and impnlimt to (ufEer any iiiij>criority, which 
oaketk thnr eect unable to be ULflervd iii any well -governed 
(■■UDoawialth. But aa for my course toward them, 1 remit it 
la my pmckatationa made apon that subjecL 

Aitd now, for the Papirta, I muRt put a differanee betwixt 
mine own private profeasion of mine own falration, and my 
politic goveminunt of tlie realm fur the weal and quietnees 
thereof. As for my own profcnion, you liaru me yonr head 
DOW amongst yog of the aame religion that tli« body is of . . . 
But aa I wmild be loaUier to diapeuse in the least point of mine 
own coDSciance for any worldly respect than the fooliBilteat 
fneuiaB of tliem all. so woald I tie aa aorry to »trait the 
politic f^enuueut of the bodies and mtods of all my subjects 
to my private opiiiion* : nay, my miod was ever aa free from 
ptTfccDtion or thrnlling of my tnbjecta in mnttrrx nf con- 
icieDee. as I hope that thoan of that profcmion within this 
kingdom have a proof since oiy coming, that I was so &r from 
tBcrtaaiRg tbeir bnrdeiu witli Befaoboam, as I hav^ so much as 




Jamts /. 


«ilber lime, occasiou or law eoutd pevmit, lighlcaed 
And erm now nt Uiii Ume hut* I XkkTi ouefol to mix I 
c(ini>i<Icr d««ply upnn Ui« Uv* uiitik ng«iii«t llwtii, lliat 
ov«rtare naay be proponed lo the pm^at pariiaiBeut for rW- 
ia^ tbeM luvs hy rMMn, which u Uie muI of tbe )■«, ldohj 
tbej" IiAve liocD, in titn«* put, further or ncffa 
cxtAtide^l bj JD(ig«a Uifto the meaning of tW taw vw, or i 
tend to tlie butt u weU of tlie tunocent as of ffuiU^ p tw Mfc 

And on to the pcrwMK of tny Bubjeota which are ef thtt |i» 
fewion, I miisl divide them into two ranks, eterks wl Uk 
Pot tbe part of tbe Laics, eeilaitil^F' I ^"^^^ (hoo^t thra te 
mora eicusaUe tliao the olber eorl . . . Bot for Um put if At 
c)crice, I mtu't directly my and affirm, that ai )Mf e> ^ 
mnintnin one (pedal point of tbeir doctrine and sBotiwcpMrt 
of thvic praetice, they are no way sufferable to reniain ia <lDt 
kingdom. Their puint of doctrine is that arrttsHt aikd imhcMtf 
mipremney nf tlieir bend, tbe Pope, whereby he not oolr eluM 
to be ei^rituBl head of »ll Chriitiau, bat alao ta ban la 
inipenn] civil power over all ttin^ and cnperim . . . Ik* 
other poiut which tliey obaerve in cantianal pcaetM* ii dl , 
awwinntoe and munlEni of Icings, thinking it no an bat nlW i 
• natter of ealvBtion to do all acts of rebetlion and bgatiBQ| 
against their natonl tovereign lord, if be be oom evned, I 
mthjeds diiolwged of their fidelity, and Ua kin 
a prry by that three-crowned monarch, or ntWr mr— tir, (hv 

And in thi* ]>oint I have no oecnaion to (peak rnrther ben. 
faving tJiat I ootild wisli from toy heart, that H wontd pbaet 
God to make me one of the members of sncb a general Chiiftiaa 
union lu rvligion, as laying wilfnlneaa avide on hoik baadt, «f 
might meet ia the midst, winch i« tbe centre and perfectsen ef 
all things . . . But of one thing would I liarc (be I^iptb •( 
this land to be admonbhtd, that they pKiniiiw not an XKmk 
upon my lenity (beaiuM) T wuuld be kith to he tboa^t a pcn»- 
ciilor) oa thereupon to think it lawful for tbam daily to incrana 
tbeir numlier and Miengtb in tliis Idnffdom : wlierefiy. if out in 
my timR, at lenit in the time of my postrrily. ibey might be in 
hope to erect their religioa egain. No ; let tliem awnri tbr» 
Kires that, as I am a friend tu their persona, if tbey b« 


ecclesiastical reform. 385 

■t i»l i, B> am [ ■ mwccl tcomjr aiii] do deiuianM noital war 
n« XiMf'a Vtinlg'i SpttA ... II) Jtfarf ), iSoj {Barkfr 1604) '. 

1. irtiria «^ J^oK m a eonjervia btUoun (A( (tea J7oum», 
S jVoy, 1604'. 

to TbM the arlicin only coiiMmin; (lie dnctiiu« of fftitli 

r*ad of the McnunenU, wbereoiilu the miiiisbn^ noght to 

. aApcnlN: I17 ihD statute * of Uw tlurteeoth year of tlw reign 

F<f tW Utn Qaucii Kliinbcth, may be explaioei], perfected end 

'BbUiahed by pariiameiil: and tliat no mntrary doctrine may 

\t Uimlit wUfain ibi* rr^lm ; uiid ihnt all maatera of booMhuld 

n«y hr compfUrd to sabecribe nolo t1i« uuuo artlalc*, na well m 

tbt miniatcr*. — (>} Tliat from lt«ncefort)i nono other be ad- 

■iOrd to lie iniiiiiterB of the vonl aod tacnunont. Ihau ludi 

■> aiv, at the time of Ibcir adinittaiK«, bnclielora of nrt, or 

of an higher drgreo in schools; having leatimony from tli« 

iuuvi:niity or coDeite, wliereof ho was, of htE ability to gneaob 

•od of bi« good life; or rliie Mich na are uppruvcd and nllonod 

lo be raffici<nt to preach and instract tfa« |>«oj>lo aod to be of 

focid life, by ihjiii« tcetiraotiiat of aix preochers of the county 

Then the puty dweltvtb. — (3) Thnt froiu heiiceforlh no ilia- 

pcnaatioB or toleration sliall bo alkwod to any, to huve or retain 

two or inor« heneficea with cora of (oula or to be non- 

rsiiletit ; and Ihut such as have now dooUe beooficee or be 

aoo-reaident shall give nuflicieut allowance yevly to mvntiuii 

a [iTraclier in their nliMticei and thnt, for tbia puqioae. the 

inomfaent shall be allotted to make hia reaideucy in one of hia 

pusouogea, to the iot«nt that ia the other church a eertuu 

■ad Dtmrfaat minister may be maintained and kept. — {4) Abo 

H is thoii^t nie«t, vbcio the liviag of the ticnr or curate 

if aaitr £tO by the jear, tliat, for the belter luiuteuauM of 

the near or curate (being a preaclier), there muy he lorae 

iacrcMe naxb of his living, u ahull be thooght conTenient. — 

' Prtntxl alM la Uif ITvri* i/Jitmn I (ifiiGl. Mi. 485 ff. 

■ ■ % May, 1604. Cenaia aftiols gt bead*, lix In nwnbv, iffTcoil tn by 

t OB*ml»a Ua niatifn of ntigioii, to U handiM in oo«r«n*ca with the 

, 4MnnA 'jxu, the IImb* ' (C. /. I. p. 199). 
* ijE9tI«.ii.f I. 


James I. 


{5) AUo it i> humbly ^riroH, U»t tlic lonl* wooU nm&n 
IM, iMiohii^ a pedltou to be prefermi to the King't ^Uft 
tiiat, br fain gradmis fivvour. meli order Le Ulwn. Utal 
niuustrr b* forced to tubKiibc, ntberwMe Uuui to tJw . 
coDcerniug ooly tbe doctrine of faith mnd MCramrntt, 

br the mill ilnlute lUildo iu tb« tMrtoCDth JMT of (he 

the Ut« Queen Klixalwlh ther &re sppuiut«d to 
(iS) Also to mnfcT with the lordi, that such bilhfnl nunutn] 
■H dutifully can? thcmfclves to tWr fnnction* nnd 
tcorhiuK th« people diligently, m«y not be drprivoi. 1 
tiilcncnl or impritKiaed, for not unng uf the cn»a in 1 
Ui« snrpliee, which turaeth to the panivhBMDt of the 
Touehic^ eccIesiMtical coorle, there is a bill dravn bt ih 
committcet, ready to be preferred to the HonM. 

Cammomif JomiwiU, L p- 1|| 

^ 4. ApUoff!/ oflhe Hoax 0/ Comment, 10 Junt, 1604. 

To the King's most cxoeUutt Mqts:^, tn-ia the Moom a(l 
Coramoiu UKanbled in pvIianeDt'. 
Mont graciauN Sovereign, . . . w« knoic, and with 
thnnkfntnns to God acknovrlcd^, that he bath pvta at •Vat' 
of such nnderstanding and wiadooi as b taft to find is u< 
pritJO« in tli« worlil. ITowlidl, seeing do homan witiaa, hi* 
gTMt toevvr, cnn pierce into th« pArttciiUritics of the rigbti •») 
customs of [a] people or of the tayinga and doin^ of particalir 
penons, but hy inct of cxperienoe and faithful rrport of mi 
u know them, . . . what gritrf, what ugnLih «f mind fa*th it 
been nnto ds at soma time in presence to he^r, and ao in otWr 
thing! to End and (ed by effect yoor graciooa Uajestr (to 1 
extnne prejadice uf all your snbyccts of Eagtand, and 
particvlar of Ais Houm of the Cnmrnone tbenof) ao 
wronged fay misinfonnation, as well touching the wtsto ol 
one iu tli« privilegn of Ibe ether, and tlwir Hcvenl 
dariiig this pftrliaraent . . . 

' '10 Jnne. 1604. Tlw Tern of Apdagy »md HtlMhetiea, la %• | 

jramliwl (a bti Majart;. . . . WM wv rapartnl Mtd itiittttA ift la lb It> 
UC- J, I. p. Hi). Il •iam not tf** whMbv Um jlpilap km •! 
pfWBUil |i< tin Ki^ or not. ttaW a few lina ar* ^M<d la 
JnmnaU. Thetv it a ed«7 uanmg Vu State Papcn (Daw-X J>a* L. 
Till. ;<^ . I C 

* til, TO. » I 1 

■w , 

Hut now no other belp or redress apiicaring, aud GndiiiR 
tlieae lulniiifornmtionii to liavn bci-it tlie fimt, ytui. tlie chief mid 
ulmost the soli) cnuse of nil the diAconteiitful and troubleBonie 
proccedinga so much hiamed in this parlianieiit, ... we have 
boeo cuuntriiiiied ... to breuk our nUeiiue, luid freely to dUrloGe 
Uuto >-Dur Mnjctty the truth of Pitch mutton conrcrning your 
Bubjectfl the Commong. as hilhfrto by misinformatiou hatli liecii 
suppressed or perverted. Wherein Umt we niuy more plitiiily 
proceed (which next unto trutli we nfiect in thin dixcourw), we 
shall reiiacc ihesci miHnforrostions to three principal heuds: 
first, touehint^ ihe cause of the joy ful r eceiving of your Majcrty 
into thiit your kingdom: accundly, ooncernlng tlic rights and > 
lihertiM of your subjects of England and the privileges of tlii* • 
House : thirdly, touchiuff the several actions and sjKeche* 
pnued in the House. 

. . . Now concerning the ancient right? of the subJMts of this 
realm, chiefly coosialinK in the priviletics of this bouM of 
pftrlinnent, tlie nii«information openly delivered to your Majesty 
hnth bpcn in threo things : first, that wc held not privile^s of _ 
right, but of grace only, renewed every porliamsnt by way of 
doiuiture upon potiliun, uud ho to he liinitcil. Second ty, that 
wo arc no Court of Itcoord, nor yet a court thnt can command — 
view of records ; hut that our proceedings here are only to actfi 
and meiDorialN, and that the attendance with the rrcords is 
conrtesy, twt duty. Thirdly un<i lartly, thnt the examination of 
the return of writs for knights and burgesses is without our 
compass, ftud due to the chuncei^. 

Against which ttSHertiuns, munt graciuuv Sovereittu, tending 
directly and opparrnlly to the utter overthrow of tli« rery 
fundamental privileges of our House, and therein of the rights 
and liberties of the whole Commoua of your realm of England, 
which they and their ancestora from time inimcroornble have: 
undoubtedly «iijoy«d under your Msjepty'* most noble pro- 
genitors, we (he knights, citizens and burgesiies of the House of 
Commonii mvembled to parliament and in the name of the 
whole Commons of the renlm of PIngtnn<l, with uniform content 
for ouraelves and onr portcrity, do ciprrsBly protest, as being " 
den^at<iry in the highest degree to the true dignity, Ulierty 
and ftuthority of yuur Migesty'e high court of pnrlinnient «nd 



James A 


coiuM)n''nt]5 to (be riglits of all your Majatr'i niil 
■nd th« whole hodj- of thb yam kingdom ; and dodn that I 
our fTOteatatioD may be recorded to «n poMcrity. 
contrariwiiK', with &U huml>le »nil due nspect to j«ar MajM^ | 
our >ovn«ign lord sud bead, against t]wsc nusiof onnatiaaf iiK 
nMWt truly avoiich, firet, tliat oar priTJIt gM sud lihertMl 
onr ri^it wnd due inbcritiini:);, no le» tbui oar very knd> I 
goods. SeoOiuUy, that thoy connot be wlthlield (trmt ua. teid 
or impaired, but with apparent wrong to th* whole (tit* i 
Ibo realm. Tltirdly, tliat uor muking of reqoat is ike ■»- 
ti'UMe of parliament to enjoy our privitegc ts an aft oolf i 
manners, and doth weaheti our riglil no mora than oor «nif 
to the King for our liiuda bj petition, which form^ thooiib m* 
and more decrot thun the old by pnueipt, yet tho nhjeet'i n|kl 
ia no luM now than of old. Foarthlj, we avooch aIki liial <■> 
House U a ooort of record, and u> erer eettemed. Fiftlil;,) 
then) is'^ot tfau hiftbest (tuiding ouorl in thie Und that 
to enter intw competency cither for dijjnity or anthont* "S 
tlm high court of parliMnenl, which with your Ut^ty'i nipi 
aiMeiit gives laws to other courts, but from other eoorti itjulni 
ocitlwr bwH nor ordnv. Siitbly and krtly, we a*o«dl 1K I 
tho Houwe of Comntooa !■ the eolc proper judge of retom rf i 
Bvch writs, And of the election of all fach maahtn 
unto ii> without which the freedom of election wer« not otiRJI 
aud that the chancery, thoagh a stAnding court ticder 
Mi^jeetj, be (u iieiid out thoae writ* and fv<^irr ths retnr 
to preerrve thrin, yet the ume is done only for the lu* of J 
parliament ; over whicli neither the chancery nor enj 
court ever had or ought to Itave any maiiDer olj 

From theee iniainfonDed poutiotu, moat gradona 6ot 
the greatest pert of unr tronblce, dUtrmti and jcahMm 
risen : having npparcntly foand, tint in the first pmliaiiiiMt 4 
the b»i^y reign of your Mi|iefly the privileges of our Humt^ 
and therein the libtrtiea aud sUhilitr ul tbe wbola Ui 
ha«e been more onivereally and dongeraudy inj 
erer (ai we «up|)Oee) tince the legUininga of parltanwat . .^ 

Pint, tho frredon of persons in var election batli been a 
penchexl. Svcoodly, the freedom of oor apeecU ptvjndiccd 
often reprools. Thiidly, p«rtictdar penons noted with 

■lid disgrace, wlio hnvo iipolcm their eouirienceii in ntfttUrB 
lim[iof«il to the lioiine, but with »11 duo n^poct nnd reverence 
1« your MajeBly. Whereby we have bteo iii tiic end wibjcot to 
so extreme contempt, as a ituoler dumt ho obtitiiiutt^ly witlistand 
the decrees of our Houxe ' ; hmhc of the hiffher clerRV* to vrrit« 
a bonk iigninrt lis. oven sitting the parlianicnt ; the inferior 
clergy to inveigh against us iu pulpits, yea lo publish tbeir 
proteatfttioDB, teudiug to the iuipeachiueiit of onr uioat auclent 
und uiuloubt«d ri}[Ittti in treating of niattcrt for tliti peace and 
good order of the Church. 

What cause we your poor Commous have to watch over our 
privileges;, is manifeat iu itimir to all nieti. The preroKaUfes of 
princei iDfty easily, »iid dii daily grow : the privilege of the 
subject aro for the mosl part at hq everlasting ptand. They 
may be by good providfiice and eare preserved, but being onco 
lout nri! not teeovered }mt with mueh diM|tuet. 

The rights and liberties of the Commons of England con* 
(iuteth chiefly in these three tUintpi ; first, that the aliires, citie« 
and borough* of Eiighiiid. by repreientaliou to be present, hare | 
iVco choice of soch persons as thpy shall put in trmtt to 
represent them : necoudly. that the persomi cUoaen, during the 
time of the parlinmeiil, hb also of tlieii- accent and recean, be free 
from ri-nlrnint, arrest and irapritimimeiit : thirdly, that in par- 
liament tliey may speak fr«oly tlieir consciences without check 
iiWri jW" trelment, duing the same with due reverence to the 
eourt of parliament, that i*^ to your Majciity and 

t'Uie Houses, who nil in this cam make but one politic 
body, whereof your Highness iti die head. 

Those three sfvcral brunches of tlie ancient inberilance of our 
liberty were in three mutter* enniing apparently injured : the 
freedoni of eleotion, in the case of Sir Proocia Onodwin ; tlic 
freedom of the [wraoua elected, in Sir Thomas Shirley's imprison* 
ment ; the freedom of our fpecch, as by divuni other reproofs, 
so also in some sort by tlw Bishop of Bristol'n iiiTeetive. 

Fur the matter of Sir F. Coodwin ', the knight cho«Ga for 
Buckingliamihire, we were And atiU are of a clear opinion, tbftt 
the freedom of rlcctioii tnw in that action exliumidy injured ; 

In Sir T. SMrUy's cauq. (p. i»o), 

p. 3*J- 

■ Tbe ni«hn|> of BriiluL 


James /■ 


that bjr the tame right U miffbt be at all tluM la » 
Cbaiioellor'fl power rover*"*, tlefnt, evert wiJ sabrtititte J! 1 
•lectioiiK and prxiiis e'<-cted over all the mlm. Nc 
thought wo that tbn judgpo' npiriitm, irhLcfa ytt ta diM pba ■ 
gre^l> rerereDc«. bring ilelircrcd vhnt the onomiaa laVM^I 
which exieods only to inferior and rtstiding cvnru. iMflt b| 
brin^ Kuy |>rejudi(-e to thip high court of parinaieHt ' 
power 1)eing nborr (he law ii not fouodud on the ea«niMalH;| 
bat have th«ir rights aTwl pntilt^fts pecnltar to tliefiucl«M>> 
Wbrreiu, thouxb we ra]^ioM the wrong done to be wrt I 
apparent aiid extremely prefudiml ittt tlte righu and \'S»tt» 
of thia rc*Im, ret «tich imd ao gmt waa oar wJHiapiB l» ■ 
pl«aae your Majerty as to yield to a lolddla caan« pnfani If I 
yoar Higboeto, iir^Hen-ic); ouly oar privileg«a t^ ToIutaT ' 
(wdona of tbo lawful right . . . 

In the doliTPiy of g jf T . Shiriev our pnooerdiaga were Wl 
our defence of thera ahall be biicf. We had to do with 1 1 
the Wardeo of the Fleet, ao Uilractabk andof so moMl 
olintiiiaicy. ai that nothint; wl^ could du, no. tiot your Mt^f^* I 
royal word for confirmatioD thcrrof, crnild latiafy hiB lirVil 
own tMurity. This was the caoae nf tb« leogth of tkt 
businen; our privtle:ge« u-ere u ibabeu before and » (S^j 
trefoely vilifiwl, as tliat we held It not fit, ia ao QiiKiiwWi| 
a time and ^ainot 10 mean a fiibjeet, to ai«k oar ngbl \n\ 
other cooTM of law, or by any Btmtglh than by oar tfwn. 

The Bishop of Britlol'a book waa i^jorioa* and grievon* (• 1 
beiuR written expr«asly with conlempt of the pariiatnent aad 1 
both the BouMx in tlie bigbeirt degree. . . . 'nicae wrony ws* 
to the dignity of oar Houao and pri>ilvge«. 
•^ Touching the oauses app«rtaiiuDg to State and Church, troa tt 

t ia we were long in (rratiitj: and debating ilie matter of Uaiaa 
The propanitioDe were new, the tmpurlanc« gnat, the om- 

I aaqnanoe fei^reaching and not dUeonrabla but by loi^ diqal* 
... For nutter of rcllgioti, it will appear, by exanuBaliea af 
truth and right, that your Majesty ihoald be miaiitlbctteJ, if 
any man ahouM ikllver that the kings of Englatid have aay 
abaolute power in tbemaclTM, eillirr to alter religion (whieli 
Ood defend chouM be in the power of any mortal man wbal- 
Boever) or to make any Uwa couoemiag tlie eaow, otherwue 1 


Apology of the Commons. 


as in temporal ouisrs \>y cnnsent of pnrtinnicnt. We hnre and 
aliull at all times by otii- oathei acltuuwlt<dife, that your MaJQBty is 
novereifci lord suj supremu governor Jii both. Toucbin(( onr 
own d>-Kii'fii und pnicet^dlogii tbiTeln, they huvc tiot huca a little 
mieconccivcd and loiHvportcd. Wc have not come in ony 
Poritau or Browuish spirit to intivMlace thoir parity ', or to work 
tlir xubversiou of Liie vtutv ce<!)eiiia-itii.'ul. nit now it nliuidiTdi . . . 
W« di^pntftd not of mnttcnt of fnitli n»d doctrine; our desire 
waa peace only ; and our device of unity, how thia lamentable 
aud loug-laating diasenaiun amoiiKi^t the miiiitit«ra, from which 
bolli KtheiHm, Meets aud nil ill life have recvtved »acli cncoure^ 
mcnt and wi dangcroUB itirrenne, might at length, before hi^lp 
come too iate, he extin^'uished. And for the ways of this peui.'e, 
wt" are not at all addicted to our own invcutionH. but roiidy to 
cmbmcc nuy fit way liint may bo offered ; neither desire wc no 
much that any niaii in regard of weakrCM of conMience may be 
txcmpti-U aftiT partiaineiit from obedience uiito lawn (■Bt»b- 
li»hi<d, ns thnt in thin parliament inch Inwn may be enacted, 
aa by the rc)inqai8hmeiit of fatno few r.eremonies of small 
imporlauc^i or by «ny way better, & perpetual unirormlly may 
be enjoyed mid obsvrred. Our desire hath nlao l>«en to reform 
ceitikiti sbu>«B crept into tlio i«cIciitBntical ntntc, even ax into 
the temporal : and lastly, that the land might be furnitihtd with 
a learuMl, relif^ioos, aud K^^Uy miniKtry, for the luainteuauce 
of whom we would have Krauted uu small contTihutious, if in 
these (as we trust) jiut and reli^ous desires we had found that 
correKpundcDcy from others which waa expected . . • 

Tlicre reiuulnn the matlerH of oppreanon or grievance in the 
bill of n»nrln . . . We biivi! not iii Ibii prraent pnrlinroiMit miaght 
nuyihing against them but execution of those taws whicli are 
in force alreudy. We demand but that justice which our 
princes are sworn neither to deny, delay nor »cll , , . 

We eorae lastly to the mutter of wardu nnd such other 
burdens (for so we acknowledge them) as to the tenures tit 
cajnU and knifrbt-service are incident. We cannot forget (for 
how wore it posnibte 1) how your Mnjoty, in a former most 
gracious speech in your gallery at Whitehall, advised us for 
unjust burtbeuii to proceed against them by bill: but for auch 
' 'party •(P»*fl): cp, above, p. 183, 
u 3 


James I. 


a» w(ii« juit, if we desired any ease, that we should come to 
yourself, by way of petitiwj, witli tcuilcr of iiooh touutL-iviiilablo 
compoiutioii in profit «■ fur the »iij>pi>rting pf ynur rayal («tnte 
wna roqiiisito. According unto wliicli your Majesty's moet 
fftvourabl<! grant and ditectioD, wo prepared a petiUou to your 
incut exci-IIeiit AlujtHty for Irnve to tr»t with your llighncfin 
touching a pi^rprtiial compafitioii, to bci rnim^d by yc-arly rcvcnuo 
«ut of the lauds of your mbjecte. for wardships and other 
burtbena depeadiug upon tbera or ii[imigiii({ with Ibeu. 
Wlicrcin wrc tirtt cuti>r*;d into thin dutiful coiixiilenitton, tliat 
this prerogative of the crown, which we dcsiro to compound for, 
was Eaalt«r of were profit, aud not of any honour at atl or 
princely dignity . . . Thin prerogative tbeii uppruriug to ht 
A more matter of grpot profit, we entered into a wcond degree 
of consideration, with how great grievance and damage of the 
subject, t*i the decay of many housea and disablinf; of tliem to 
Bcrte their pTiiice mid country ; wit h how gie*t mischief nUo. by 
occasion of many forced and ill-suited mairiagea ; and latitly, 
with bow great uontempt and repruuch of our nation in faroign 
countries, bow Kmall a commnlity now wai rnified to the crown 
in respect of that, which witli great love and joy and thanlfful- 
new, for the restitution of tliiti original riyht in disposing of 
our children, we would be content mid glnd to nuure unto your 
Msjerty. We fell also from hence into a third degree of con- 
aiderntiou, ibat it might be that, in regard that the original of 
the*o wardidiips was serving of the king in las wars ofiuiutt 
Scotland, (which muse we hope now to be at on evcrla>ling 
end), . . . your Majesty, out of your most noble and gracious 
di>iKwil.ion and desire to overcome our expectation wiili your 
goodness, may be pleased to Bcei-jit the iifTer of a prrpetuni und 
certain revenue, not only proporli'iiiuble to the uttermost benefit 
that any of your progenitors eier reaped thereby, but also witli 
feuch ftii overplus and large ndditiou, us in great part to supply 
your Majesty's other occa*ionii . . . 

There renioiuetb, dread Sovereign, yet one pail of onr duty 
at tbi* prciient, wliicb faltlifulness of heart, nut ]>resumption, 
dotb pr«es : we »tAiid not in place to spcnk or do tbtugs 
pleasing. Our care is, and must bo, to ccnlirtn the low and 
tie the beKrte of your suhjects, the commoua, moet firmly to 

h\ JCing's spftfh on Ihc nature of Monarchy. 393 

'ICafedjr. Benin lidh the niMiiig oronr wHI dcMrrinK of 

Uim was never priiicv entered witb (greater lnvi.>, witli 

r )of ajtd ApplauK of all but pmpln. Thi* lore, tliia joy, 

. flnomli in their beurta for ot«r. ^'tirt no euepicioD have 

' lu thdr Eeaiful tlioughts, that their privileKHN, which they 

by ymr Mi^^^y sImiU he prciti.-ctcd, shmild now by 

' iafonanliofiB ar cixiimpI Iw TMiluIrd or impnirrd ; or that 

', which with dutifa) mpKcts to yoar Majftty, *\itek (ie«ly 

right and good of their cvautry, thall bo opprcMed or 

Let your MnJMty Im plcnwd to riveive public 

Dttoo from your ComnioM in parliameDt as to Ibo civil 

■nd gar«nini«tit ; tot private informatious pass often by 

ioe: the voice of th« people, in the Ihiofp of their kaavt- 

t, i* wd to he as the ruioe of God. And if ynor Ifajeity 

I roachioTe, at your Imt picaaore nod teimrr, to entrr into 

'gndoai concidriHtion of <<ur )<etitiou for the ease of theie 

nuder which yuur whole propU- have of long time 

i. hoping for reJinf by yoor Mnjcty ; then mny yon he 

to be pcnciiMd of their hearts, and, if of tlidr hearts, 

(hey c«D do or hare. And bo w«. your MniMt/a 

kunUe and k)yal suhjeeta, whose ancnitun have with 

kyalty, retuliiu-j^ and joyfulneM ocrvcd your Isntona 

on, kings aud ()uccnii of thU nuilm, sliall with like 

Jly and joy, both we and oor posterity, serve your Kl^jetly 

yoor aodt royal iasue for erer, with our lives, landii luid 

, anil all other oar abilities : and by all nxanii ciideavonr 

arv your !kUjc«ty'> bonour, with all plenty, tranquillity. 

, joy and felicity. 

F<lfi, Jitr /^>rIu iMiitaritioi, ed. 1739, pf. ^tj-^n. 

Spteth ^ JamtM t hefoTt Pariittment, 11 Mardt, 1610. 

. . TIm state of mouarvhy is the supremest thing upon 
for kings are nut only Ood'ii UeuteDuiitH upon i-artb 
npoa God's tbrutie, but even by God himiwlf they are 
god^ Tbcr* be three principal similiradea that illn«tmt« 
c nf isanarchy ; one (Jsken oat of tite word of God, and 
I otbcr out of tbe grpuud* of jioliey and pliiloiopby. In 
kings axK called gods, and so tbetr power after 


James I. 


n o^rtoin relation mmpftrml to the Dirine \tawtt. Kinfii 
also cmniinred to fttthefB of families : for « kitig b tratfj 
patriae, tho politic fvtlicr of kii i>cople. And UaXj. fciip i 
oompuvd to tlie head of tlii* mtcrocoinn of the body of i 

I eoodnds tlWD (his point tonctiiog t)i« power of tiagt i 
thin iixioiti of divinily. That sa to dispute what Ooil h^' 

blupbptny, m is it KcditJOD lu aulijecta la di^ntc 

a fcinj! nuy do id the height of hii power. But ja*t kbsi «^ 
erer be willing to declnm whnt thrjr will do, if they will o* 
iDODr the cun« of God. I will not be coDiont that in; pwif 
btt diRpoted uixni ; bat I idutU erer be williDg tu Bslw tt> { 
nsEon apptuir of idl my doiugv, and nile tn; eetJODi Kdodiv 
to my Uws . . . 

Now the second general grovnd vhcn^of I am tu t[>*k 
epDcerns tlie matter of grievwiMee. . . . Fimt thro. I un lulM 
fiud fault tbut ywx iDfunn roorKlrc* u( Uie pailinbt 'f^ 
{[rievancas of the ptxiple ; ns; I miut tell you, ye can tdbf i 
be jukt nor faithful to me or to yonr countrirs that trul udj 
rmpW you, if jou do it uot . . . But i would wish yn to l«| 
carrful to avoid three thtiigx in the tnatlrr of grieiraaoa. 

Firxt, tliat yon do cot meddle with the miiin poinU 
government: that i< ray craft: tTaeutUfabriliafaiiri; toadii 
with that, were to teoon me. I am now an old Idag . . 
therefore there should not bo t«a many Phonnioa ta UtA' 
llannilNil : I mart not belanglit my office. 

Secondly, I would not have yoo meddle with saeb aaotal 
right* of mine as I have rMvired from my predeceason. p» 
aening tliein tntrr* majomn: nich thtrtgi I woulil be «^ 
aboald be accoantcd for grietmocee. All ooveHirs are dasgnvU 
as well in a politic aa in a natural body : and thurcfgre I wmU 
be loath la he quarrelled in my ancieut rights at»d fiwitMiiMi: 
for that were to judge mo unworthy of that which ny pt«- 
deceesors bad and left. me. 

Aud lastly I pray you, beware to exhibit for 
anything that is catahliahed by a writled law, and < 
(n« yon have already had a jiroof) you know I will Bc*«r i 
a plausible answer : for it ia an utiduliful part in aul^fartj M 
presa lh«ir liini;. wlieretn they know beforehand be will rcfnw 
Now, if any law or tUtnto be uot contcnicnt, let. 

irmt Contract. 


by Parliantpat, but in tlw imuintiniff t«rni it not 
' ; l<n' to L« grieved with lie !»"■ i» to be Krieved 
itbc kuig, who in »woni to be tli« palroo ani nwiuUiuer 
Bat BX all mirn uv flob «di1 ran; vrr in tbc cxwutitia 
(dim, m maT yr jnsttj- in«k« a gricvnocii «f aiij' nlituw of tbe 
Ibv, dittinguiabit^ wisely betwe«u tbc faults of tbe peraun and 
Itti UiiDg iUeU. Aa for example, ct>iu(iUiut« may be made 
pnu ytia of tbr Higb Coairatuioneni : if w bo, try Ifae aboM 
I^H* not to complain opoii it, but my nut tbcir nhall be 
I OtanarisMOD, for that wure to abridge tbc power Ibut i« 
I n me . . . Wotln of Jame* I, ad- 1616, p(>. 5i9-^7> 

(L Menuml conc«n)iiig tbe Great Contract witb bi« Klajectj 
tcuotea, with the dopendante, puirefuDce, Ac. de- 
'luttcd br tbe Conimitlvcs of Ibe ComrooDB Houm unto tlw 
Wb [26 Marcb, 1610']. 
I>muida in matten of teAures, Ac— Tlw drsiro, in gsnera], 
^il lo baTC all Knigbt-aervice tuni«d into free and coiuiuoa 

la partioalu- «im« tenures niorc projicrly oonceni ttie pc»oo, 
'tbe ponaarica. 

Cnod Serjeeiity : urUereia tbouKb tbe tenure be takeu avray, 
jd tbe aerricc of lionuiu- to 1m: «aved, und tlie tenure jitr 
lorMttiiJii, as it may coiKwm bishopt or bnrom or men in 
Partiament la bo considered. I'etty Serjeanty, eKuage certain 
and DDCcrtjua, to be tnhan away. Cattle Uuard : ibat Caitle 
(}i)snl whicb rata in rent to be ntcd. All Kiiiglit- Services 
(feOersUy botb of king and commoo perton, to be taken avKv : 
tbe renta and annual serrioM to be iaved. Homage aDcestral 
aad ordinary, witli Ibe respite of them : both tbeM to be takeu 
vm%j \ oaly llie cDniiuktion-bomagc to bo vred, nut iu respect 
«( tEOore but of boixmr. Kealiy : tbe farm of doing fealty not 
]r«t raolved ot Wardibip of iKxly, miirtiage of ttie beir, of 
tbe widow : ibeac In bo taken away. Ite»|iita of Kulty to b« 
talna vmvf, 

' n* ItniJ Jawitait (II. p $-3) w ibat, lac IW r*fnna> prepMiJ h 
diH BtBKitial, ' tlwy (tbc (;<'iiiBian<] eder lo lb* King £100,000 yavW.' 
TW neoniiMMtwa «u kflunrwila niMi) : ep- C«rdiDer, Bii|[L Uitt. il. ej. 


James t. 


Wanlsliip smA ounlodj of lunlt likewiM to be tskcn saq. 
Prrmier Seitin to ««ec. IJvery, trntirt U cmm, to be 
awny, ito fur as they wncem tenure* or Mirur« Ijt 
teDorep, other than Cur «scliv&te. licnKo of ■liraalioa 
fines, feoffments, IeaK« for life. iumI otlier coarej^uicM: [w4« 
of Blieoation, plcadiD)! dimn datutit rxtrmum. maniamiu, fMi 
jWwni <l«vmervnt, offioes j»* twrttm, iiMiuuitum* « ^a^ 
CBOept for nclitats : nt»o all coomaM mrde 4« JUm. A 
iDtnisions, all alicnationt put, all booda aod eoroanu W 
perfortruuice of what tenils to Kni9bL<SerTiM — all tkneti k 
dctcmuDed. All wards now in "bnag, or fooai) I7 iiA«c « 
which shall be fooind bj- office before the eondiMion of <ia% 
coiktrad, and wfaow anewton died within Uuee yean 
tItoM to be MTed. Relief u|Km Kaighl-ServiM to 
PatcntcM tliat {m; ■ mim in gron or paf t^Dthi; W f<«-luHR: 
thcM Doi lodovblv tlirir rait upon ■ relief to be pud. V\\\ %«h 
beriots, suit of court, i-eDl», workdajra uud nock Mrriccf : Am 
all to reniaiu. Aid lo the king to remain, bat liuitd 11 
ccrtaiu to ^£13,000, cum aoeidtrii. Aids to eomnoii paSMMta 
ceaae. Varit' jatmnU, O. f. fia 

7. Pttition ofOu llottt ofConmont, 13 May. 1610*. 
Te tlie Kiag'a mott eiccelleDt Mijeitj. 

Uo«t ffraciuua Sovemgn, vhereu yoor Majottj^s moat liiialli 
Bub}ectii, the Commong lutwmblcd in ParHamenl, hsn naatA 
flrtt hy memage and since b>- speech ', from joor Mmjietj 
a comroaDdtuent of reotraiut from di^balinR in ParltameBt vnt 
Majesty's right of imjioeing upon your vubjecta gihMl* •xportai 
or imported out of or into this renlm, y«t albxriug 
examine the grievance of those impositions in regard of 
tity, time and uther ciroiunstanoea of di«|)roportioD thnvt 
cident; we yrnir said htitnhlr mhjccts. nothing doubting bat 
that your itUjesty bsd no intent by tlint oommaiMliiMiit I* 

FVfmnUd l« tbc King <>■ Hay 15 (C. J. I. sl 43>}' 
wnM to cDBnand Ike Row* ast 
tin In isifxMiOK vpoa Modundhai iif wfj 



KlaC^a nawat aftd ptsrantin In isifxMiOK vpoa Md 
iaif>ortcd,'irMdBl!TsMf liy (haSpaakeroD >lsr II. TTii jj 1 1 \k' 
' fanllM prakiliilJaii, «m - ' - "- - -^ ■' 

to ui^ 

g bnt" 

laiit 1^1 

Insa rindUr prakiliiiJaii, «m mad* at ntuMhaU oa Ibgr u (^vL 


leio.] Freedom of Speech, and Impositions. vfl 

infntif][e tlie aiiciuDt ainJ fundami'iilal ri^ht of the lih-rty of ihe 
Pnrliuinciit, in point of vxnct diKcuiming i>f nil niAtUrii concnrn- 
ing thpm nnd their po»er«Rions, goods and riglits whatsoever 
(which yut wo cnuoot but coDoeive to be done in «fTi.>ct by this 
coiiiiuuudmi.'nt), duwitb ali bumble dulytuake tbiii ruuiotiatriviKie 
to your Mnjcrty. 

b'intl, w« hold it md aucient, general and undoubted right of 
Parlianieut to debute freely all matlcrs which do jiroperly 
concorti tti« niibjrct luid his right or ntalrj which freedom of 
debate being onee foreelo§ed, the essence of the liberty of 
Purliameiit is witlial dii)«L>lvi>d. 

And whcreua, ia this ease, the cnhjirnt's right on tlic one aide 
and your Majcrty's prerogative on tlie other cannot possibly be 
ievrrod in debnte of either, we allef^ ihul your ^a,ieMy's pre- 
rogatives of that kind, coiicemijig dirr.rtly the sulijcct's right 
and intrrci't, arc daily bandied and discussed in all courts at 
Westiiiiiister, and have bcfii ever fnxdy debated, npori all fit 
oooaxionii, both in this nod all fbrinor Parlinmonts, without 
re^traiul ; which being forbidden, it is tm|KisBible for the 
subject either to know or to inatntaia liin right and propriety 
to his own Itiiidii uud goods, though never no jiiKt and aiuuifoHt~ 

It may further please your most excollent Majesty to under- 
stand that we have no mind to impugn, but a desire to inform 
ourselves of your Highness' prerogutive ju that jioiut, which, if 
ever, ia now uioxt necessary to be known ; and thoogli it were 
to DO other puq)08e, yet to satisfy the generality of your 
Majesty's subjects, who, finding theiunelveii much grieved by 
theM new bupoMtions, do langnifb in much aorrow aud dis- 

ThcMc reasons, dread Sovereign, being the proper reasotia of 
Parliament, do plead for the upholding of tbia our ancient right 
and liberty. Howbcit, MKiing it hath pleitMd your Mnjenty to 
infliat upon tlmt judgment in the Kxehequer ', as being direction 
■uflicient for vn without further examiuution, upon great desire 
of leaving your UajcKly uniiati»fi<'d In im one point of our 
iutentu and proceed ingi:, we profess, touching that jud^'ment, 
tbat we neither do nor will take upon us to revei'sc it ; but oar 
deiire ia to know tiie reasons whereupon the «anie was grounded 
' In IUmh' om* : •«« below, p. 340. 


James I. 


■nd Ibe rother, for thot « gvn«ml cniKvit U bad Umt tibe 1 
of Uiut jiii9{;iuvul m&y b« exteudtd luucb f&rtiier, eT«o la tk 
ult«r rain of tlw aneient liliert; of tliia kingdooi, unl af fw 
Bu1iji>ctfi' right of prcipri«ly of tli«ir Uii«U nnil goodn 

Tlieu fur (he judgmtot itself, betog the fint and U>t iM 
WAS untr Rivi-ii in Uint kind, for ought *]>peiir)n}: uuto ui 
Iwiug mily ill one cue guid ag*iti«t one nun, it can ixiid ail 
IM othfT but that {icnon, and ia alio revrnible bj vrit of *tnr. 
granted hvrelufore by Act of Parliament, and neit^ b* nir 
any nthjcct in dcbam-d by il from trjiug hla riglit, u Urn mw 
or like ciuo, in »ny of your Majcity's Coorta of Bcaii| 
WMlminsler . . . 

We therefurc, your Higlineaa* loyal and dutiful Co 
■Mt Bwervinj; froiu tUv ujipruved steps uf our ancevlun. 1 
hninbly and instaiilly b«feocfa yaor gracicnu Majcdy iM 
without uflt-Dce l<> the saaie we may, according to the amffny-^ 
right oiul libnrly uf Parliament, proceed in our intenJcd com 
ofa full cxomination of thcKT new imposition* ; tbatMwcMT 
ebeerfulty poM on to your Mi^esty'* businBM, ftnm wUck di 
(top bath by <UT«nn<Mi m long witlibeld as. . . . 

Cummitm Awaol^ L |L|ir- 

8. Prof^tiou* loiu^fting Purvryanet*. 

Sio Ihrtia 36 Junii, i6id. . . . 

TI. AU purreyBDce and taldDgB for liis M^)e«fy. Uie • 
tb« Prince, and nil other the king'* cluldrm, aod for bB 1 
oflLoers, c«urta, counciU and •octctim wliutMeTer, to be attvlf 
taken away, aa well purveyascc and laltingB for houwbiU, 
ctaUe, nary. aerraDta, labourera, aitd all othvr iirnniiiiiM. M 
«1m fgr carts, honea aod carnage*, botli by land act) mhrr; 
aod geuerally all parvejaDCM and tatiinga, for wbomscMtw « 
wbatBuerer, of vrliat naine or nature aoever, lu hr for ertr 
cKliuguixbnd. The compoutiun for the wiae lo he all diaaotrid 
and i«tl(**ed. The eWk of tJia market and all other to be 
dimblfd for MtltDg any prices. The powvr and prarofaliT* tS 

■ 'Srrea 
conMolaD *i 
ud pfcMMed la the K>i« db Jbu j; ,C. J. L fp. 44/-H44). 

mrMitloaa oT mm.' of wbidi llik b No. <. M«« iHa !>■■ 1 lo 
\iL lh> Gnu! t'lMlfaet on .1 uii« 1 1 u»l sy, pMin I na Jao» ib. 


Purvryance: ifu Great Contract. 


{irv^mption to b» itotennined, not hiteiMling hercliy tlic pre- 

(<B|iti«D of tin. What regvd eball b« had of tb« merchaDt> 
■buf^r tu l!iu puuit, U) be left to furllior conuilerntion. 
£i«nl/ Jenmali, II. p. 660. 
9. Meoural oocceTTuiig tlie Gmt Conlrftct with tiiH Miyetity 
tVcUag tcnnrrf, with th« (l4>pc^(l«llL^, piirvejanoc, Ac. oon- 
■ind bj direcUoD of the Lionb of the Uigfaer liouw of 
^^rtiuueDt, [ai Julf, 1610.] 
WlicRMt Ibe knigtitB, citbwiiN iuhI burgGMt* of tbu Lower 
HiiiiM of I*«rlianwtit luvc tliis day, by thvir commiltcea. 
I Qriivend onto ihe L«i-ds ConimilteM of Ihia Uoase n Bfcmorial 
vy them ooooeived Kud put m wiilfu^, rontniniiig certain 
■niclea ooncomiiig tlic OrMt Contmct with his Majrsty, wliicli 
flnriiig this bemioi) hath long aod often been lu apeecfa ftnd 
debate lietweeu ihttr lurdsbi)))! *Dii Uiein, a* wi-U ou bia 
MaTevtv'N Udialf Ml fur ibi- interest of th<rir loiiUhipa nod of 
ibe («id knights, ciiImm kdA bur^Mses; by wbleb Conimct 
rhrj- are tied to assure uuio \\\a M^eety, bis hein and auc- 

»enwir>, the sum of Xzoo,ooo tXi-xVui^ in vtinrly niTt^tmc. in 
MtisfiMitixiu of tlm grcnl yearly profits which hi* Unjnty bntk 
or OMj mako, a* iroll in respect of the wani^ps of tlic bodies 
Kbd lands of his sobjcrts uird all other iiKMlt-utH to tenures, as 
«f the bentrGta ariuuR by iMnt-fuH;*, ilefi:ctiv« titles, nwiuis and 
■oanr otltur immunilics and pnvil«ges, toother with tbo eJitin- 
gniabing of piiiTeyanutf, (aU itrudinK to the j>rofit and easi? of 
kis Hajestv's subjecti) ; . . . and fwm»niQch iw the kiuKlits aud 
bui y s es of Ihe Lower Bouse have sUo ackuowltal^l (nnd 
tkat most tnily) that they did aluays anderataud themsrlTes 
bwDd to limit thenuelvcs so careruUy in all things winch tliey 
hiiTB toaiiifat for or fliall do, ntit liriiig']ini1iculafly cxprerscd at 
the time tbst thu^ did accept of the price, as not to demand or 
etpect any coAditiou wliei«by his Majesty sbould lose cither 
koiioar or profit as aftiremid : the I^rds also, who are likewiw 
m their own pattieolar eetatee and possesuuut (beside ifae oue 
of the [lublic ijaod) no leas iuteru^t«I in Dm luid firmt Contract 
tluui they, and by tbcir eminent places and degrees arc moiv 
^M^Jy boond to take care of thove things which do pttticslariy 


Jantes I. 


concern the koiionr wmI rcv«otie of ibe Crown Itian otkcnttr. 
tuve now, apon good •dvic« lutil deJibrtsdoa, ibuaghl h fe j 
luid neccMUf not only to acknowUdi^ iheir penonal 
tn Uie feubrtsiiLiAl porU of tbia Coutnct, but (widi tbc piiiti I 
nf hi* Majesty ■* on arguinent uf liU cnnsMit) ghni MJj^ 
likpwim for an entry to be taade of iHo naw Ui 
waoDer »8 is aforeaaid . . . J^nb* /ovraab. n. pi 

10- Prtition of the Haute of Commaiu, Jmi), i6to'. 

Moet f^racioufl and dr«ad Soreivign . . . We da ■ iS 
liunttit/ present at tbe fe«t of your exeellmt Majtitt m 
aolvpa and oar dcmra, ftiU of oonfideDce in tbe •amnuM ^ 
yoor religHHia mind and princely diifMntion, tlisi yua «ill U 
grsciiMuly [ileased to give life and efieet to tbcweDiir petltiic*- 

[. WhcTca* guod and iwofident laws hnra bean audetel^ 
maintenance: of Uod'a tnu religion and safety of rovt M*jntji 
royal penon, iesue and estate, against Jesuits. Seratoarj rnM 
and Popich recuMats; . . . ret for that tba law> art ■! 
neciitcd ngniiut the priests, who ate tbe eomipten of ik 
people in religion and lojalty, attd tnany rtmsanu hsTe almdi 
compounded, . . . Your M^vsty ibereliire WDdd be pleual. tl 
tlic Immbl« suit of your Coiamooa to tliis prvsent IVrlisnmt 
aisTniblml, ... to lay your royal cucniBand upon all ]f«v 
niiDi«t(Tfl of jurtice, both ecclcsiaMicnl and ciriL. to we da 
luwK mtule ujfainst Jp^uits. Srroianiy I'riMts ami recusants 
to bo iIuIt aod exnrtly cxccnied wtlbont dread or delay; 
tbat yoor Majesty wonld bo pleased likewise to uke iota jnnr 
owu bauds tbe penaltiea doe for recnsamcy, and thai tbe otcat 
be uct converted to tbe printe ksju of sonM, ta your infiattc 
loM. the rmlMldening of the Papini*, and decay of tn* ntigia 

IL Whems abo ditera painful and learned paator^ ttat 
liare long Irarelled iu the work of tbe miulKiy wttb ^aai 
fmit and bksHDg of tbeir labours, wbn were vter mdf *" 
perform ibe leftal subccriptloo appointed by tb« t)tatot« of tkr 
I jtb of Elisabetb, wkitli only mm-mictb ibe e«al(Hioci <d tbe 

* It sfman iiiimliis wkra tbii utilud ■■• [« f tai . Il 
•Bswv«d ^ tbe KiKsknfvidi tb*lbUeain(gnrTuiaai H*p.*oi; 
>5<taly. i6io(JL/«^: P^rt, Dt^atm, Camd^Bt. f^ tijj. 


leio.] Petition for cccUsiastical reform. 301 

troe Cfaristiao &itlt uid dudrinc of the 8«cnuuent(', y»t, fur 
uvt cunfbrmiiiii in puiiit* of eeremonica nn<I n-fuiiiug tlio xub- 
Mriptiou ilirrctcd by ttin Utc Ciuions, Itavc been removed froai 
tWr ecdeaiAstical livings, bein;; thi^ir freeliold. uiid d«faarred 
from a]) menus uf uiuiiituunuae ; . . . wc tben-t'orc nicwt huuibly 
ItDBtvcb yitur Unjunty would l>c gr»cioii>ty plcancd, tbnt nucb 
deprived and silencnl muiiftors may, by licence or permission 
of the reTereud fathers, in tbvir several diocesea instruct And 
preach uiilo their pco]>te, in Midi pkriiihet uid plMsc* whcrn 
ihcy uiay \yt crnploycd ; wo ti» tbey npply thMntelvea in their 
ministry to wholcMme doctrine and exhortiktiou aud Uve 
quirlly and peaceably iu their callingB, and tJiall tiut by 
writiiig or [ireucliiag impugn tbingH cstahlinhcd by public 

III. Wbcrcas likewiM through plurality of benvfioes and 
toleration of tiun-nnideiicy in tiiatiy who poaiMes not the mviiniHt 
of livings, with euro of Kouiii. the people in divmi i>lacM want 
iuntruction ; . . . and wh«rc plnmlintn, hcnpin^ np many livingK 
into one hand, do by tliat means keep diverx learucd men froni 
maiutcoHiiice, (u tbc ilixi'ouru|{etueiit uf ttud^ntn aud tli« bind- 
mnoe of lenrning, and the non-renidcnbi ... do tmve Uie p<<a|>le 
ac a ]>i«y to the popish seduccrv : it might tlivrefore please 
your moat excellent Majesity, for remedy of those evils in the 
Oiurcb, to provide tluit diipcuialioua fur plurulity uf lieneficea 
with cure of mills n)ay he pn>hibit«d, and thnt tbc toleration of 
non-reeideDcy may be reatrained . . . 

IV. Aiid foraoBUch aa excommunication li the heuvitst 
oCDture for tli« mott griorouM ofiloncev wliicli tli« C'burch ilof b 
retain, y«t [ia] exercUed and indicted npon an incrodible 
number of the oommou people by the subordinate officers of tbe 
juriadictiun cccloiiaiiticnl, most contmouly for very autall causes, 
groundi-d upon tbc sole infonnatioin of a hue appantor . . . 

Wherefore yonr Majesty'* most datifnl Commons moit humbly 
beseech your Uighnesa that some due and Ql reformation nay 
be hud iu tbe premi»ex 

Priyt, Jita P^tlianmitativM, pp, 3i6'3l8. 

■ 13 EUi. 11, f 1. 


James /. 


11. PaitionoflieIloaMO/Comt>wiU,TJtil]f.tft^ 

To the King** ntoai ncallnit U*JMtT. 

Ho«t (traciout Sovereiaro. foar M^esty't nnt 
Cowmanii ■Mem1>]ud in Paiiiamrat, beiu^ nov^ u *•! <mC| 
Iteir duty and m»l to your Miij«»ty, w oot of th» »aii*of J^ 
grivt wlwrewith yoor loring Hol^ecia an gmennj 
tbn vhol« rvuliu ut Uuh tine poiseMed. hMsiiM tber («n(hi 
thrir comiDnn luid luieirnt ri^ht sni) lilmlj tu be madi dfdJMl 
aod infi-ingcd in ibcw late jf*r», do vrith all dutyand hnd% 
preMnt these our jiut coinplftints thereof to your gndonriv 
nii>»t iimtuitly cnvine juilii-e tlierein aiitl dne redrw* . . . 

[1.] The policy nnd MinotitiitiiHi (if Uiia yoar kingdam tlf^ 
priates unto the kii>in of ihi* rmlm, with tbs wvcnt ti it* 
n^liUMnl. aa well tlw sovereign power of Ottltiiig Un « i 
tlint of tnxtitK or imimnng upon tlie aulijectt' ({oodt or neivb*- j 
diMH, wlivrriii tboy liiivi: ju>tly cucfa a pruprirty a* mar ml 
vilfaout tlieir conomt be siterrd or changed . . . 

Wv tlierefaro, your Mi^esty'a mo«t hiimhle CaMMBvaf 
mublcd iu rorltnmonL. foUuwiuif ibe example of tlu* viwlli; 4 
of our aiicmtors and nut of a duty to tlicae fnr whom w* 
finding that your MnjcErty, wilbout ^dvice or consrnL of hi^" 
meol, katli lutely iu tiiM of p«nee set both grcAUr hnpontM* 
and far wort! in num)>rr than any your nohls aae(«lan tt 
ever in time of wnr, havo with all batnility prpsamnl tn proMt 
tliis most jiut and neeearary petition onto your Majeaty. "nKtaU 
im[KMiuojta Kt witlioat the aismt of Parliamenl mar b« ipa^ 
abolixbod and taken away; and that your Uajcxty. in hnilatiM) 
Kkewbe of your noble progenitora, will be plfMed. That a Uw 
may be made dnrifif; thia Sesrion of Fartiammt, l» d«cl«r. 
that all impoMtioot m4 M- to be vet npun yoar people, thnr 
goods or mrrchandiaea, iktc only by common MMnt in 
ment. are and ahall Iw void . . . 
a [II.] Whereas by the Statute i Kliz. np, t, intitoM, ta« 

{ * rvMoring to the Crown the ancient jur'sditUoo orer the i 
^'tocteaiiurttcnl, Ac, power vrs* given In tiic Qa«rn »ai btf 

} watttfton to conalitute and tnoko a cotBBUMioD in 
> ^ coctodaatica] ; the said Act is found tu be inooorcDteftt ami af 
dangerooB extent in diven napccta. 


] ImposHionsT High Connnission, &e. 


'nnt, for tlmt it eDsblelli the making of mch a commisdom 
I v^ la *nr uin« vulijtct liorn lu to tuore. 
i^'Bicaodly. for thnt, Kbrrras liy the tnlenlion uiil wank of 
iSbtute ecckfissticsl juriwiiction i* mdnrttl to th« Crown, 
i 5Mr Hi;;luim bjr tlut statute cnahlcil to give only mdi 
t«cl«siatitiral to the Mid MnumiMionera, yet under 
iimror pimi; wiird* in that *t*tute, whrre the commiMiuDen 
n miheriaeA tcTexecute their romisiaMon according to tlw 
|ha««r auil efftct uf jvur Hi){fanes8' lettet^ pateols aod bjr 
IbUn p«(«al> grouadinl llier<!U[>ou, tlie Mtd coiuiuiesioDen do 
b* and iiDpruan and cxcrcim otbcr uuthnrit}- not Itclongin^ 
.totbe eccle^aatical jurisdiclioa restored bjr thnl Mstute: which 
|*t cnamve to b« a xreat wronf; to tlie nibject . . . 

"niirdly, for hx tlw stntnte tiM! ktuR and biti ancceaaon 

■ever Toar Majrsty liath l>eeti plcnard out of yoar gractonn 

aition ot)iifrwiM to order) may make and direct ftteh com- 

into all tbe counlieR and diocetiea, yea, into every pamk 

' EngUnd; and therein all canae* may be token froio jurta- 

o( bishop*. channfUors and orchdcaouus, and laymen 

Jyaoabted to excommuiiicate and exerciac all other cenaarea 

Fa«ftUy, that every P^y offence pertaining to spiritnal 
jnudictioa is, by cokwr of the sHid mtrds and letlors patents 
pooaikd tlierenpoit, made subject to excommunicHtion and 
pantdbinent by that strange and exorbitant power and com- 
MBoaa, wharaby tbs leaat oAcodera, not eommiltiftfc oiiythin^r 
at any enomoiu or hisfa nntan:, may bo drawn from the mont 
n^nlc places of tbe kinf^dom to London or York ; which is 

' gricmiu and inoMiveuient. ^■A' 

FHtbly, for that limit loucbing cnutea lubject to thi* com- ^ 
being only willi these words, vii. ' such as pertain to 

ri^al or eedeuaitical jurisdiction.' it is very hard to kiiow 
what nattcni or uttniMd are inctoded in that number . . . 

And wbrrras upon the same slatnte a eommiaiiouccGleaiaatical ^ 1/ ^^ 
K maiie. iberein is gri«t»ncc a{iprcbeudcd thus : ^^'*\,,Jr 

(1) For that (hereby the fame men have both spiritnal 'od/t^ 
tHBporal jnriadiclioa. and may both force the party by oatb to 
aictuM bimicLT of any offence and aUo enquire thereof bj' 
■ j^^i **'^ tatlly may iuAivt for tbe sunw offence at the same 


James 1. 

tending to alUr some points of lfa« bv sni) nmira tl 
utker »oin« made nburlly aSus % wnmtn of ]wrifa 
UMttcr directly Kjc«lcd m tile MOie wwioa : alhrn i 
panitlimcnte to he iiifliclcd bribra bwfa) IraJ and 
eoiae contuioing ptuallka iu form of penal itatntn: 
tcfeniu^ t)ic puiiLsUitimt of nSeiiilen to the aatit at i 
diMTction, which have laid Iicmtt aod gnvratw 
the ddinqnvnts : whim, as Ui« pfueUmatioB Tor ttarck. i 
p«ni«d with Iett«re cooimaudiog enquiry to fie RMde i 
irmtifigretfon st tlic i|UBrt«r mmkwui : , . . km! MMm 
fbmer proclatBntioDS, to coitntciwnM and wamut th* laltir^| 
By Koaon wWi-tsif there is a general f(«r couoeind »%ii i 
amonftst yoar Mige«ty'» ptiopJe, that proclniuatitiiM will 1^' 
gnt» grow op and increat* to the etrengtli and nalwe eti 
whenbr not only that ancient biip|iiu<Mc rrecdaM, 
much blftniishcd if not ([iiite taken away, which ihfir i 
have so long eiyoyvd. but the ame maiy aI^m in procen dl 
briog a new- form of arkilrar}- pioiremiBeut npoa the nala . . - 

Wr tlirrcf<>rp, your Mtijprtr's fanmlile Milfiect*, tba < 
ID thia ("nrliftoicrnt aivrmhled. takin|> th«M nmtten tnio 
consideration and weighing Iww mneli it doth oinceni 
Majesty, both in iMnour and safely, that such imi 
sliaald not he mfurcrd to wattle tn your sntiiecls' miad*, hm 
thoujthl it to appertain to onr dutirs. u wvll lawwil not 
Majrsty ss to thote that have trastcd and sent u to ika 
service, to prtaeat aiilo your Majesty's nrw these faaes lal 
in^efe of yoar pcuple, nnd lo bei-ome humble Mittosw asrts tMr 
lUji.'fty. that tliaicerortli no fine or rosieitare of goods or sltsr 
prciininry or corporal puniahtnent n»y be infiictrd opoo jmr 
uigecu (other than tedrsint of liberty, vrluch n tim kuAIr 
hewwch limy Iw hut ti|iou argent DeonMity, and to contiuc W 
lilt otlirr order may be taken by oavno of Uv), luleia Ihif 
■HbU offi>nd i^inst sons law or slatnte of thi* rvsln in fi«fi( 
al the lime oi their offsnce conuuiiled : and for yraatsr sastf- 
aace uti ountfoct of joor peaph:. that it will plsaue josr 
UaJMty lo denlare joor nyal pleasare to that pniposc, fUer 
by s ows lav to be nwdc in thi> seHioa of parlianeirt er hj mat 
nA other cowve (wbereof foor peopls niaj take knowli^jl 
•• to y«ur pcionljr wtsdooi shall seem tnost oonrstiMiit . . 

Wales T Religion. 


r.J FoiBimucb M tlir tvcrciiw of attUwritj' o*erl]i« vouiilies 
r, Ilnoford, Wi^iuni luul Rnlop by Htc rrcztdriil 
1 CmukiI of Wales, by if*y of inetructions upon h IVetcxt of 
at«' ajKle in the Uurlj'-fourtti fiear of tli« ivign of King 
VIII, i* tonceived oot to be varniuUd by tbnl or uiy 
' lav of this raaltn of EiigUnd . . . : it i» tbcrvfore tbo moot 
peUtioi) of the CVimiROfls id thU pfpwnt pArliament 
. llmt vour nuMt <a«eU(nt Uige»t}- will abo lie pltawed 
ad lliat tbe jiulgei may (l«Jiver tlutir opioum . . . coot- 
BiBg tbe rigfat of tlie afiHVMlid jutiMllclioii over tboM! four 
«a«B(m, by force of that staUito: . . . aud that if tbr Ntiil 
tJoD over tlK4e four counties diall appear to yoor 
Xx hx llie opiuiou of \he judKca or otlwrwiiw uot to }x 
bKiI by law, tliBt \hvn jnur M^caty will be plosrd, out 
Eoofet priDoely and gracioDs favour towards all your 
dutiful Hibjccts, to Older tbe cettdug of tlte taid jiu-is- 
, oi«r thoM coijnti«* — 

Piiyt, Jut FariiamriiUtriiim, pp. 319-3})- 

IS. PfHtttm oftktBott4e o/Contmoiu, 3 Dte., i£>i'. 

loat gnidous and dread Sovcrci^ : Wc, your Majesty'* 

bunblc aiid loyxl tubjecU, tbe kiiigbta, citizens and bar- 

■Mumbled ID parliauieiil, . . . lluditiK bow ill your 

r*s goodncsa bnlli been re^juitcd by prinrea irf diScrout 

wbo eveii in time of treaty have labcn opportniiitiM 

InuMc their own eiub, leudiug to Uie cubvertdon of religion, 

diaadvaolag« of yuar affatrs and tlx; i^rtaU of your cliU- 

I ; by naaoD wbarcof yoar ill-affrclnl HiibJH-t* at homu, t)i« 

nKoaaiila, liave taken too mui:h rii<'-i>urageainil, and 

bgeroualy iotreaaed iu llieir uuiitbi!r und iu Uieir in- 

«« oantiot but be aenaililc thereof, and tlierefam 

nbly repreeent irhat wo conceive to be tbe cautea of to great 

, grnntns iDticliiefi^ and wbat be tbe rrmt'dii;)'. 

I. Tlk« Tifiilsnry and aiuluttou of (be I'opo of Romi! and bia 

cou : lb« one aiming at ■• large a temporal monnrcby, 

^tbo otber nt m spiritual aiprfuacy. 3. Tbe devilteb poeitiona 

j4 uw! .i< u. ^'Tn- 1& 

' Thupalitinn wu f mt A by th* llninena ; lite., t6>i (C- ■/■ I- F^ fij5)i 
L|it«fiji(0 17 the follAvtai IslUr ham tli* King ^i, 310J. 

X a 


Janus I. 

uid doelrioM wbereon popery is builluul Unght vitfa ulk 
to (heir (bUoirer*, for the udvaoctrment of tfadr tignponl 
3. Tbo diHrMMd and mitenble e(>tat« of the pratncnncrt 
religion in forrigii jMrts. 4. Tin JtMnUvitu aeddaiti lu ; 
SJaJevty'a cbildivu »brood ... 3. Tbc tmnf/t ea«if«d«cacr< 
tbc pritiMn uf the popish religion ... 6. TIi« gnmt uid 1 
armii's riuml naA nuLintained ot llw charge of the kuy 1 
Spain, the chief of th«t league. 7. The expMrL-iiioQ of 1 
popiiih recasanta of the match with Spain, anJ bedinf < 
KcWcs with «K»X bopea of the conMiquenc«s tberoof. B. ' 
intiirpnuing of faTcign pHnccn aud their ageata in the 
of popish rocuMuit* ... 9. Hietr open and ttaml rooit tat 
h«UM« aiul, wliicfa is worati, to tbo cliapeU of fbreitcn taib 
•adon. 10. Their more tlian nsoal aKKOaraa to the utj, t 
their frequent cMiventicles and conCprences ther«. It. 
etliMTtttioii nf their childtvn in man; eevenl •emiiiam* 
boosea of their religion in foreign parts, appropriated to 
Engliah fuftitives. 1 2. The grauta of their jnst forfeituei . . 
translerFoil or oum pound vd for at euch mean ratts, •• W 
amount to little Imii tliaa a tolervtion. 13. The Ucaatiaai 
printing and disperviog of popicb and »cditiou> hooka, evM in 
the time i>f parliament. 14. The Nwamisof prieiits and Jmwtl 
the uoinmou iiM«adiarie« of all Chrislendoin, (U«perMd ia all 
parts of yonr kingdom. 

And from thflae oanae*, as hitt<»' root*, w« bamhlf Ofir M 
jroar MajoKty that wo fonsa* and fnr tbarv vill Dcoaaarilf 
follow rer; dangerous effects both to church sad sUte. Far, 
I. The popiah rdigiou in incouputihle with oun. in mpectef 
their pueitions. i. It drawcth iritk it nn tuuvoedshle de- 
pendency on forotfrn ptinoe^ 3. It opmeth too vide a g^t 
for populurity to any who >1iall draw too great a pwly. 4. h 
liati) a rcetlcR xpirit, niid will strive by theae dTMiatwoa; if it 
once got but a connivance, it will prws fur a tolrratiaQ ; if I 
■boiild be obtained, l\i<n- miMt have an equality; from 
ibey will aspire to aupci-iority, and irill never rest tiD th^ get 
ft subveraiuu of the tru« religion. 

The reuicdica againft tliese growing avils, wfaieh w 
hniiiility we offer onto yuur nMiet excellent Uajnty, 1 
1. That, feeing this luevitoUe noc«auly is faUea upoo 

fition about Religion. 


which tx> viadom or providence nf a poutabk aad 

Idag can avoii). your Majesty wouM not omit this ju«t 

, spMsdily and efi«ctuallr to take your nvronl into your 

3, That, ooco luidsrUkcn upon im boaottmble nnJ jiut 

foor )lnj«stj woutd r«sotre to pumuo •tid mor« 

clj avoir Itie aiding of tbow of our ivligion in forei;ia 

1; vlucli lioabtJewi woalil rcucito the piiuci?» kdiI HlatcJi of 

moon, by Uimb dijuiiteni dish«art«Di»l uimI di>bnMl4^]. 

Tbat Tonr Mtjetty would pm]><iM> t« yourwlf to tnsniige tliia 

' rndtb Uic besi adnntufi'e, by » div«nion or otberwiae, u in 

dM|> judfpuvut tlmll b« fonud Git^t; uud iiut to rect 

a vnr in tlioe jiarta only, which will ooiuumo your 

: and discouragi^ yoar people. 4. That the bent of tliis 

and ]ioint uf jour aword may be against Ibnt prince 

er opinion of potency Im batli), vrliotte amitM and 

hav* fint diTcrted niid »inci! nijiiiitiiiii*^) the war in 

: Palatinate. 5. That, for H>:«nng»f oiirpeiuv nt homo, your 

ty wxKild be pleaaed . . . tn put in execution, by tlie care 

cfcoiee ccduuimioucra to be tberonnto cepeoially appoiut^^d, 

law* alnmtly and beriiafter to be mude for pnrveniing of 

by popiili rtcocanta and Ibcir wonted evauuua. 6. 

to fnuitratv liieir hopes for a liiture age, our niont noble 

BUty be timdy and bappily married to one of onr nwu 

iltgion. 7. "Hint ibn dilldren of the nobility and gentry of 

, tbit kingdom and of otbei> ill-alTectrd and suspected iu ilieir 

on, Duw beyond tlie aeas, may be forthwith called Irame by 

mesne, and at tJic ohar^ of tbi^ir jNiivnt« or gornrnora. 

That ibc cbililna of po]uiib recuaonla or mich who6e wires 

poptah recusanta be brought up, during their miuority, 

wltii protMtant school oioeiteTa and teachers, who may sow in 

tcnilar ytara tlic Mod* of true religion. 9. That your 

ty will he picnscd ipcedily to revoke ull foniMT licencee 

' McJi children and yootfa to travel beyond the et«s, and not 

at any micb lioeoce hemfter. 10. Tbot your Majcily'* 

learned otuncil may receive commauduient from your Uighnraa 

irrfiilly to look into former gnutto of rucunnta' Inndt. and to 

otil tbcTO if by law they can ; and iltat your Mt^eety will 

ttay your hand from paauug any each gnuils liereofter. 

, lite lun and effect of uur hunihle declaration, which 

Hon about Freedom of Speech. 311 

I veipi tlwjr rrfbna it bcforv it cmwa to our hsD<I«, we will not 
; lUpi Uw bearing nor aiuwerUiff of it. 

Dktcil at Xewmarket, 3 Deocmber, 1631, 

Bmlyjrti. I. (h 43. 

Tt Ptiition o/Ou UmtM of Common*, 9 flw™ l6ai '. 

Ibit dmwl uii) gracioaa SorcTcign : We your matt humUe 
ai bjvl Babjecia, the knights, citix^u and burgnen n*- 
■IM In tbe CoannoDH Uou»« of Fu-liaiiimt) ... in all 
ljcie#<li your movt cxG«II«nt Majetty that the 
kj aixl dutifulims of m faithfnl iibd luvii^K nuI'jt^i'U &■ 
■Mr«*d or tiTed under a gracioaa eoverngii ranj not un- 
Qf auffir by tbe nii^iuronuation (if partial and uncmtain 
wlucti aK ever UDEaitliful iutelligenceni : but tliat yoor 
would, ill tlir clmrni-su uf your own jodfcnMint, finit 
(tnthafe to DudcrvUnd from ouraclTOB, awl not from i>tbi;n. 
I vWt tur kuinbl« [)«claration and I'l^tition, reaolTcd apoo by 
[ibe nniicml voito of (be Uou»e, and proposed, with yovr 
. faront; to be ])nMnlcd unto yoor tacred Majenty, doth 
[A Kunimary cf tlw petition (No. 12, above) fol!ow».] 
nia bang iIm- effect of wlmt we had fonoerly resolved npon, 
ths« the occadoni aud reaaou indadng; tbe tame, our 
' InmUc auit to your Mtyeety aod eoufideuoe is. That yunr 
It^Mty will be gracioaaly pleated to receive, at tbe IioimIs of 
iWae our meMCngeni, oar former hurnble Declaration and 
Prtitiuo, and Tuuchsufe (o rtttd and favcurably (o iulerpret tbe 
eftBM : . . . and wfaeieas your Majetity, by the ;{cu«r«l wurda of 
ftmr iMlcr, wcnietb to rcstrnin u> from iiitemicildliiit^ with 
itotten ot governraent or partiealata which have tbeir aiullan 
in the CMui« of justice, the generality of which word*, in tbe 
latgram of Uio extent thereof (aa we ho])« beyond your 
Mj^MtyV intention), mijebt invulre those Ifainga wliieb are tbe 
^T^ftr rabjecu of psTlianicDtnry ocouioni and disoaitne : and 
wbefcMj yvur M^ty d«th teem to abridge as of the ancient 
tihttty of parliuinent fur fieedom of apeech, juricdictioa and 
JHl censare of the Ilonav, and other proceedings tberv (where- 

' rr«r»ifil «i Dm. 5, 6, ud 7 : pnxd bjr ihu lt«>« <'n Dtc. S (C.J. L 
f^%t&JAt\ ud (nMBled 10 U» King oo Itae. 10 \,iMd. p. Mj). 


James I. 


in vc trust in Ond we shall ne<ver transfrese th« bounds cX 
loyal and dutilal subject? ), a liberty wliicU. we unsure ounplv«B. 
90 wise iLud GO ju^t D king will not infringe, tli« •iini« Iwing our 
ancient and uiidoublcd riffhl and an inhoritanco received from 
our ancestors, without which we cannot fret^ly debate nor 
clearly discern of things in question before m, nor truly luform 
your Ittajonty ; ... we are tbrreluri; now again enforced, in all 
liumMcDCiui, to pmy ynur Maje«ty to allow the same, and 
thereby to take awsy the doubts and scruples jonr Majesty's 
late letter to our Speaker liaili wrought U|)on ii» , . , 

Rtthworth, I. p. 44. 

15. T]u Kiny's antvxr. 10 />«., 1611 '. 

. . . Now whcrean, in the very beginning of this your apology, 
you tax m, in fair lernts, of trusting oucertain reports and 
])artial tnfomialiona oonoeming your proceeding*, u'c wish yon 
to remember thiit w« niv nn ol<l and experienced king, needing 
no such lesguua. being, in onr conscience, freeal vf any king 
alive from bearing or trusting idle rejwrls; which «o many of 
your House an nro nearest ua can Iwnr wilncm unto you, if you 
would giT« as good ear to them as you do to some trtbuuitial 
orators among you . . . 

In llie Ijody of your jietilion, yon murp upon onr prerogntive 
n\yn] mid meddle with things far above your rrach, and than in 
the conclusinn you protest the contrary; as if a robber wOQld 
take a man's purse and then protect be meant not to rob him . . . 
And tuucliiiig your excUMe of nut dotf^nniuing anything coiioerii- 
iug the mntcli of our dearent non, but only to ttll yonr opinion 
and lay it down at onr feet, first wo desire to know how you 
could have presumed to determine in that point without com- 
niittiiig of bigb treason t . . . And as to your re<{ueHt that we 
would now receiTn your former petition, we wonder what oould 
make you presume that we would receive it, whereas in our 
former letter we plainly declnri^ ttie contrary unto you. And 
therefore we have justly rejected that nuit of ynum, for what 
have you left uuattempted in the higbest points of sovereignty 
in tliat petition of yours, except tbe striking of coin 1 . . . These 
■ Gir*n oa Dto. 10, and read in the Boom on D«g. 14 {C, J.l. p. 663). 

Gustation for Fradom of Sfiffc/i. 3 1 3 

I ait diingi la Iw luiDdliid in pariUnieut, cxttpt ynar king 
1 nqoire il of joa : . . . Mid (Iwrelbrv, lu niMr vtim cn- 
I « • • 

iai ahluHi^li we cnnnot nllow of the style, daUing it joar 
u6tat Mkd ondcubted riglit uid inliurilwice, bnl ooald mtbcr 
iririied lliat je bud Mtd tb>t yoar pririlcgr* were drrivcd 
tfa« gnc* iuhI penniuioD of oar siicMtora and ua (for most 
tftksi grmr from prccedeub, whiuli vfaowa nllwr a toleratiini 
Mi iBberitanoe), yet we are plMsed to give you our royal 
iMiliaLL.-tiKl u Igtiga* too contain yourself within lli« limitfl 
rf jaordnry, we will bt aa careful to mninEAin and petaeeve 
fwr Eawfid libertiM aud i»irilc-^f, an ever auy of oar [icwle- 
MMra wcn^ nay, u to pmcrrc our own royid prcrogativn ' ; b> 
Mjtot Houav kImII only have need 10 beware U> IroDcb upon 
AtprtrogsliTe of the crown ; wlitcb would enforce as, or any 
kiag, to n-trvnch thuni of thnir privilcgm, thikt wnold pore 
ffcrogatiro aikl flowtn of Ibv crowu : but of this, we hope, 
ihall never be cause given. 

DatL-d at Nowinurkel, 11 Due, 1631. 


16. PnUttation oftht ffoutt ofCommimt, 18 Dte^ 1621 *. 

TVe OxnsiODs now etsetnUed in paHiaziKnt, being jneUy 
Biiiiiiwwid tbereunto. concerning sundry liberliee, franchiaw 
aad iririlrgea of parliumeul amongst oth«i-s Iu-i« meulioned, do 
nwke tliia pratotation fnllowiuft: Tbat tlie tibcrliei, frmchiKex, 
fvivilegca and JDrifidictioRB of pnrlinmpnt iirr the ancient and 
ondoabte'l birtbrigbt and inheritanrc of l-he subjects of ^gland; 
and that the ardooua and urgent affairs coocerniug the Ling, 

' In msnllHiT Ivunr, il>Ud Drc. i(. nad in tlio Houw dd Dtc. 17, the 
%img ikj«, 'Tlin p\uu Irutb ■■, thtX ■■ naiuit nith psticiioo codura iiur 

I to oaa meb aBttaMnaroliKal wuril* to nt «<iiiowi>itif Uiiir lib«rli«*, 
, I th^lwd nbfenwd tlut thej wot* gnaied unto thorn by ^pacv 

aad Ckivnr of our pewU w on ' -.ParL Sut. p. ■ 350). 

■ >iS liKC, iCii, (un. Mi Sjicaicr taking bb chair. Mr SogMot 
AMtj, tram tkm Unod l^esiiiiiltoc, pnuDtsth lo th* Uouw a draft M tha 
FtaUMlMloa ooDctnuDK 1^ privilafiie ol tlm Has**. TW Pro wtat fa a 
iMd wmaal tnxa aad, wpoa qavttiaa, aUawA asil onlwid (■> be fnwiiilf 
wtnuml al timtd in tht Iminul of the Oovit' tfi. J. L pt 669). * Id the 
■Hftal* wittUa, "Kio^ JiBc*, la Coancfl, wM hu«*r« luuiil irat out 
Uh PnMMIiaa '" C>i>tf. aula}. 


6m> aB iiifiliwiil 

tka by QEM0« rfOa B4MM iHiH) tear 

«ayafft»«awiBliiii W «M|ihwil rfaU |ii iliwi I far 
wmfM a% doM ar iwd m ^t^Stmtat, tfc» ■— » »> fa ifcw ml 

■■■mUiJ ia hrinaMt) kite* tkt kiag gwr ernhari ta m^ 

17. Tht Kilts* FnOmKHiiaa <■ Jtwofcrty Fi 

A PrnihiMiiwi tor fiiiWiim ilm pnaent IWiaaMt. 

AOwit Un ■wilJiin. f w i tii mi'* g uhI £aK>Iriii> of pMr~ 
iMmcnC be ■ pnuK>Uic ao pfcalinlf Uoicng to war 
iafMrial cnwB, aad tbe dnes ad it— mi tbenof ■» * b wl »to ^y 
IB 4cr WB povVf un im mra ocC |pva ao nMiii t ucnoi isw 
■ajr ; yrt ac«M£lie to 0«r coatisoal ewtan to sake oar fo»A 
mliiccta aeqaauited vitb tfaa r«unDa«f«ll a«r|ialilk » lolatioM 
and aebotN, mt bav* tbaogfat it ezp«^ttni M ^ia tiaa to 
dcdan Mt only tnt pleaari aad nsolotiuo Uuervta, g wa ded 
apon iMtare driibentun, vitfa tbe ailnce and untfam con* 
Mat oT oar wbola prirj cooocil, bat tbvnTtUi ako ta aota 
wemt •praal [vncKduigi taoviag na to Uua naofaitiaB . . . 

Tin Paritaineiit wu bj- m called, as fur — ''■■g (oad aad 
profitahia kwi, m murv csppcinllj, in tliu tiaic of — f— i^-W 
dutnction tbroi^wat Offistrodan, far fcbe better acttliiig of 


Dissoiution c/ Parliament. 


peace aud reliifion and reEtorlng our children to their ancient 
Hill) Inwfiil patrimony. ..ThiB pnrltnmetit, bt-^-iuninK in Jaimiiry 
last, proceeded snine months witli mich hnrmonj bptwtrn un nnd 
tiur people ah cannot be parHllolled by any former time; for as 
thu Hoairn of Cvmmous at tlie first, both in the manner of their 
■npjily and otburwini', :"hewed greater lore aud more reit[«ct 
than eviT any House of Comoions did to at or, sk wc thinit, t-n 
uiiy Icing hefore um; so we upon all their complaints hare 
afforded them mrh mpmomblp anil rare uiiuuplea of justice' a* 
many ages past cannot aliew the like ; . . . and althoiifili, after 
their first rece»« at EaNter, wo fonnd that they mia-spcnt a great 
deal of time, . . . yet wo gave them time aud scope for their 
pwlinmpntary pruceedinga and prolongnd the sessiaR to an 
unusual letigtli . . . 

But during tlin time of thia long rect.-!iii' haviug to our greut 
charges mediated with the Emperor by tlic means of our 
aubas«udur, the Lttrd Dighy, and lm<rin|;( found Diuie hoiwa to 
fail which we hud tn prevail by treaty, we in cimfidcnce of th«i 
aimit'tnnro of our people, thus frerly promincd and protestwl in 
parliament, did . . . reiuscmhie oar parliament the 20th day of 
NovMnhcr last, an<l nwdc known unto them the tnut rtute and 
nprfssity of our children's affaini ; . . . wherein, howbeit we nn 
well satisfied of the good inclination of moat part of our Hooae 
of C'tmimona, ti.>8tifi<d by their ready assent to the si'wdy pay- 
ment if a subsidy newly to ho granted, yet, upon this occasion, 
aomo particular members of that HouHe took such iuurdinale 
liberty, iiot only t" treat of our h'm\\ prerojpitiveH and of Kiindrj- 
thinj>* that, without our special direction, were no fit sabjccia 
to be tiienled of in parliament, hut also to speak with lese respect 
of foreign priucex, our allies, tlian waa fit for any subject to do 
of any anointed king, though in enmity and boatilily with ua. 
And when, upon this occasion, ve used tome reprehenfion 
touching those miacarria^s, requiring them not to proceed hut 
in such (hinga aa were within the capacity of that House 
according to the continual ctutom of our prediiccHnurK, ijien, by 
the means of some evil-affected and discontented pefTon*, »ucH 
heat and distemper waa raised in the House, that, albeit them- 

' For iailano*. In Itis r*iu of Bacoa, Mlcbcll. Munipaton, Ac 
* From Juao Id Nwtaiativr, ifill. 


James /. 

Mlv«e hnd sa*i nnto a> for n Mniou «nd for » gaiMl ftebm, i 
DDlaboth nhtch at tlinr cnrncat nit we ■Metited,}^* afUrtha < 
fin: luwIUid tli«]r rvji!Cl«d both, and srtting apMt kU 
of conitoqacnM uid veiglit, not«it)iStu>ding oat i 
enrn«Rt prewing ibiaa to go forward, tLcj utiicr sat m i 
orepent the timr in dispatin^ uf privil^M, daauting tpB^ 
tlie word* Mul Bf Uables of our tftten and itiMtagM:...Md,M- 1 
wiUiataudiug tbe liiicerity of our jiroUttatiiHia out la imril 
their pri*iI«^{M, jct, bf pemtuAton of tiuh aa had Ims (It ( 
causa of all tlwM dist«mp«n, Ihty fall to carre for llif rfaat I 
and pretcoding, caaaelAnljr, to be occaiioned tlwRa»(& ia n | 
unaeDaooabte hoar of the daj and a rer; thin iuaar. antts; 
to their own raatoroN lu all nuittem oi weight, caudodi lal 
■■ntcr n protestation for their lilicrlit'K. in ttnoh amhigiMi uJ I 
gGReral words aa might atrrr for fatan tiioea to invade owrti' I 
our iawparablc rifiht* and prcrogatire amiPXHt to our iwpHU I 
orowD. wbermf, not oitly in the times of other our prggtoiU) ! 
but in tiMi Meaiicd reign of our late prvdeoeaaor, that rcooviM 
qiMwn Klixahoth, we found our crown actually [l uuwa itd ; » 
niiuqintion that the miyeety of ■ king <mn by no nteana odun 
fty all which may appear thai, Iioweoerer in the (teuaal pv- 
ceedinga of thai Uou!« iherv *n mauy foolntvpn of lonen mI 
wetl-aliectMl dnty tuwnrda on, jret lonie ill-lempetrd (fans 
have sowed Uro luaong Uie conii aiid Uicrebj- fruMnioi tk 
hope of thnt plentiful and good harvest, which ni^l haM 
iDulliplied the wcnilb aiMl welfare of this wliole land, and d; 
thi-ir cunniog divvrtioos have inipucwd upoD u* a otam>ij<i 
diMontiiining this prt««Dt parUamenl witboat |mttiD|t nato 
the name or period of a searioo. 

And therefore, whereas the aaid assemblj- of parliasKnt ww 
by our comuiaaiou adjourned till the 8th day of February an* 
next encuJng, we.inindiiig not to continue the Mine anv tocen. 
. . . have tlivuKlil fit to signify this oar ru»aIution, with tlK 
reasoiu thereof, unto all oiir subjects inhabiting in all parts uf 
this raalu ; willing and requiring the uid prelatea^ nobbmaa 
and Ktataa, and also the said kuights, dtiuns aud burgoaea, aul 
all othera to whom in fJiis case tt shall apperlAin, tint th«j 
forbear to attend at the ikj and placa pi-eftxed b; lb* aud 
wljourunicnt . . . 


IdArss OH Foreign Affairs. 


iaj klbnt we an at Uui tuii« eorarced to brenic off Uii* 
I <t imriuuiMDt, jct our will anil dnire is that all our 
•Imuld Uke Dolic«, for aroidinft of all tiouter su»- 
l-|Kia^ ami jwlnnwi'i, that our intent and full raaohttiiMi n to 
1 fxtra ov pMflc >» tl>c Mme nuuiMr an onr pKigBoitors and 
E|nlMa«oca, kings aad quwn* of thin rralm, of beet gorvnownt, 
ThR bcTcUifore done ; . . . and tbat ire »hiiU be m glad to U7 
I Ud >■ Uie first occaaoo in dae uid oonvMiient time, wbiob we 
^^t ri«II not be long, to call and awembic our parliament 
I «U eonfidaDce of tbe tme and bearty love and aSectioD of our 
' ntJKto, ■< eiUMT we or ai^ of our prc^eniton bare at an; 

[Dated at WesliiuDXter, Jan. 6.] 

|& AidrtM ofhoA Btnucs to the Kim/, 8 Jfareh, 1614 '. 

Xaj H piMse your most cxcrlleni Majrtitr : We are oook 
' Bolajoa, employed bou your moet fait hfa) subjccljtaudMTriuits, 
i'li* I^mla and Comtnun* aMembled in this presciit parliament. 
Aad fint, they and wo do giv« most humble and hearty tlumka 
to Almighty God, that, oot of bis gmeiou* jjoudni^aii, hr liatb 
bn plMUcd. DOW at Ia«t, to dispel that cloud and mists, which 
far » maaj yean ba lb dimmed the eyeaof a gr««t partofCbrin- 
tMdom ia llut buuneia whereof we do now cODHult. And 
leeoDdly.weackDawlcdgeaonelven moat bound unto your Unjtety, 
that yiMi have been plowed to require the hnmble adrice of na 
TDur olmlieut subject* in a caen m important as tbie. which 
bitbcrto dc]Kudwtb between your Majesty and the klu^ of Spaiit; 
which we jointly ofier from bolb Uonae*, no one pemon therein 
dtiaeuting or d iM g r se i ng Erom tbe reu. And that is. That npoa 
BBtnre oausideistioo, and weighing many puticulars of mndrr 
Bitiira*, finding *■> much want of sincerity iu id) tbeir prooi-ed- 
il^ W«i 9iptT foCoai tmtUriam, preieut tbJi our humble advice 
nato your Majesty; Hint the trentiea, liolfa for the marriage 
tad tbe Palatinate, may not any longer be continued with tbe 
banmr at your Vigesty, the lafety of your [ivople, the nclfiur 

* A n*" t» J tn- tW HuoH ut CViiiiak«iu «i Ma>«b j (C /. I. p, 719% anil 
Ito tbe King Uiu MM d»y ^L-J. III. f, ijo).. 


Janus i- 


of yunr children Mid poBteritj-. u ■!» U» wm*aa d vat 
uicictit i>lli«a and coiifc*lenUM. Ltnt^ JmntU, lit ^ ij:- 

"f(\ ' * 19. AAtreu ofboA llmuf to At King, l» ifatti, i6m* 

, (_• lint ginuoitt SoTtrei^, 

"We 3fo«r Majrsety'ii mort liumble and lo.rnl mbjecU. '^" r*pa. 
Mid CuitimoDB ill thia |irc>ent pnrliament aernnUtt!. 
rcody Bud willing to ffivp rour Mnjwfy »nd the wt-^-r " :■" 
AD ampin tr«tiniooT of Mir Binwr* mM Jntiful int««lioB« Wi*- 
hare upon m«liire adrict- and deliberatioo. ■■ wfl «f tlir*""^ 
Mid imporliiiK* of this great »fluir, as of the preMnt cU« ^ 
thin ynur kingdom (the ve«il Mid mfvly wlienof ti, (a « 
jodgmonla, Kfipamitlj ibn-alened. if your Miye»*<r'» widiih* ' 
for tU« diMolnng nf thn trcnlit* now in (jtMstian tie Im^I 
defenKd. aud tli*t proviHon fwr the defence «f your ™»ln 1^ I 
nid of yi>ur friends and alU« be not •MMnahly mad*t^w*l 
a chc«rful tentrmt of nil the Cununoia; bo on* dimcntiaf. m' 
with a fnll and ehecrfdt comM-ct of ns the LardB, rwolrM: 
TIffll, upon your IStjtMfa poHic dKlanlitm of Ifc* vW 
diiuuliilinn and dUchar^ uf the two treaties of the niamic 
Mid Palatinate, in pnrcnit of oor adnce therein. Miii 
tht Ripport of that war whieh is likely lo mme, atxt 
putjcukriy for llio«e four poinia propoaed bf yoar Maie 
(.mnwlj for the defrDce of tliia realm, the seeariog of Ir 
>- the anHKtnnee of your nrtghlMura the Males of th« ITuM 
^ ProriucM and others your M^JMty'i friends and allies, and 
"*. for the aelling forth of your royal navy, wv will grant far 
the prewttt the ^Tvalext aid winch was enr gnuited is 
parUamenl to W levied in m short time, that b ta aay, tliee 
entin talwidie« and thr«« fifteenths, to be all paid withi* tt» 
(onipftM of one whole year after your Majefly ehali be 
to make the said declamtion ; tba iDoaFy to be pud 
the baadB and expended by the dtrectioa of waA eomnittMsl 
cammtWMKieiK a* hrrfsfter ahall be agrved upao in thi* j 

SMNOB of pkrtiaBait . . . lm4J Jmtr^uU, lit. ^ rfj 

> Arrevt^ br Uw Rmm tm Much if. aarf w— ataJ la tte Ua*! 
Uanli zi \,L. J. IIL rl *;i S, aa4 C. /. L ff. :«• «3* 

1684.] Foreign Affairs and Recusants. 


20. Addrts* o/botk Houieg to At Kim;, to Aprii, ifi^l. 

U»y it picture your mvat excellent Uajeaty : It haring pkoMxl 
}-oi]r MnjcutT, u{K>n nnr liiimlile unit kdiI advice, to dissolve both 
the treati<^8, to our great JDj- Bwd comrort, we, your Mujfatir's 
most faithful and loyal subjects, tlie l^orvln niid Cmnmoiw 
HFtuMod in ])arliituieut. do ia all humbleness ufl'irr iitito your 

red Mriji'«l.)' llicae two [letilionti followiug: 

f'irrt, Thrtt fer the rann: Mifnty of your reulma and better 
kce])iTig your Bubjecia in ttieir <lue obedience nnd other import- 
unt reaaonsi of stale, your Majesty will be pleased, by Home 
KucU course nn your Majesty i^hall lliink fit, to give pre-^iit 
order. That nil the InuR he put in due execution, which have 
been made and do st^nd in furee lu^iiist Jeftoits, seiuinnry 
prieBta and all others that haTr Inkeii order* by auiliority 
derived frum (he ase of Rome, and geiitrally ngninst nil Popidi 
recuiuinta ; nnd im for iliiianniii^, that It tiiny be according to 
the lavs and according to former sets and direotioiii uf iiUitc 
id llie like case : and yet. that it may appenr tfl nil Uie world, 
Ihe favour and clenieucy your Miijehty uscth towarHn nil your 
!iobji-ct» of what eondilitm nciovt-r, imd to the intent the Je^uiln 
nnd priests now in the rtmlm may not pretend to be surprined, 
that a apeedy and certain day may be prefixcil by y"ur Mnjesty'* 
proclunuitiou, before which day tliey tliail depart out of this 
rrnlin niiil all otlier your Hiubiiess '» domiuioiis ; aikI neither 
they nor any otlier to rdurii or eonie hither iiRain, upon peril 
of iLe severest penalties of tlio laws now in force ngniiist them ; 
luid Ibnt till your Majeiity's subjects may thereby aho be ud- 
niciniilicd not t« receive, enlertniti, comfort or conceal luiy of 
them, upon the penalties and ffirfeiturej which by the laws may 
be imposed npou them. 

Secuudly, Beeiiig we are thus happily delivered from tlmt 
danger, to which tliose treattea (now disrolvi-d) and tlmt use 
which your ill-affected subjects made thereof wo«l<l certainly 
have drawn upon us, and yet cannot bnt foresee and fear lent 
the like may hereafter happen, which would inevitubjy bring 
Much peril unto your MnjeatyV kingdoma, we arc most bumble 
suitors to your grneious Mnjesty to secane tbe hearts of your 
good auhjecta by the eogagemeut of your royal won! unto them, 


James /. 


That, upon ni pccanon of mnrriage or tr«atj or mW i 
ill lliat b«hbir from nny fnrvign jirinw or hUI« wlnUan<f;j 
vrilt t>k>? uwsy or elackrn the i-xo^tittoa of jronr kwv 
Jriuiti, pric^tK aiid pujtiBli rccu«antf. To wkidi tmr 
[letitiona . . . wc do muat liBinbly li«B««ch yoar ^E 
vouchsafe a grackHU anmrar. Lord,' Jimn*lt, Xti-t.\ 

II. PmriLeom and Jmncjuvsz. 


Com of Sir Thonuu Shirty, 1604. 
(a) Ddata m the ItMue of Commons, «^ 

Die JoTU. zi" Martii t603[-4] . . . This bnog a muwal 
tending Ui malUr of inivilegu ' ma recorded widi uiolbtr IfJ 
Mr Serjeant Shirley, toaching on nirctt mode ca Un Ijtk 1 
Murcb Ivt. . . . four da]rs before the sitting of the 
uptiu ttie boJy of Sir Tbouwut Siirfey, ei*ct«i on* of 
burgOH* for the boniugli oF Ijtcysing. . ■ . at the auil vt ' 
Gyles Sympma, a goltlsniitli. by one Willioin Watkyas, I 
jeant at mooe. aud ThoBLU AiKm, bia yvonuia; aad 
ilmt i\w body of th« aaid Sir Tbomaa nigbt be ftced, 1 
to Um) known pHrilc^ of the Iloiup. 

Hereupon tJie Ilouae, iu affirmalion of tbeir awn 
aeaentMl am) ordrrod, Tliat a warrant aoeoiding to the 
fomi thoalil be dirvcttd, under ibo hand of Mr Speaker, i 
Clerk of the Crown, for the granting of a writ of 
Corpus to bring the body of lbs nid Sir TboMM into 
Iknuo . . , 

T)ie form of tbe warrant was : 

JoTis S3" Mwtii, 1603 

It i« this day ordered and required by tbe Ooaaiooa He 
of partiaiD«at tlmt a writ of //a6eaa Our/m U> awarded (ur I 
bringing of l]ie body of Sir llooiu Sbirley knight, one of 

* Tbe itfotMc b u a notioa iu tW mw vf Oonlwla uil Fa 

r>hirleys case. 


I of Uiii Hoow and now ptlK>u«r in the Fleet, into tfaa 

capon TocwUv next, at sight a cinvk in tlio moniio^, 

U> xi>e niwient prinlef^e and castom in thnt bohalf 

Anil ttb fthali !« your warrant. Your lovinn friend . 

Plielrpa, SjHukrr. 

lad, Ta my vrry loring frioml, 8ir Oeorge Cop|>yu 
Cierk of the Orown in his Majeaty's High Ccmrt of 

I thi» warrant iisuril a writ of fft^mt Corpur . . . 
I terje&nt of the IIouBe was also coramaDdeil by tl>e IIoum 
I king in at tlie lamc limn tlw lwdi(« of W. Watkyna, Ibe 

nt. and T. Aram, his yeoman . . . 
[t; iinrch] . . . Tbia day tlie writ of ffoAtas C«rpa». formeHy 
lutnloi by order of tli« IIoum; fur tbe bringing in of Uil' body 
'Sir T. Shirtcy . . . wm returoed by tbc warden of tbc ^^c^^^. 
EfriaoiKr faiiswlf brou^t to the bar, and Siiupaon. tbe gokl- 
and Wntkynn, tbe TTJTiBt "* ""^f* " d«lui(|u«o(s. 
^bt in by th« Mijeant of tbo Boumc ... Mr Speaker pru- 
. divrra ijneatiana to bv aaawered by tbe fsid offendera . . . 
' co«e being ondentood by tbe Houm uimI tbe partits with- 
a-an, noniiry Immcd metnlwra didircrcd their opuiioii, both in 
be point of prit-jlr^ and in tlie point of law . . . Tbc digpoto 
(Siinl for thia day wiUi ... a motion that a special conntiltM 
night be uamtd for the oontidenitiim uf all the tguettiona himI 
doabia in this case ; and Ihorenpon vrrc munod [a ootnmittcv 
rf t8} . . . 

[After aa edjoammpnt for the Easter rewu.] 
\ [i I April] ... Mr flitcbam reportoth the travel of the cam- 
in Sir T. Sbirloy's case . - . Upon thia reiiort, the 
was Dtored, . . , Whether Simpeon, the sorjcunt, and 
lib ycuman ahoold be committed, vix. to the Tower, tbe proper 
I of tha House Resolved, that tWy should be committi:d 
, . Acirordui;> to fonuer order, a warrant for a writ of llidttu 
bo briog in (be body of Bir T. Shirky isiued . . . 
. warrant wiu aim dir^toil for th« bringing in of Simpson . . . 
'tai Walkiof, ... to tliis effect : 

Wberai Uyles Sympwiu and Williotn Watkins have com- 

» jnanifrnt contempt against th« privileges of thia 

lUamtnt and now remain prisoners in tlie h1«cl, it is 



James f. 


rtqiiired hy the Coaimani> Bau*o </ PulMBMb'. 
t»l(e the L>o(lie> of tha taiiA Gjla utA Hinimni 
cnidodf anil Imiig lliom uilo Uie »id Uovw nprni Fridif 
t^th of thh moDtli st 8 n tV<k in the oumttig, to uwnr 
snvh Butlen u dud] tie ubjected to Uena- And tliu rial 
jwir wiimint. 

Dinctcd, To mf UtriuR friend BIr Boger Wood m^uic, .. 
E«r}mnt of th« Coiuiiiatiit Huum of I'ariiAmrrit. 

( 13 April) . . . Counsel in Sir T. Sturlej-'i cue wnt ta 
bu- . . . Orditred, upon tlits wfismeDt, Ttwt SupHO . . . 
WHtktns ... be eunimitteil to tli« prifon of tlic Tmtrr. 

[8 lAay] . . . Kr T. Sliirlr;'* cue mBeiBhec««I bf 6r J< 
Sltirlc]', itnii laovMl iluil a warrAtit mitilil be iTuveted ban 
ItDiu« for commtttiug llie warden of tfao Fl«rt clcae jbimmi 
tli« Tower. VTliicIi vnc (inlvred and done id this fora : W 
the tefjennt nt aims, itltendant upon the ConiinoiM Bi^ 
Paritoment. iras by order and command mi-ut kuI to Uiu 
body of Sir TfaomBS Shirley Vnight^ dim of the metnli'n <i 
HofiH and now |irison4T in Die Fleet, into the aaid 
occotrdiiig to their known |mTilc|^e, and tW wanlea at 
being rc(]iiirpd )>y the same order (o dclivi-.r htm did 
do it . to tlie niaiiifnit conlerapt of the said pniiltgc ; it it 
Jfi^ordered. That the seijeant tlmll uppreheud the lad/ «l tli 
Bftid warden and eonrey him to the jiriaon of the Tower mi. 
1]i«r« dolir«r him to the lienteoanl, with ilirrctian to tka mm* 
iif the Hoase that he be oommilted close pruooer wtil tk 
fttrther pleamre of the Route be kiiowu. And tlna ihall \m b 
the nid verj^aMt. and Iteatrtunt u mfEc'cnt wkttuiI. Ed 
Pbclipa. Speaker. 

. . . Tie warden of the Fleet was brought to ll>e bar br 
terjaant, and heiug chur^ml with liia ubatiniuy anal cenlanpT 
aflinvth the writ of llahra* Cvr/iHt, with the retom. wUtfW 
nndtu followcth: 

Ja«obu* Dei gratia [etc.'] giuidiaoo priaooae noatne dc k 
Fleet uluU-m. Pni«ciinmua tihi <itiod kabcAji oorun notw^ in 
pTMtc&ti psrltamenlu noatru aimd Westnu. in die Uiinta «rtan 
(tie instanlia memr* Maii, circa liorvm oct4raai anin mifidi^ 
tCfitAem diei, corpus Tbonue i<hiriey miliiii, ca]iti et ta 
jotaonn noatn cub cniiudia tun, si didlur, drtenti, <] 



Shirle/s cast. 


nomtoe aut cogDomtne idem Thomas censcatur, una cum caam 
ciipliouis «t d«t«iitionii ejuHdcm Tliomac, ad i%s])oadeiidum 
fupor tiiis quM Ribi liiiic ibidvin okijiciviitor, ct od fAcicnduR) 
ultorius et rccij.-icuduiii ((Uod per iios in parliomeiito iiostro 
prntdicio couaidenitum et ordtoatuiu fuoi it. Ei liut- uuUuienus 
uinitbis, >icut uobis iiic!i! n-npondure volueriN. Et halii-tu ilii 
hoc lircre. Tertc msipno, npnd Wcntio., septimo die Maii, anno 
regni nostn . . . secuiido . . . 

lU^pounim JoIiamiiB Trvnch nrmiKi^n. fi^ardiaai: Ef^ Jo- 
Imnno Trench annigRr, ^nliunun piinuRiic Doiiiini ^)p* de 
U Flaet, Domino Hogi in parlismcnto biio ccilificn. (juDd iMnd 
breve ad«o tardo mihi adveiut qaoii corpus iofrj uumiiiati 
Thuiiiiw Shirley ad divni, horatii ot luuum iufru cutitvtit. habere 
Don potui, jiriiut intcrjus \a\\a praecipitur. 

[llic wnTden nvs tli«n exanunvd at the har and, rofasing to 
■liHchEiTgc Sir T. Shirley at the bidding uf the llotiae, was com- 
mitted to Uic Toww. Tlift Hvrjuunt wua iignin wjiit to Ui« Fleet 
aod in mtu demanded the reloasc of the prisoner.] 

[ii May) . . . The UouBe Qnding hiiu [the warden] etill 
pcrvcriH.', . . i Mr Spi'iiker prtuiuuiiced hin judgment (ae he was 
formeiiy directed), that, a* he doth incrcnM hin ™iiti-mpt, no the; 
Uouie lhou]{bt fit to incivftte liis puniebment, and that their 
nwotutian vru now, he bkould be committed to the prbon exiled 
Litttc l^atf, in Iho Towi-r [which wa» jucordin^ly done.] 

[is May. The wardun having at length ofTervd to discbnrgc 
his ]>niiuui^r. Sir T. 8hu'ley was rcleaaed, and being admittetl 
took llic iialh and bti neat.] 

[79 May]' . , 'i'hc WBrdcD of tlie Flc«t, allciuling at the door, 
WRH callfid in imd, on liia knees at the Imr, cwifcased hie error 1 
and pi'i-sumptioD and pii>fes»ed that he woe unfeif^edly eony I 
that lie had no offnided tbi> hoiioiirable House. Upon Uii» his 
Hubiniauou, Mr Sjimkcr, by direction of ibu Hon*)!, pronuuiicetl 
his pardon and discharge. 

C'vancvi' Jvunalt, I. p|L 149-114. 

t 3 


James I. 


(b) Sliirles/t Aet. 

t Jac. I. Fbivati; Acts, Ckt. le. 

An Aet lo *emrt ihetUU of Simpson and oUiert. and mve harof 
ta» the tiranlen ofUir. FUtt in Sir Thtmuu SkirUy't eaue. 

Hiimbij' pray tii« ConimoiiB of thii present parliament that, 
wberoiis Thoninii Sbirlpy kuJulit, wbich fame \>y jiiur Hi((b- 
nexs' cnintnniMlnieiit to l.biii jrour pn-nifut pitrlinnicnl, being 
elected and retuviied a burgesB for tlic Imrough of SIryning in 
yuur HiKbiic^a' county of Sussex, wae upon the t ji b day of 
Murrb Iwtt pott itny^^tcd by tlie tlierilf of Luiidon atTtiie outt of 
one Gitee Simp«ou first upon nn nction of ilclit. niid nflerwEirds 
the Buiiia iluy biid uud detained it) execntioD npou a recogniaance, 
of l)i(! iintun- of tbi! Miitute ntuplv, of £3000. iD tlie iirtMn 
commonly railed the f'ctnptj'r in tbc Poultry in Ixindon, nt the 
suit of the said Simpson, and from thence by /Jabtat Corpt/t 
was removed to your ilrije»ty'« ]>riauu of Ihe Fleet, . . . contmry 
to tbo lilierties, pi-ivilefi^e nnd freedom accujitoroed nnd due to 
tbc Commons of your UigbneBs' parliament, wbo have ever used 
to enjoy the freedom in comtof; to and returiiitif; from the 
parliunicHt uod sitting lliorc wtlbout reatruint iir mole.itntion, 
nnd it concemeth your Ccmmons greatly to bnve tbig freedom 
)tnd privilege inviolably observed ; yet. to the end that no person 
be prejudiced or duminfied hereby. May it please your High- 
ness by the iiiTcnf of the Lordu Fpirititnl nnd trmponil and 
Oommons in this pieeent parlinment itesemblcd, srd by the 
authority of tbe name, it may be ordained and enacted, Tliut th<! 
said sheriff of Tiondon, the now warden uf the Fleet, mid bU 
otbei-9 that have had the usid Thomnn in cntlody sinpr the swd 
tint direst . . . may not nor shall in any wino be hurt, endamaged 
or grieved because of dismiesing at large tbo siiid ThomnH 
Shirley : naving alwajs lo the said QileaSinipaon and other the 
pci'Sons before Mtid, at wboMt suit the snid Thomns ta detained 
in prison, their executions and »iiits at all times after the end 
uf ibiH present session of purliameiit to be taken out nnd 
pronccuted ns it the imid Tliomas had ueviT lieen arretted or 
taken in execution, nnd as if cueh a';tionii hud never been 
brought or eued against him ; saving aba to your Mujesty'a 


Bucks EUdion. 


MuJ CoromoiiH caltod now to Uiis your parliament, adA their 
succc8§ore, their whole liberties, fraachiiies aiii) prSvtlc^s iu kll 
ample foriu &aA m&iaier, m yuur HiKhu^fs' mid Cummoii* at 
Kay tiuio before tbia iliiy bnvo hnd, uihI ahi) enjoyed and ought 
to have, uxe and enjoy, tliis preMiit act and petition in aiiy 

^^ wJBO uotwitUatandiiiy. 

^^L Frtim tht er^^iaot in tht I'urUament Ojflct. 

I Tlie 

I the 

I Sir 


2. RtoHT OF EiAsiNiso RertniMft. 
(a) Baekinyhamiiliire Election, 1604. 
[Hoiiae of CommoDs.] I>ie Jovia, aa" Martii, i6o3f-4] . , . 

Tlie finit mutioii vmii made hy Sir William Fleetwood, one of 
the knight* rvtumed for the couiitr of Bucks, i>ii the buhiilf of 
Sir KranciB Goodwin knight, who, upon the first writ of 
viiiiuiKinn directed to the stlierifT of Bunk^, was elected ihp liiirt 
knight for tluLt vbiro: but, the return of hie clci^tion Ix-jng 
made, it was n^fused by the clerk of the crown, quia vHagatKt : 
niid bccuuBB Sir Johu Forteacue, upon a second writ, was 
elc^ctl and u:ituriHl in tlmt place, bin dnire niis that thia 
I'otum might be exatnined and Sir Francia Oo<Klw!n reccm^d 
as a nii^mber of the House. The Uou»e gave way to the 
motion ; ajid for a more deliherate and judicial proceeding in 
a caiH! of pnvtle]|te lo iiniKiftaiit to (he House, ordered. 
That the scrjennt (the proper otHccr of the House) nhould jtive 
waruiiif- to the clerk of the crawn to appear at the bar at 
8 a clock the west uioruing, and to bring with him all the writa 
of luniinunii, indentures, and rrtunia of elections for the couDty 
of Buctu, iiiadc and returned for this jiorliaaieiit ; and to give 
warning also to Sir Francis Ooodwin lo attend in pumun . . . 

[March a3J. r>lr Oeorge Copptn, clerk of tlie crown, . . . 
appeai-ed at tbc Imr and produced all the writs of miramona, 
[Au.j wiiicti wrre aeveridly read by the clerk of the House, and 
then the clcik of the crown commanded to retire to the door: 
and alter, Sir F. Goodwin Iiimself, . . . attending to know Die 
jiluiLaure of the Houic, wax called in lo deliver thu stale of his 
own caunt ott («niM ; wliereio he wa> licnrd at lurge , . . 
After much dinpulc, tlie question was agreed upon and made : 
Q. Whether Sii* F, Goodwin were lawfully elected nud returned 


James /- 


one or the knights for Buck*, iui4 ought to be i 
received as » m«R]I«r ot ibiii !(ivtit« I V^om tlin qBM»,| 
' was re»j|v«(l m tlw aflinnBtiTe, 'flat h« wu Inw&Jlj-i 
and rrttirnril noit (/f j'urv oa^l to \k remved. 
the clerk of the erotin wbo cammunilftd to 6]e llie Gnt in 
oT retnni: ami order wm givvn. That Sir Frana* 
jtrnciilly Inko the oath ormprera&cj oa untal nad kiiplMiJ 
tlic ITonu; ; wliicli ho did accordingly. 

[March 37] - . . Sir Edw. Coko, h)« Mnjestr'^ atttinKT-i 
Ur Carevr, >Ir Hone, and Mr Tjmdall, dcitv«mJl from tbr 1 
Ttiivt their Lurdrhip* taking notice id particolar of tin 1 
of tlic tlitriff or Back* and acqaainting hi> *' 
* Highnrrv coiiceirrd hiitiBelT tojiagnl and f ' 

th«i« Bigbt be tome conferaic* of it belveen tin? tai> 1 
and to that end signified bia pleasure unlo tWin, aaX hfl 
to tht* HouM^ Upon this nMsaage, tn extfsordiDatf %aL 1 
expected, the House . . . reaotred, That hia U^ot; a^kl 
mored Toi- accevn tlie next day. 

[^lureh 19] . . . Mr Speaker relatetli what W htA 
to tlir King hj- warrant ftofn the Houmr, louchi^{lketr| 
ing in Sir F. Goudwib'a caac, and hia Ma^ealy'a 
Tliat Tor bin part Im waa indifferent which of ifaeBi 
■ 8ir John or Sir Francis : tbnt thcr conlil ■lu^Kct no 
afFrction in him. beeaiue this was a coonaelkir not hni^[bt is If 
liimseU. That Ite bad no purpose to tmpMch their 
hilt lince tliey dcrirrd nil mailers uf pririlrg* Irom him aiall 
his grant, ho esprfled ifier nbinild not be tnmed n^uiA I 

That there waa no jnvccdcnl ilid tail this caao fully fijr < 

law this Hooae oujght nnt to meddle witb r>Hums, Ini^ aO' 
made into the rbancerr. and are tn be cnrrrcted or reLraed If 
tli«t Crtort only into wWcIi they an: t*tom«L js H. 6. it wai 
the newlution of all the judges, tbst matter uf otrtlawrv •» 
a Duflicirnt caoM of dieniauon of any member out of the Hi-inr. 
lliat Ibc JiidgiM h»Te now rwolved. lliat Sir P, tieodwni 
alwideth outlawed according to the biira of thut Und. In 
randiiaiau, it waa hi» Majwty'* (]ireial dtargv nalo m^ Tlut. 
Bnt, Ibe cootm already Uken slwnlil be truly tvfMrted; 
Meondly, that w« ihoubl drbate the miltrr aod marit* 
UDOoeat oundvea: tliifdly, tbat we diouM admit of saRftretKK 

Bucks Eirction- 


M^ ._^ . foutiWy. t**^* "" . .„. the 

'Srf- ki's^""' ■ J7„. lo 'I" »" ■ „, Ji "~ •';■" 


James I. 


wonliJ suffer u« to entcrbiiii ullier tbonslibi, Bitil •« hi. 
oddrcMed onr uuwer to foar mcnt cxcelUot M^atf . . . 

Tberti were objected a^uat u« by your Msjntr uik fM 
reverend judgM i«ur thing*, to impeach oar ptonednip 
reooiving Fntncia (ioodiriii Icnigbt into oar Houae. 

Ot^eeUo ]■"*. The firat, Tbat we Ufiomed to oafrdri* 
of exKBuning of ihe deetioia and retunu of Inifiliti 
bai^cflM. which belonged lo yoar Hajcttj'v Ciauonr, 
not to 08 : for tlut all retuma of writa were rxaminabk ia 
courts wliei-eiu ibej' arv returimble ; and tJi« pnrlit i B w t 
being retonuiliI« into tbc ehaticcry, the retimu of tlinn Duftl 
ifceda be there exaiuined aod not vHlb as. 

Our liuinble anawcr t». That, until the aeventh yta ot 
Henry IV, all pnrlianiRDt vrrit» were reuiruable iaio tW 
portiatBrtit {as sppmrelh by many preccdenta of veaxi tv^ 
to ba ahawedr, and cooaequeatly the retunia tiicra eaaaiulfc-- 
in whicb year a iitatut« ' wna made, Tliat tbencefiirtli rmj 
]iar]iaineut writ> eontoinii^ tin: day and plac« wbetv the l^i^ 
mcDt sliftll be holdeR. ahoold have thia iJaaae, via. 'Et dtt- 
tioaein tnam in pleno comitata fitctan] diatincte ct aytiti 
sub ligillo luo et aigillia coram qui eloctioni ilU intrriucntf 
nnbis in auicallartain iMwtnuu ad diem tA. locum la bnti 
cnnleittoa oorlifioe* indiUte.' — By this, althuuifb the furta uf 
writ be eomewbat altered, jret tli« power of the parUaamt 
exaniioe and d«t«nntDe of elections mBainatli; W m 
alatute bath been always ezpoondnl c*er einc«, \y Baa la 
day : and for that pnrpoM:, boUt U» darlc of tba crown 
always naed all the [wrlianicnt lime [to attasd] 
ComiDons Bovae with tb« writa and retnmB: aiad 
CoDunoDS in the beiiiaDitig of every porliiutieni hava 
to appoint special coumitteM, all the paritament timt, (or 
examining contrnvrndes eonceniing ofectliMifl and rcUuaa af 
knighia and burgeeaaj ... for tbat it is fit (bat tba 
nhould be in tbal place exantined, whura the a; 
oen-ice uf the writ >» apjaMuted . . . 

OlgetHo a*. That wr dealt in the eanaa with 
precipitation, not aeemly for a eooncil of gravity, aix 
respect to ywa ikOtft excelknt Majesty onr totrtvigBL, 
■ 7 Den. IV. Ij. 



Ibe writ to \» mtkde ; uid, being but hair o body nnd 

I coart of reonrd niane, tqIdinmI confvreDce with the Lords, the 

ihtT hitir, notwithttaniling they prajned-it of us. 

Our InintUe answer is, to the procipitalion. That w« entered 

I IbJii ttuitc 03 in other parliament* of like cun halb )>«en 

cortoBicd, exiting to n» tlw derk of the ciowu, iind viewini;; 

the writs and both the returns; . . . eonceming oar 

; «ottf«reDi-e with the Lords, there was none dMircd until 

uur Beiitciice |Nuaei) ; itnd tlien we thuu^ht that in 

mutter priva(4> to our own Houce, which, by mien of order, 

light not be by tis revoked, we might, without any impntn- 

i«l'uM to cxiufcr, . . . not doubting, though we were but 

of a body tin to make new Uwh, yet for any matter of 

of our llouM we are and crer hnrc bren a court of 

Jve«. of auifideut power to disciim and determine without 

Laniahip*. aa their Lordafaijw have nsed always to do for 

tin withoBt ua- 

Oiiftetia 3". ITal we have, by our Mntence of receiving 
Goodwin, admitted tbat outlaws may be nwlcerv of law< ; which 
t* cunlrury to all Uwa. 

Oar homble nnawer is. Tbat notwilh«tani^ng tho pirredent* 

whidi We trmly delivered, of admitting and retainiiij; outlaws 

io penonal aettona iu the CuiDnions Mouse, and none reuitled 

(or that canm; yet wo rvceited ro great aatisfaction, dctirured 

from your royal Uajeatya own mouth, with such excellent 

j^BBrrugih aud Upbl i>f reason, more thsu before iu tliat point 

^^^ beard ur did L-unoeive, as we forthwith prepured au act (o 

^Htaaa our Uoore, That nil ootUws heiicelurth shall itund 

^^ijjlmtjfj ta aerre in pariisment : but as concemiug Goodwin's 

{articular, it could not appear unto as, baring thoroughly 

examiued alt puni of tbc p)oceediu}{n against bim, that he stood 

an outlaw by the lawa of England at the time of the elec- 

1^ m a 1 


Otjectio 4*. That we pruoMded Io examine the tmtb of the 

bict of untUwry, and gave our seiit«ti<» upon that ; whereas we 

:ht to hat« been boond by Uic sbcnlTt return of the outlawry 

further examining, whellier the party were outlaweil 

faunhle answer is, "niat the precedents cited before, in 


James /. 


oar •iisn-rr lo Ibe Gnt alijwtion, do prove tlie luc •< Ik I 
CofniDooa Uoum lo exnminc nrifainn fiteti in clectinn* wl I 
retnms, and harv oot been tkil (Wiempturiljr (u lilu* it*| 
retnm . . . 

I April 5^ Mr Spntkrr, lijrn primte CQniiitfindiMn4.altnU| 
tfa« King tliiir moroiug at 8 a c)<.eb adiI thtrv bUjmI till i4 
Mr Sproker liritigeili tn«aMge rnim hii ^ft^jeslv to (lii> cffxi : 
Hi* Mi^jnsty protertei) ... lie liiul iw gnr«t a dr#ir« bi oaiiti 
their priTile^M aa ever any prince hoi!, or •« tbey tb«BMlni-J 
Uh had aetfti and cun-^dered of iJir nuiiDer and tlie 
bad lieard liix judRta and hi* council ; noil tliat Iw 
distracted in judgment. Tli«rcf»re, (or his fiinher aatudMi* I 
Ite dnirnl and coinmAiided. aa an ahtolnle Viat. UmI iIm*) 
inipbt lie acopfK rence liet *' ■ .' ■" " 

ilinl for tbat purpcBc thw 

)!rave and leanitd per<«ii» out o>' th« Mouse : thai liit luwml 
mijitit Iw fircMDl, not aa nminrea lo duttrminc^ bat to 
iiidiflirrmthr mi both nilea. 

L'|wa Ihia oiwsprct«d mcMig* therv grew aoniv amaaiviC' 
Htd tilence. Uut at last qjjg Mood up and eaiJ, Tie pnnf't 
command u like a tliuader-bult ; bU ootuiuand upnn omr iSe- 
giance like ibe maring ot» lioii. To bt* coniniaDil thatv ■ 
mulrailietioii ; bvt bow or in what nanaer we vfaMtU 
|iRiceed to perTona obedienee, lliat will be tlia 
Aocptbrr nnswend, Lvt n» petition tu bt* !kli^r*lf thai he 
be l^eased to be pnatnt, to brar, moderate and judge Ibe < 
bintelf. WberaopoB Blr Speaker pntceeded to Ibia 
Q. Wbrtber to c<Nifer witb tJie Jad|(e* in ibe prewooe of 1 
King and coaceill Which irvt rMolved in Uie aCr 
end a wlcet eommiltcv prrMntl.v Darned for tbe eenfe 

(April II.] VpOB a^joumniidit ... Sir Fnaacia 
tvpertetb wbat bad poaceil in oomlVrcnee in Ibe preeoMe of I 
Majretf and council. Tbe Kiiig caid . . . tbat ttur 
were not in qaeetian : thai it was private JenlooaiM 
anv krmid or aubwianre^ He grnnted it hm a ooari d r«X4^| 
anda jud^of rrttini'. lie moTed. Tlial oeitkerRir J. Pnnracw 
nor Sir F. tloodwiii might hare pbee. ^r Juhn t>«Hiu- 
bif MajcBtT did meet ns hair-wny . . > 

I'lHW Ibis report ... tbe qoeetion Wa* pnxntJv uaitfl 

oMe of kKai 

'tamfnlary Eledtons, 


WlwUivr fir J. Fort«aeiK and Sir F. Uoodwin shall both be 
aded, and ■ n'smiiit for a aw nrit (lircclcd ? Ami ii|>(»n Uw 
an, rmolvcd, Tlut m writ nbouM iMa« for n new choice; 
I ■ nmnt ilir«-ted scMtdiriiily. 

[April 13] . . . Tbe irairimt fur n new «l«Gtioci of « knight 
: Bocka mtd and allowrfll in thin form : 

Wbeiata ihe Itigbt Uoa. t^ir John Kott«ceu« Icnight, Chan- 
otOur ef hu JUjett^'s Dudif of Lumatcr, Mod Sir Pnii«i]> 
GMdwiB knight have b<«n Mrrr*Ilj «lect4^ «nd rrtutmed 
bii^fhtt of ili« thire for tbe county of Docks, to n-rvo in tlii» 
insFoi parliament : upon delifaente cwraltaiioo, luid fur M>iue 
cial oaiiwi moving the Commonii Hoine of Pariianit^ot, it iji 
I dav cnlimd and rrquirvtl by tlir said llmix;, Thiit a writ b« 
hiritb swsrilcd for a i>«w drctioit of another knight for tbe 
aliirp ; aud llita sball be your warrant. Directed, To my 
lorinii Iritrbil, Sir Grorjj^- Coppin knight, clerk of the 
I in his MaJFi'ty'B high court of Ohnnc«Ty. 

CommtnJ Jtvntalt, 1. 19. 149-1;!. 

(1>) aUctiont for Cardigan and tUtrevnAwy, 1 604. 
Veneris, vis. 13" die Aprilis. 1604. . . Mr Serjeant Snig 
All np'irt of a cad« nffeiTCil tu tW CuDiiuittee fur lieturus 
and Priril»gca,.*u. touching a diffcrrnn; in tho rloction of 
• liorgi-m for tbe Ioitd of Cardigan in Wales, and first ivciteth 
the effect of tbe ttataies directing the form of chooeiag a burgesa 
fi?r Parliament in eTRi-]r <Uirc in Wales. [Portintm of ttatulcs 
J3 Hen- VI. 18, bim) 3.^ lli^n. VIII. 36 WK redt«i,] 

Tbr 0«se. Sir Kichnrd l'ric« knight. gherifT of the county 
Canligan. . . . after the receipt of the King's writ for the 
cfautce of a knight for the thire nnd bun^CM for the town of 
Cardigan, Quulc foitli hi< precept to the mayor of ('urdigan, Iwing 
vajnr of the ahirc town, who acconllng to theac rtatutcs made 

"Die aherifT of the abtiv, minding to make choice of n friend 
ef hit, notwitbetaMling thl* his |>recept, procenU to the doclion 
uf auotfaer in Aberystw ith, une of the contritiulniy towns, and 
RcetvM tbe nrtura of tbr iiulentures nxule bi-lweea bim and 
Ibr Bknyr^ of .\lirfTiilnith and ntbcr* having voioee in ibv »iil 
UD, ihia lieiiig in the sberifTs coanly tJwa held iu AbcrjK- 


James A 


wilK Iiy vrhtcb indcDtnrex Ricaid DeblMre (Wjiiire u i 
Inirgew el«ct«d fer CaTdigBD. 

The nwjur of CurOigau. being tmjror of Uie dtb* Mm, 
ivtnmt liiK clcctiim, lawfully Dtttde aooonliiig to tlw Mid ntWtt, 
hj iiuJriitiirc, wfaerriii WiUioin Ilndsfaaw« twiuira, 
wUhiii the lown of Csnlignn, i« dectod. The thmff 
both the indi-utures. 

This Iidiui tlw truth of tli« c«so and «l«bat«d I7 tk* C«- 
ntittt^et, tlic reporter iiaid tbey werv cIm^Ij of opuinB tU 
Sir Brsdnliawc wb> Inwrullj' (^Irotcd, ictamod, nod crayltf n k 
sworn, ond tbe (henfTto tic ccoturvd, nooording to tlicEOcati' 
the liouw in such cases of offcttoo of >li«rifE». 

^VliertiujiOB Ur Spenker twiuirin}; tbe opinioa of the HovN 
tlicjr nnwiited, vid Mr Bradnhawu wa* •worn nnd adndlui 
And beeides it was ordered, That Mr SpCHlcer nhunU dzrvtW I 
warrant to the lerjraDt of the IIoom for attAchiug tbt M; ^ I 
ili« i«id sheriff, M in liltc ca*ee is URial : which wiu aoc<i(£n|^| 
doue ... 

Tlie maiuier of the dcdion bihI rotom «f tbe liiugauit I 
the town of Sbrcn-sbury fulling into ijucstioo betvceu 
tjeijeant Harris the yoniiger and Mr Uaiker, Ibe 
opened to the Ilou&e by Mr Tale and arKued yrv tt coitlfw I 
itindrj- luembers of Uie Huubc. The nut Wiug Ibin, that u|i 
the Gnt writ of clecti«in choice wiu made of Mr Barker, and u 
iiMleature telunicd and dclivvred !■; ilr Barker kinu^ W tkc 
clerk of the cromi; iIm aberiff aflerwardi> {>nicttretk Ur 
SeTJeant Uairis to L« dioMai, and relumcth axtd jntifitlfc 
anoilier indiiutuiv mode between tbe cUvton and hioMelf «Uch 
is not aocording lo the statute of election of 33 Klin.' St as 
Iteroapon, after gnat dispute, auwlr; <|ue«t*aiii wow acrsEd ea 
and made: 

I. WhellMT the Rrtt indenture 1>elween the flberiff [ak] aaJ 
baitiSik, and 3. Whether the indeiituiv betvrveu the aherifl 
the olccton «ball be accepud by the HiKuel 

And rewlvvd, npon thcHr ijuntioai, that neither ought lu 

accepted, aud eo both the rctnriu damned. A third qBettioa 

was made : 3. Whether a warrant fchall itsnc for a new wiit ( 

4. \t'hether the sheriff ahall he H-ut for h^ wartaiut dinxtcd U 

' U ilsH aet appear wlut ttateu it refenol tA. 



9tt Of memt 


WMfieAiit of tfae Honael And buth questions rraolred iu 
Ilk ■ttrmiti w. 

Th« wnmuit for « new writ wu in thill form : 
WWws two Mv«r&l iadeDturra hav* been latol; irmIc con- 
Iminf Uw rlr«tion of InirtcfK'es for tbe town of Shren-ibui'y, 
: brtwccn tb« bsiliff* mnd Imrgemea of tli« isiil towii, nwl 
[4t otikn- between tbe sheriff of the county and sundry tlic 
|kr;e»» of tlw nid town; the 6r»t whereof, bniift oot r«- 
ItorTHd bjr the •faitrifr bnt dinTotrM by liia defwty, the other 
I ncnnifd by him, arc tnth by Uic Commnnti Houm of I'nrliame&t 
InsCNTed utd ai]jud);ed to ho iiniifficicnl : It i« tb«relbre 
I on bebatf of tl>e «aid House that a uew writ bi- forth- 
tvitfa awarded for a new cl^vtion of bnrfinMs to be mado for 
|ft*«id Ivwn. And (bis thall be yonr wamot. 

( Edwanl Fhelips, !^pealIer. 


7b ray rvry luTiug friond Sir Geo, Cojjfiin kuiglit. Cleric of 
! Crown in Clutbcety. Commom' JimnaU, I. ppL 170-171. 

(e) Bftrtiwi /or Camiiridye, 1611. 

[ti March, t6io] ... Sir Ro. Pbillippea : That Ibe mayor of 
liridgv, Mr Fozton, bath returned hiuiself. Upon queition, 
Ir Foxlon, being mayor at the time of bis «l«ction, to b« 
RBOTed, and a new writ : [rcaolTed] without oa« negatiTo. 

Commmm' Jvttnud; I. p. j6^ 

3. Rioirr or Esi'ulsiox. 

[Hoiue of Comnooue. ai March, 1(21] ... Sir Edw. Coke, 
the Committee for firi«vance«. Tbe pntejit br difpenaiog 
pedlan [Ac] ruled — to be a patent uf grievance . . . 
last, for wills «ngroming, the wont of all . . . The i^object 
lalli lilwrty by tlie luw to euKr"M bt* own will . . . Now vrcry 
OBaoTlbMC miut come to Sir R. FUtydo : he [batb] lb* sol« «!• 
groariiig of all wills and inrentoriea- 

(After debate] Upon quealion. Sir R. Floyde to be remored 
ant of tbe Huvae, for being a projector and luainlainer of tbia 
fitent ... Sir R. Floydo cnlled to the bar. . . . Mr Speaker 
tbb aenleuce : That be tg to be 110 longer any 


Janus /. 


ur uol Agreed bj all, ntmifu HiufntirMr. Tlut lu 
tllCKof gutltj:' . . . 

Tbc I>onl«, hnvtng agrvvd ujiod (lie Nenlesoe lo be 
againal ibe Lord ClmDcellor, <)id ntul n iii«««afe to tlur ' 
of Commons , . , Thai Ui« Lords sre rf^ily to pptv ju 
■^n»t tlie Liirtl Tncount St Albao, Lord OhMwellar, if I 
with Ihrir Spoaker viU come to dotnand it. 

Tn tbe mpMi time Um Lords [nit •>() llieir ro^M, kwi, i 
btiug monied of this mettmfi and the Cmdimubi eaam, i 
Spnker cum to the liar and, niakiiig Ifms lov ob 

Tho k&iglilK, ciliscnf. and bur^H-ests ef the ContmoM i 
of Pariisnwnt hare made edmplaiot tiulo youi' Lardik|i i 
man; csorbilaut offeuc«« of brili«t)- and ootnirtwii 
by tli« Iiurd Cliancelliir. Wc nndarrtand that jtnr ! 
are mad; to give judgmMit apoo him for the »tM. Wbenfar^ 
I, tlieir Speaker, in tbeir name, do huroblj drmnnd and 
judgment a^iunt bim, the Lord Cluuioellor, as th« natvi < 
bi* irflcoce and dcmi'i-itu do rrquirr. 

The Lord Chief Jnrtice amwered, Mr Si)eak»r ; Uf«n 
corapUint of tbe Commons ag&inat the Lunl Viwaont St Alb 
Lurd Cbaiicrllor, tlii« liiftli court halh tktrehy and by bti i 
coafcMKNi found bira guilljr of the crimea and cormptiuu < 
pUined of bf tbc Commons and of tundry ollwr ctima a>d 
eomtptioiu of like nature. And tberrforv this lii;;Ii aamt. 
haTitig fint inminonnl bira to nttcnd and harinit re TKi Ted )» 
excnee of not attending, by reason of inflriiiil7 and ikJai^ 
(vhich be pnxtMted was uil feifrii^d, or ebe he woold aatf 
willinglr hove attended^, dolfa nevvrtlielcm tbink &t to pra nt a i 
to jadgmcnt. And therefore thi* hi^b court rfotb adjiidfr, 
I. That the Lotd ViKOunt St Alhan. L»rd Cbajmllgr 4 
Enslood. shall andprgu line ami mun«n of X4o,ooo. 2. TWt 
be *ball be impiwooed in tbe Towrr dnriag Ht Ku^'t 
|)leaani«. 3. That be ahall tar ever be incapable of an^ oCer. 
(da«e or emplojmntt in the sl«t« or conunoowealtb. 4. TW 
be ilall never ait in Parliament, nor coanc within the ««nee ^ 
the eeori. Tbia ia tbe judgment and reeDlution of Ibb In^ 

LonU' JemnmU, III. ff. {4-lo6; Cmmmm' Journal*, Lff if^ 

fudieature in Floyd^s case- 


(b) Flo!fd»'« COM, i6ai. 

|Bmc of CVDminoiu, April 38] . . . Tli« buuueis coDMroiug 
I Flwt to hr briui) upon Moodaj next. . . . Flojde to be hero. 
{iUy t] Floyde called b to the bar, MiU hnrcliug, Mr 
fwlrif iffoouuoced bin JQilpncnt. . . . 

(Mf 4] ... Be it rctoembered, tb»t upon TaMiIiiy, tbe fint 

•f i^j, in tiie ynr of tbe reign of nur noTprrign Lord 

. . . tbe I9tb, EdiranJ Floyd*, Ut« of Clannenuiyna 

tbe eoantir of Salop, ewpiire. wm impeacb«d before tbo 

DOS utirmbiral id tbis Parliiimfut, lor tb»t tbe nid 

uaoe the sumiuons of tbii Parbsmciit, iu tbv prben 

tbe n«et, bariiifr communication caoceniiog tbe tnoitt 

iprincenlbclMlyEIizabetb ■ . . Midlbennoet excellrnt 

IhuIkumI, did use and utt«r, opeiUy uid publicly, 

ndd«({Hieful ai-eecbe* oftiie wiil tvro prioM*; 

._„ in tbts manlier, ' I liiivc hcanl, tbat I'mgac is t«keii ; 

Goodnun PsUgravi' luid Ooodvife I'abgrave bavo takva )Wii»l^^- 
■r bwlf, and ran away; and, as 1 bave beard, Goodnife 
ave U labeu priaooer ' ; . - . nod tbat at olber tiiout be 
» libe de>|Nt«fuI and rtproicbfal tnani>rr, dm other 
I aad opprobrioue words of tbein. WbercDpoD the eaid 
, of tbeir love aud nnl to our aaid (orereigu Lord, and 
1 »ittJiDg to let p«H unpunidwd tbtwe tbiogi tlut t«iid«d to 
il»|[i«c« uf Ilia Majeatj'i iwue, n part uf liimiiclf, wbo ta 
«f tba Parlismcot, did call befure tbem tbe mid Edw. 
and tbenof did qucaliou liiiu; and ttieraupon h> far 
tbnl after, upwo tbe tamr. day, for titat tlie taid 
■bcncf tbe said £divatd wa» JDipcacbed were tnu 
and DOtorioDi, tbenrforr tli« uid Commoos, in tbe CoBimooii 
Hfloae aMemblfd in puliamcDt, tltd a^ljudf;* and award tbat 
tbe nid Edward »botdd . . . Uie uext uioruing bo brougbt to 
Wfrtminatrr, into tbe prut }-ud before tbo door of tbe {[rest 
ball of plena, and be tbcre H-t and staiut upon tbe pillury 
btfB 9 until 1 1 of tbo clock in tlw foreuoou, «Ub a paper upon 
bia imt, with this ioacription, in capital letten, uf Uieae woids; 
* For Uae, malkiuoa aiwl dapitcfnl >pn)elic> afaiuxt tbe Rii^'a 
fcatfilcf Aod brr hwbaiul ' ; ■ . . and tbat tbero ia wt aJod 
; i^oD him a fine of £i9QO. 


James f. 

[Houfc of Lord*, May 5] ■ ■ ■ Tlie Hoom beiag iMwcd U I 
censidtration of br act iatcly Aaae by tbe Oommao, i> 
veuUnit Iwfore them th« pcTfon of oaa Edward Flovi, i 
euunitiing of vitii«me» and f,'ivtBg jiidi^rot upon liii 
rntcnng Uiif »* itn act with tticm. tliv which dolli 
into the privilege of this Ilot»r, for that all jud 
properly and only beloog unto tiiin IIoidm ; th» Lunb 1 
not to faSfv anj-tlting to pata wlucli mifiJit pnjndifie ihMt n| 
ID thia point of judicalnre. and yet m to proccrd af the ianit 
fcood corrcajKuxIcncy between both IIoqjvs mijibt b« 
Wlumapon . . . ihey went this message in vriliof; nntatWI 
tnoiw : ' . . - llirir I.ard>hip)(, luiring h«ard of a osb 
p&Med in that House agaiuet onr Kdwnrd Floud. an < 
«>uf«rt9Kv for the accommodabng that boaneM in eneli Wtt 
may br wilhoat any prcjudim to the privik^ of dthar Hmm 
[The CotnnMiiB aiMiiting, the conferrocc wai held the 1 

[Hay 7] ■ . > The Lords having ooDsidervd of the ' 
allr^ed by the ConnMiiu at th« hut cotifrrtmix 5^ )Iiu. < 
firaad tiiat tbay landed to prow, 1 . That thr Houne 0/ C« 
i« a Coqrt j ftf RnwirJ- a. Tliat th^ havo iiuni«4*i«l as 4alh| 
mattety contwrnng ih emaelTe e. 3, That they hare ii 
punishments oo deltuqneMii, when the «atiae bath 
a neniber of their ITout« or llw priTtle^oa thartof. And that 
LonUiipa hAving dctcnuinvd that th« qacatMo at this liacii 
Mt| whether that Uoue he a Court of Record C^l- ■ - ■ hrt 
th* question i«. whetlier that Home may prooMd io 1 rat wet 
any miui who vt not a mrmber of that Houm!, and foe a laatla 
«hich conoeniK not that Ilonfe : Inr wlnrh the (Vmmuiii alhiwl 
no proofs nor pmduMd any precvdent : their LonUnpa agnai 
to pray a re-conference about the sauft. and aX tbe uiufimM 
to handle lhi« only, via. That the Uotue of Cammaas ban at 
imwrr of judieatiire nor «ocrciaa sgaioat aDj. bw ta laatlm 
cooivming that llooae. 

[The second confervnce InTiag tahen plaer, 111I1 niMiil 
of both Heaini!! were appointed and eonfitrrad.] 

[May I :] . . . T)>e Archbiiihop of Canterlnry reporW 
eoiifei«nfi» yeeterday between the two mb^MiniBitlMa of 
Uonew to this eSiMt, vis. : 1, They sbowed their «NMtaiit ; 

tre m 



to malntaui tli« Iovf nnil gocxl «oiTC*pond«M7' 1ic<we«*o 
HottMA. 1. Tbcir rrwlution not to iDfad« Uw pnTil«ge6 
' tkiE IIouH, that have d«alt so noblif with tbera. 3. That 
<tf Uwir teal tbey seBtiaionl Flood ; but tliejr Inru liim to 
Lori*, with lut intimation of thoir hope t1i*t tlii« IIoum 
are biiB alto. Tbcjr propouoded a proKistatian to be 
with them, for a mtao (o aooommodato the bunueea 
. both Uooaea. . . . The protestation wiut rand twice aiid 
I uoqitioD* taken unto iL It foUoweth, in hate vrrb^ viz. : 
pratntatinn to be pntem]. bjr consent of tbe Uonse of 
ns. to this purpose : That llie pnxeediufiH kteir paaaed 
I tbat Hoaee agaijut Edward Floud !« tiat ut any tiroo bcr«- 
' drairn or iMcd an n prccedrnt, lo tbe enlarging or dimininh- 
; of tbr Uwfnl rights or privilege! of eitb«r IIouw ; but that 
riglita and privileges of both Uouwesi kfasll leiaaia iu the 
' state and plight d> Iiefore. 
[Um^ 14] . . . McNugo frcnn the Cooimona . . . Tb« Knighta 
l] of the Hoaso of ConuBOu humbly desire to know wbellHtr 
[proteatation] be approved of here ... or uo. The 
r . . . anawered ; The Lord* have appruTcd, and tlicy do 
' aad oarrobonte the »Rte protestation. 
[Basse of Commons, May 14] . . , Sir £dw. Sands : In the 
' ■BSBS | '« to the Lords, to give aome intiraalioD of our , . . 
af the protestation offcreil by the Ru1>-«oDaniittee oi the 
I : wliicli read . . . and assented to by the House. 
fHeoM of Lords, May 26] . . . Edw. Floud \mag brwiglit to 
tke bar, Mr Attorney ciiarged liim with uoUirious mlsdeoiewiourt 
and k^^ ptVKURiption. . . . [After exnmiiiutiun, and n-nttrnce 
onj Edw. Floud being brought to the l>ar again, Mr 
Oeoeial . . . prayed tbe Lorda to proceed to judg- 
■puBst him. nibereupoo the Lord Chief Jnstioe' pru- 
tbn MOtcnco in these words, vii. The Lords spintunl 
taoipanl, couidvring of tbe great oflenca of the faid 
Edward Fkode, do award and adjudge: i. That tha mid £dw. 
tUnie tball be incajwhle to bear arms as a gentleman . . . 
4. That be shall be fined to the King in X5000. 5. Tliat he 
i&all be imprisoned in Newgate dnHog his life. 

IotA' /asraaZil U. pp. 110-1341 Cfmatctu' JtunaU, I. pp. 596^11. 

Actiaf as Tl^ialrii uf ili* Ui.u-* tn lbs Tseaaey of tbe ChaacdkfsUp. 
Z 1 


Jama A 



1. Batiw' Ca^k 

(») ArgutNtnU of tkt Judgti, ifio6'. 

[Borrni nantfj ... It BKnwtli to ne iitraiq^ tlMt mj I 
vonM coittdnH with (ht Kinn in ihij high joint of pp 
but pueh is tli« King"* gntcc lli«t he low »!wwr»l kii 
W, tlmt tliis matter aball be dispuled and adjoHg^ I7 
Kcconltnft la the (uKtent law aiid {-mliMti of th« rraln . . . Atf 
i» not kingilom withnvt inihjtxlii iiu<l fcovrrnmrol, m be )■ 1 
s king without revenues , - . Thf n-vrnno of th« 
very eMralift] p«rt uf the crowii, ftiid h« who rptiilcth thU I 
the King pulleth b1»o hi* crown from hia !i*«d. for it caurt I 
wpamtod from the crown. And ndi gnat pcerof.'wtjfw of I 
crown, without wluch it cannot Ix, ongbt ool to br 
and in tbpw ciues of prerogative the jwlgmrot thai] art ' 
HODonling to the Ta\va of the cobuikiii law, hut accoi^init tad 
pi-rcrdirtits of this coarl, wherein thne tnatten mn 
Wtd detenninabt« . . . 

True it is titat the weal of the King ia the pnbUe vnl if At 
pWple, and he for hU plea.furv niaj iLfforeat the wood of UT 
mh^Mt, and he theiehv vhall bi! tubjrct to the law of the Nwl; 
ami he may lake thn {irnviaKMi uf anjr man by hi* (mrrnw** 
bio own u«e, Intt at reamnable prices and vithoal abate, Ik 
ftbamofwhiehoflieorhathbeeiirefilrunedbf divn«Blatatw;Mi 
the King may lake wiiie« far hja provision, and mlao tiufaer j 
his shipa. oastlea or botisea iu the wunl or any man, and ' 
for puUic benefit: and the Kin^ may alloy or anhanoa eoial 
hit pleasure, for the plenty of the iting ie the people** peace A 

The Sutnto of the 45 Kdw. IU, Cap. 4. whkh hath been w 
much urged, that no ni^w impoiiitioD ahall \m impowid ofM 
wool-felU, wool or leather but only the envtom and midtj 
frrauted to the King — this extendR only to the Kinf hi— If 
and »hall nnt bind hit tuocvsaon, fur it is a printt|i«l part af lit 
Crown of ICngland which the King ennnnt dimitdob. And tW 
aame King, in the i^th of his reign, graotod diivn iiiiiniilaiw 

• T\>(wa«iutrie>llalLsE]«:h«qBn-Ctriirt,NciT.l6cp$. Ttm 
of Barm CWke aad OiM Barm flimi^ bare aloaa bna 


fntposttims: Bate^ east- 


ccrtWD penona, »aA bpniiue tlmt it was in drniKntion of hi* 

itnperial, be hinuclf recalled and annullod ibc ttaao . . . 

[ tlwt porta of tbu mtcn beloog to the King . . . Tho writ 

U oMdt rtyno c<>niprpliFti<lB a prvbikilion to him to whuiu tt 

£nd(d that be nhall not go licyond tbr tr««, and this may 

■iinctrd al the King's |<l«s«ur<i to any man whu is his 

(act : and m> oiDHtiUFtitl)- nia.v h« pr<^iliit all metvliaou. 

mt be nay prohibit (be jwrtonK, no na}' he the goods of 

BMn, via. Iluit he iJull rxport or import at his pleasure. 

if the King mnjr evnrmllj inhibit that fuch gooAa ahaj] 

be inponed, iben br the laine reason may he pruhibit litem 

(ondilkm or nih iHodo, ris. that if titty import nicb goods, 

then they thmll jmy, Ac. . . . 

CUtf Bino» Fltmitt^.] The King's power is diKiblc, onttasry 

sh»late. ami tbey have a«Tend Iaits and end*. That of 

ordiDftty u for the profit at pftTticnliir (nlijccts, for tbc 

lion of civil justice, lbs dctermiDiug of nttum ; sod this 

xerciaed bf equity and justice in ordinary courts, and by 

dviliaiu ia nominated jut privalum, axul witli ut eiimmon 

; «od tbcac Uwi caiutot Iw ehaugcd without parliament ; 

■Itboogh that thrir form and course may bo changed and 

ilemipted, yet they can never be changed in suhetauoe. The 

ilnle poiwer of the King U not that wbtoh is oonrertcd or 

.ted to private aie, to tbc lienrfit of any particular ptrsoii, 

is only that which is applied to the general benefit of the 

, aj>d is lalat popnli ; «b the people b the body, irnd the 

the haid ; nod this |rawer is [not] * guided by the rules 

dinet only at tbc comiaiMi law, aiid U tnoti properly 

potiny and gnvei-niarnl ; and m tbc constitation of this 

ivdy farietb with the lime, to varieth this •bml8t« law, 

aeeording to the wisdMu of the KiiifC. for the comoivu Rood; 

aad these being gnneT^l mlra, and tme as they siv, all tliiuK* 

done within tbvM' ntiM are lawful, "nie matter m i|iie»ti'>n is 

.terial matter of state, and ought to be rulcil by the rules of 

ilicy, and if it be au, tlie King hatit done well to execute his 

extrsordiiiUT power. 

All ciutoms, be they old or new, are ihi other but the effects 

I c[«ar that this wonl baa btao aoelilMlally ondltod In lb* 

' It I 


James I. 

Knd isnues of trndee apil commerce wtUi fort-ign nnttonx ; but 
all commerce and nflnir* with forcigncni, «U ware and peace, all 
suueplauce mid atluiitting for currtiit foivign coto, all paitica 
Olid treulttiH wlialBuuver arc made liv the ab8olu(e power tif tlw 
King: and lie wliu kutli jiuwer of cuu«ect buth power nlito of 
efTetit* ... 

Il is suid that an imposition may not be upon a fiubject witliouC 
parlinmcul. Tbut ibe Kiug may iiujiUHe upon n tiubject, I iimit^ 
for it IK not here thn i]ii<-«tion if tliC! King nmy impoM upon thd 
suliject or his gnml«. liut thi^ iuipoM here is not upOD a HubjevtJ 
but btru it is upon Bates, ae u|>uu a luercbunt wbo iiujHirtS 
giiods witliiii the laod, charged Uefun.' by the King; and nt tli(^ 
time when the !m]Ki*t was impuee<l upon thnin, Ibcy were tha 
goods of tba Yenetiariti nnd not the ^'oods of a subji'ct, nor 
within the land ; . . . and ^o all the argumeulB whiuh went mud* 
for the Kiibjfct fail . . . 

And whereas it is said, that if the King may impose, he ma 
impone luiy quaDtity that he pleaaes, true it in thut this i» 
bo lofemid to titc wiJnlom of tho King, who guidctli all unde 
Uod by his wisdom, and this is not to be disputed by a subject ^ 
and many things are left to hia wisdom for the ordering of bii] 
power ivther ihau his powei* iJiall be reotiaiued. The Kin 
may pardon any felou : but it nuy be objected that jf be pardoB 
one felon, be may pnrdon all, to th(^ dnniAge of the commo 
wealth; and yet none will doubt but thut i^ left to hia wisdon 
. . . And the wisdom and providence of the King is not to 
disputed by tht! »uhji.-ct; for by itibcndment they cannot beg 
tevervd from his person, nnd to urgue a potm ad actum, tol 
rcatr&iu the King and his power becaiiae that by bis power '. 
may do ill, U no argument for a nubject . . . 

Slat* Trialt, td. 1 779, toI. xi. pp. JO-t). ' 

(b) Mr. HtikewilV I argument, 1610'. 

Mr ^pi.'nkcr, The qnrstion now in debate amongst us 13^ 

whether his Mnjcsty miiy by hia prerogative royal, withoul 

assent of parliament, st bis own will and pleasure, lay a am 

' Thii apoeoh «M dollvend In the UniHoorCommoDa, tamD tima duHnj 
thf greal debits on tmiHi^tiona whldi \nn[%n 011 Juiio ij ftnd •ndad 
July 3, t6ia {C.J. L pp. M-H I'arl. DtbaUtiit i6t«, O'ind. Sue.). 


Impositions: Bates' case- 



ch»rg? or impoaition upon mcrt'Imiiiliica, to be brought into or 
out uf tliiii kingdom of EDgiaud, and enforce merchauta to pay 
t!ie Kiinic . . . 

Kirtt, I bold it iitcfiiwiiry tn (^orinidur whi-lhcr custom wpre 
due to the Ktug by the common inw. Kocondly, admttliiig it 
to be duo \\y tbc commou lav, wlK'ther it were a fiutii cerlwa, 
not to be increaspd at tbc KiuK" pifUiiure or otberwi»e- Thirdly. 
HuppotiDK [but by tli<r comintiu liiw thu King miglit, by way of 
imiiuHition, liavi! iiicrcn«rd bin ciintom at bii own will, by liU 
nhiptute powrr, without absent iu parliament, whetlier ov no be 
be not bound to tLe coiilrary by Acts of PurlJanieut . , . Lastly, 
I will diKcuvi'r iiiilo you tlio W(^ukni:!» of sucb rraminii a* liave 
bi-cn mmti^ in maintenance of tbe King's right to impose . . . 

1'hat custom is due by the common Ihw I collect, Grst by l)ie 
name ttieraof . . . To tliiH may btt added, (but Miigna C'barta 
Cap. 30',. ..t^trmcth iJiis Hot only coiMuetiu/o, whicb, as I Imto 
eaid, implies antiiiuity beyuud all iviuembraiice of a briniining, 
but antitpia emmir-CiuIo . . . ]lut that wliiuh moat Df all movctb 
m« to Wlicve tbnt this duty vaa and is duo by the common 
law, in tins; that in all cases where the common law pultetfi 
the King to Miatain cliarg« fur Die protection of the iiubjtict, it 
alwayK yiddcth him out uf tlie thing protected tome gain 
towards the maintenance i>f the charge . . . This observation . . . 
malcetb me to tbink that becnusc the coinnion law oxpitcteth 
that the Ring dhould piutL-ut lUL-rubauls iti ibrir tmdnsi, ... it 
alao givcth him out of nirrobandixm cxjioricd nud imported 
come profit for the su^t^ntation of this public charge. Otber- 
vise were tbe law very uutvaBonable and uujuat, Su ah to 
jirove that by tbe L'uinuioii Uw custom i* due to the King, 
I nbull need to Mty no more . . . 

I will therefore proce«d to my second coniiideratiou ; wbetlier 
that proRt upon mfrcbandixes, wliicb the coiumoui law for these 
renpeala gave unto tlie King, were a duty certain, not to be 
ificrcBsed or onbanccd at the King's will and pleatiuro without 
S eomnioii Msent in I'arliitmont ; or otberwiise whether the 
common law hath left an abaoluto power in tbe King to demand 
in thii cau more or tcsti at bii own pIciiHuri' and to compel his 
subjects to pay it. The resolving of which question will, as 
' Lc nf tbe Clurtar of mj: t 41 of M, Q. iitj. 


James I. 


I ooDceiTe, inalce wa end of tliia coot r ovtw y betVMS u; Irj 
what are Umm impodtion whinb we compUin aC, oUmc : 
Uic ciiluiticing of th« ciutom bT the King's •bmlste phaant.^ 

And first, I bj this m n ground, . . . Uwt Ibe vontam bstf) 
EngUnd, na al*o all Other win Uir* in the wocli, ilt&^ < 
cerUintT and abandon nnRcrtninty, at tha notlKr MTillMaitl 
and cunruttou, than whkU uothiut' U more odunc in lir.r» 
The comm<in Uw of Enytand givHli to the Kthk, a* la tkaj 
of the Comnionwcnlth, nn [Mqicluat rcTeune or imlturrfl 
out of the intcTmt or property of the svlject, hot il tUir] 
limitetb a terUioly ibt-Tcin nl tho first, or otiwnriic titb I 
proTJdnl tliiit, if it lie uQuvriaiii in il>elf, it il ralaaUcUJ 
« ciTluinty only hy a legal eonm, llial iJ to ny, et^fflf'' 
ParliniueDt, by judgei or }ary, and uot hj the Ktar'* eo \ 
obeolutc irilt aiul plranire . . . Then *ra niAnr other i 
doe to the King bj the conninon law u well aa cuton : if ib^ ' 
all or tiA many as we can call to nind afaall bll ovt to be.* 
1 have Miid, euma orrlniii luxl not nihject to br inuvaied ittttj 
King's will, thi* will be a forcible arg«tnent that a^un ' 
lihewiae ceriaio and not to be eohanted at the Klns'i [it— »■ 
. . . The conimon law gircth the Kidk a fine for the pmdi i 
an orisinnl wriL t* it cnrlsin t It i«. and ercr hath b«ii - . - 
Uiijr the King incrfiue this fine at hie pleanuvl There MM 
man thst will My he may. Tlieto i« a &xmi dnr Ly tfac oosiimi 
law jm Uitntia KontordattdL la it not certainly knowa, and 
M hutfa alway* been, to be ibe tenth port of tho laoil cotnpitKit 
in the writ of the coreBonl I ... I am NnwUling lo timlle 
you with any more particalnn of tlii* kind- Rot \vi any naa 
slicw mc one partieuhu- to tlw (onlrarr, and 1 will th«o tieU 
that my potitian, being false in odi\ may he to nun,- hot tBl 
my poeitioD halh been in this |>aiiit intnnged, thit i^iiimiI 
eoneordaare of the law in all ihmr parlicalarv b arsuMOt 
enoufih for top. without Iiaring alleged other nnsaom, lo oonclaJe 
that ciuloin being, as all these are, * reveone tine to tb* KoBf 
by th» (iMomoa law, ariniad out of tlie proprrtr and intereat 
oTthe ealjeet, ta, ai all the*« arc, limited and boand«d hr tie 
common law to n ct-rtuinty which the Kiug hath not [mwct to 

I am now ... to abew joo, that where the CQMBMH 


Impositions : Bates' ease. 


I tW K!i^ * revmiM! not crrtsin at Ihr firat, that U clirajt 
ciUe lo a c«rtAinly hy m leufsl coorM. »§ bv Act of 
judge* or Joo'r <ui<] i«A '•t tl>0 Kind's plmuire. 
that Irf liU tenure u bound to m^rro th« KinK in 
I wst^ Mil) (iUMb, U lo [Of, mrconlin]; tn the qaanUtj of hi* 
I fine bf (b« Dftme of eccuage. Thi:; cannot be nwoi'Md 
in PariiamFnt . . . Fium for miiiiI«iiieAuourt ar« alvrays 
by tht jaiifcuK. Aroorcem«iit« in nil rasn tire to be 
bjr tba eoantTy, nnd not to b« nsMctcd l>y the King . . . 
I mm of opiDMn Ibsi if a statnte were nude Ifant tli« King 
vagyx niat iliit cnstonia at bin plcnHure, yet iu<Kht it not be 
dtncaa now it i*, bv Uie King'* nb«>latii jMwer, but by tome 
•tW legal ooan*, of wliich lh« eomvion law dotb l>kr mrticv, 
(in the caw of the fia» and ransois- Modi I«m tben witl tbt 
■OD taw prnnit tlmt it nbonld drpeod upon tbe King's 
Jalc pWanre, tlurre being no sacb rtatuir in t]i« cium . . . 
[I p(oc««d to D3y KCOnd reaaou, wbicb ia drawn fram the 
tiey and ftuinc of Ibu cooiitioiivmaltli and t)ie providence of 
' oomnion laTr, tli« whicb, kj it requires nt tfa« »ubj«ctii' liaodt 
tj and obedienco to tlidr •ovcreign, so doth it likewise 
|auc «t the bands of tho aovereign protection and defence 
tW eabject againat all wrooKs and injuties whstaoeTvr, 
either by oote subject to atiolher or by thr oonuuou 
By to them all or ai>y of tbem. Thi* protcctinn, tl>o law 
Ih. cannot be without a great charge to the King . . . 
ivctb out of the nuhJMt'* purte for wanbbipa aud the 
tbereupon. aa we ]iaro of Into aoeoniitod, nbout 
I by the year. Thin ig a rerrniie nbirb iK> other King of 
. hath : and aa it appi^rsby the Statute of if lul. Ill, 
I. it ooi^t to be employed in inaiiil4aiance of ibe wara . , . 
' hath lilcewUe nil forfeilurvM npnn tieaaon and outlawry and 
penal biW8, finra and amrrci^nimt* ; prolHa of courta, 
ftrove, priBtge, bullerafce. wreck, and «d naity non^ M 
r vesT enttmeration of tbe particular! would take up a long 
To what other eivl bath tbo oomnion law thua prorided 
' tW maiotfutuioe of the King's oharpr, by all Umm ways and 
of raiting profit out of the iuterctl and properly of the 
I'a catato ia land* and g<»da, but mily to llua end, thnt, 
^ Ibtar dulice {aid, tlie poor aubjoct migbt bold aud enj^ 


James I. 


llic ml of Ilia eetatp to liia own VM, fm «nf dc« ln« tU 
OtJwTi' bunleus whulBotver t . . . 

Aiut bcTcupoD, bj the tcnight that but iip«k«. it «m Ui. 
tbat apon oor«sion of a tnddcn ftiul tuiospcetril wmr tbn Ea| 
lua}' not only lay impoutioDi but l«Ty a tax irilhiti tlir ralm 
witbout a^cut uf Piirliaiueiit. wluch position in my o|wiian n 
veiy (Inngurini* ; for tv admit tlii.i «rt>: by caUKqiKm (■ 
bring as into bomUg«^ You ny lh>l u)>on occuioa of oiMm 
war the King may Wrf a tax. Who aball b* jmlge bttwNB ib 
King and hit people of lli« ucciuiDu t Can it be trtfil b; wj 
Iqal coune in oar law 1 It cnnnut. If itien tbe KinK HamU 
Dtut In: the mI<> jailg« in this mMi will it not foUow tktf ik 
King may levy a tmx at bin ovu pleftsore. •e«iiig bii plnoart 
conuot U) bounded liy law t You act iulv what k mirftirf tb 
ndmiUaiiai of onn orror balb drawn y<m. 

Bat for a full antwer to the objection, I ny that Ik 
prorid«DCC of the common taw is ncfa and 90 taLwWtiH. at tkt 
for the defraying of tbc KiD;e'i> cbnixc U{N>n any ncnMOdl 'i 
a iuildi-n war, it halb, orer and abovu all tbc onltnary rtnaW 
which it givetli the KinR. vbkh IB tlie time of ww «uo<t 
iitd(*d but &U short, niadi; an escdient pruvuiou. For, to; 
the war inu»t ii««d> bn oitlKr oflenaive or defemdvr . . . If K U 
«n uflciiuTo war ... it taniMt be a Budd*n aocident. lor it » 
the King's own act, and it may and tt b fittiug he tihodd tab 
deliberation; and if it be a ju*t and ncc«Muy w, br amf 
crave and eaxily obtain uuiftance of bia ralgecta by gnat d 
Bi<l in Parliament . . . Only a defruan war, by innaian if 
forngn enemies, niay be Bodden, iu whi<h case the law Im<1> ml 
left the King to war upon hia ctwB czpaiae or \a rely open hi* 
ordinary rcTmne, bat halb notably proridcd that evvry coloKt 
within the land, high and low, whether he bold of tbe K>b( cr 
not, in OBM of forri^ invaMon, may be compelled at hia own 
charge to acrve the King in peraon . . . 

I do then conclude tlits ar^fumeul, that aeein^ the cMBnon 
law, for waiutenanco of thr King'* ordinary charp, hath girts 
him Mieh an ample reveaoa out of the iiitcraet ami fw y H y it 
the aafajre*, and jnovided also for sadden ooMSMMka, in wa doine 
it hath Mrliidt-d aitd secured tlie tvxt of the aaljeet'a crtate fraai 
the King'* power and pleB»urv; and cooieqneslly thal^ 



TmposiKons: Bate^ ease. 


Kia^ hath Dol power npon nny oouwion at hi* plpamrc to 
cfaugc Um eaUtB nf lii* «iibjcct4 by iiDpOHtioos, tsllngn or 
Ikwa'— l«r I liolil lti«'iu all in otie degree — or any olbor biird«n 
wb^tMcivr. witbiMit Um iiub)ect's Trve tuid Toluntar; aueut, ajul 
llut ill jMiIutneut . . . 

I will ucv, according to roy divJHOD, arg« an argumi^nt or 
tva of iafcrcDCe aixl pmsmptioo . , . Firat iu the ucliona and 
fmrbnu&iMWs of Um kiuga, 1 ab!«rv«, tital ull ibe kiugs of this 
mln MUiOt Heury III buvr aongbt and obtaiDciI an iitcRSM! of 
cm Iphi more or kst by tlie dsjdc of subsidy of the ^ft of tltcir 
(ubjecta ID |>aTliam«ut ... la it likely tluil, if any or all 1hci« 
koun haid tbuuglit tbi-y bad in tbcm any lawful povror by Just 
pRTogatiTs lo hare laid imiNMttions at th«ir plr-nvure, lliey 
■uuUl Dot ntbn- bavo made tuo of that than hava taken tbb 
tmxf* by act of pailiuiueotT . . . 

AvA eo 1 pHicMid to my next ai^m<iit nt infnreooe drown 
fcon the action at oar kings. Soiim) of tite kiug« of RugUnd, 
M tBinclr Edward 11 , . . and Edward III, , . . were coDt«nt«d 
to accept an incrcaw <if their cuHtom by way of Uma from Uie 
Btrcbanta, and soltunuly bind tbciii»etvc« to rcpny it ag^iu. 
Would nuy wim mnn in the world, tliat thought hei luwl liat a 
eolonr of right, wmueh prejudice bimwlfaii to borrow thai which 
be night take without leuv«. uud bind hiinnelf to npiiy it ) . . . 

And yet ia not thui all, for «i>me of tliem, by name Kdwnrd I, 
did not only take it by lU wnt in par)iani«nt or by way of lonn, 
but (a« one that buys for his money in the market) did give 
lor it a real ai>d valoable consideration, and that to luenluint 
atrangen of whom then vaa more eulour to dvmniid it an a duty 
than of hU natural oabjccta. In proof of which 1 prcdncfi 
eiarla mereatoha*, made anno 31 Ed. I . . . Wbal stronger 
infetanoo can there alinoM poiaibly bt- against the King's ub:o- 
laie powvr of iiupuaing than thi>: thnt ho waa Mntrnt«*l, dim! 
•u apecified to all hi» uflicrrs of the ports, that if the fflercbaiita 
did of their own accords pay more than their aoctenl customs 
thry ahonld hare cuiuidenttiuu for it, but if they theuadvea 
were not wiUinif tu pay niorv, tlicn tlwry ahonld not be ouni- 

peUed thernuuto ( 

I I will now mako soma obaervations of their foibearance to 

' linMti W (ot^pi nMichanlii Ftb, 1303; e^.^tubtw. C. if. ii. 5)3. 


Jamfs I. 


[)ut this pri>t«Di1«d power in pnrtic^, con^ikriDg th* MtraJ 
OccumoM of tlie timv* nliidi I will [uxwemt« n onler. KM , 
lli«rerfore in g«ncr»), I observe that froiti the Con^Bist ntil A< 
rrign of Qawn Mar;, ... in the prvctio of tUt pretanM p» 
i^of ative of inipcaiu);^, the kings hare been so tparing. ai . . ■ K 
cantMl be UmnA or piturrd hj nulter t( revon) UmI ai b- 
{iwitioaa, mdi ks wa now complita of, «er« Uid 1^ kll Ibw 
kings . . . And thoie six, if tliero wen » monr, llwa|k tliT 
went iitilaw<n), yet trero tbey in some ton to be bone «tiU, 
first by reiuon tbey were very (nodentB, wcotidly tiitl ibf 
were Isii) iu tbc times of ^ntA ami spfMreot neceMlr, saiA* 
ibey were to endure but for a year or two : foe une W dot 
except only that npcxi wine bud i6 Ed. I lasted loofsr . .. 

[Afler g4iin^ throogh tbeM precedent* severaJlr, lad <•■ 
denvnaring to mi&imite tbetriiuportaiice, heproc4«di] Fnatto . 
*i>d of tlie ruifin of Edward III till the wifja of Queen llwj. 
. . . being ihr space of i]o yenra or lliereabDUts, it bslb he* 
oonfeised by all those thai hsm argued in laaintenaiice <■( h) 
U^sty'e right to tcDpoM, that there hath Dot beeu foimri «aa 
record that prove* any one impoeilion to bare been laid . . . 

And if you please to g)v« im laavo to nmmilirr to jea Iht 
|ia»nge« <^ thoM timea. ymt cannot bat mai-v*! thai none til^ 
those princfa iliould so uurb as attempt to try the 
thiasoliMicliuialapTeragiilivc, soRitich prsctiwdbyEdii 
and when yoti Iihto brnrd their t>cenaii>na and rotnpuirJ 
other aRlinn* with th^ir forbMrance in this kind, yoa will, 
think. MHiclude and uiy iu your bearlo, tliat unrely ant of 
tboee king* had *o much an any imaginattun that any nA 
piero^ftlive belonged unto them as to miac monvr at ihtir 
plcasnre, by !ayiu)( a charge u|)un tneithamlises lo be caportBl 
or iin]iarted, wilboat aaeent in paHiamcut 

Fnt nnw ndmilting that by the mmroon law it bsd bren 
cinir and wttbonl qnesdoa tJiat tl»e Kinit might at hU will ban 
laid impoatione and thai also the aanw rouU hare been clearly 
prored fay the pnetiee of the andent kings, yet I afirm that « 
stands the law of Engtand at this day by reaaan of •tatntes 
directly in the paint, a> the Kio^'a power, if ever be \mA may 
to iagpt«r. ■■ nut only iLDited, bat utietir takra away . . . "Ac 
iitatate unllag&tt Chuia, I cone to Uw i 




•tatatr ■[[Miut tmpiiKitidfiN whtcfa in the atatuto d* lalhgfo mm 
cwnon/fWo, loiiching tbe ttnw of tliv making of vhtdi there ia 
enat vuriAty of opiidoo . . . Tb* nest statute Bguimt impotilioius 
ia IS E(L L [Cuiifli-walio Cui-tarum] . . . Tlic iwxl statute 
BiBila BgBtMt tJirsi i* 14 Ril. III. (1) cap. 31 . . . 

In diMov^ring t]i« wcftknew of tbe rraaons alkged in luun- 
^^CKiuic* of impoMtioua, I dull not itT«Htly need to my auything 
^HuR tbsD liatli lie«a mid . . . NeTcttl>elc« I v'lil ia ■ faw 
^^■Hda rwall to your memories tli«ir rMSoas; aul in 84 few 
^^^^ff tha aii»vct« to tlioni . . . 

' It Wh been said tfaal tbe uM ciutooi uf » demi-nurk upon 

• Hck of wtxd mmt lure las begiuuing cillm' by tli« King'i 
dNolnta power, or b j a legal UMot of th« pfople, which eao be 
chere but in parliameDt end caunot but appear of reoonl ; 
bMatue no nieb bsmdI can be abowu tlKtefi^n: tli«y couclude 
it beyan by lite Kiug't alnolutE power and infer tliat ihc 
power ramiuna still . . . Uut tbt» qaration, how began tbe 
. cuatootg, u bast answrred by another queslioa ; how bt^an 
be fine lor porehaae of vriKiual writa, the fine pro lictntia eon- 
torJanJi, the orrtninlj- of priwgc 1 ... In etfect who rcdoced 
all tba known ground* of (h« cominoa law to that certainty 
tkat IMW tkay are t 13«<tauM we cuuiiot t«U bow or wbeu tbey 
began, aball we therefore coiwliule (hat tlwy bef^ui by the 
King's abvlutc [mvcr, a»d infer tlut by tbc mme reason tbey 
Biaj be duinged at his pleasure t . . . 

The King may, nay tLey, rvsirain tlut paafage of meroliaata 

^*t hia plcature, wbi«h tlwy ptuvp bj- divers rKords . . . Upon 

j^bfakh they infer that if h« may restrain a Merchant that be 

^pkall not pwa at all, h« may much more so restrain him that. 

^bi sliall not paai except lie (wy a certain sum of money . . . 

For my psrt I think that restnunta in all Ihne cases and of 

like nature are by tlie common law luft to tfa« King'* absolute 

power . . . But bc«auK« be may leetrain totally, thenftre that 

be nay gitrc ptssago for money, is no good consrquence^ for in 

ear caae there is no rostniat at all. but it ia rather a psmage 

(or mociey. If thi^re be just occauou of restraint the law givetli 

IIm King power to restrain. But wbnn menhanti may without 

iMjt to the State hare passsgo, as in our ase, to enforce them 

(cy for that paaage b in my opinioD as unlawful as la 



James I. 

enibive nny mui whatcotm* to ftj tar doing that «hui k 
m*y Inwlulljr ilo . . . 

The pc«tc ftod hnT«n-towu* of England btc, nj ihrj, lit 
Kitift'i. uiid in regard thfifif li« cdat open or alinl tlieiD 
what roodition be piraws. I ftosw^r tbal Ui« position 
Uh portd tiTC tJi« Kiii^< >■ not jfeopnilly true, for tubjtoti 
alao be owner* of porta . . . But adiaiUitig Um tnlk «f 
ptwition, ;«t is t]ie oon»equene« m week and AMBifenm M i 
anjr of IheiMt of tbeir uixi>>ii«i>t«. For an not all tbr pMa 
of citiM anil tftwus and all \hv ulnets and litgliwiTv in Ei^n' 
lb« Kinf^'ftanda^Dinch nibj«ct lobe open orfbai at hit[J!*a** 
*a the porta an 1 . . . Doth it fi^low therefore tbat Uie Kinf aif 
la; impoHlionti uiion every ntaii or npon all caananTitict AM 
lAaW [«m tfarongb an;* of the*' pUoc^ I ... If tbo King w^tA 
exact money ... for pawsge through the g»m oT ntic^KiA 
IfM oMj k» for pB8«i^ out at tlw posts, which at* tU F«> 
gates o<f tbe luncdom, and which tbe m1(je«t on|^ aa In&t b 
enjoy as tbe air or the water . . . 

Another of their arj^menla b thuL Tbe KJt^ in bomd U 
protect merebanla from qtoil by tbe rormy ... It u noHi 
tlnrr^fore that bia expense be defrayed ont of tlie profit mide 
by merchauts . . . Tlie conaequeuce of ibis argaonnt is tii« far 
trae. Tbe law ejcpecta that the King abould protert nMrehaatt 
tkenfore it alloweth him oat of mercbandtie a rereDor tew 
mailrtffwnce of his <-barge. which is tbe old cuoteoi daa, a»fl 

I far J 

re "—I 

mt lint I taid. by the common law. But it iv no good 
qncnoe that tberel'ure be may take what he list, no more 
be may at bis pleasure incrvase that old revenne . . 

Thraci an the chief reeaona made in ouuntcnaaoe of 
poaitiont. Th^ wenhneas of tbera and Ibetr daiigermia 
(pwnce you cannot but perrvive. fur by tbe rame reaaoBS Inne 
within tbe land may be an well proved to be lawfuL On tba 
contrary part you hare beard tlie r««i<oo« againnt impoaitioof 
fortified by many record* and Htatnle* in tbe poinL So »■ I 
conclude that iinpOBtttons, neithrr in (be time of war or alhtr 
tbe gnatMi necessity or occssioa that may be, much 1^ ia the 
time of peace, neither upoa fbragn nor inland cotBrnaditiei of 
wfaataoerer nalniv, be tbey nerer to raperflnoaa tir unneooenrv, 
neither upoo merchants Etraagera ikv deaisecs, may b* laid 

ffnpositionsr Batt^ cast. 


I KlBj;'* kIiMlot<! power, niUiout uMnt of purlinmcut, br it 
' iKnr ao abort a timv, much l«i« to «nitur« for ever, u 
I • SlaU TriaU, td. 1779, rd. sL ff. jA-JI. 

(r) ilr. Whiidotlet aryKmenl, t6iD*. 

— Til* CUP io terms is tJiis. Tbe Kiog hy bis Mt«ra pateoU 
brioR recited lulb ordained, u-ill«<l ftod coninaiult^ that IIwm 
i>«w in^odlioDH, eoDtnined in tbut boulc of nta, •liall tio for 
Bfcr licnnft«r paid onto him, his hpirs and •uooeraors. npoo 
IMtn af his difpleunre. lIcr«upoti the queftion unsetL whetiier 
I edict and ordiiMUce to nuule by (he King bimM!!/, by bin 
fMlcnt* of hia oira will uid power itbMlutc, without 
of pvliftinent, h« b« m lawfully entitled to that he doth 
, as thai liMrebyhe doth alter the property of hi* subjects" 
gsed*. Slid is eiiublnl to recover these iii>po«iUoui by oourte of 
lav. I ttiink he counut ; and I ground my oinnion upon thcM 
faitr rauoiUL 

I. it is SgalDBt tlie tmtur^ ifTHB* '""^ i-rmrtitntiny of the - 

galicy of .tlti* kinxdoni, irhicli itJtuptAHeum rryni, and n sub* 
wtetk tho fuDdaiiwDtal law of the rcHim, and indncetb o n«rw 
iorm of «I«U Mad goremment. 

s. It is against the maniijip^l I»^w of the laud, whidi is jus 
frimlum, the Uw of property aiid of prirate rijchf. 

3. It in against direr* rtatutt * made to restrain our King in 
Ibis point. 

4. It is sg&iiut t he prac tice and setiuu of our comiuouwcnith. . . 
For tlw first, it will be ndniitled fur a rule and grouixl of 

riata, tbot in every commAnwrnltb and government thtn be 
Mme rigbts of aorereignty. Jura mnj^tlatit, which regnlarly and 
of cuinmon right do belong to the aoveteiga power of that 
stale, unleM eu«tom or (be iwovigioual ordinaooe of that atute do 
otlierwifc dtipow of (bcm; which lovercign power is j>oUtta» 
mipnma, a {«irer (hat can control all otbor powers, and cannot 
be controlled but by itself. It will not be denied Uiat the power 

' 1U* ineeh U i*tnt«d n Statt TriaU m TdTorttai'*, bnt i* i^tm br 

r*t9e>i )■ Fatl. IMttUt {C. S.\ p>. 103. to hare tioea Vklubdl*: «f. 

rfiMT. ff'X. »f f tij?ttW, T«L m. p. 77. Ttia ipeecli «u ildlTtcad oa 

idr 1 KC. J. I. p. 44S). 


James I. 


of impMu>g hsUl •> grant b tnut in it . . . thftl it hatb nt j 
li«eji raukMl unong iboae ri^bU of Mkv«r«iga ptMS-. Thn v| 
tbcK no furtbrr qurKlinti to be ouule bat to rxaniM wbnfcl 
sorertigD powrr b in tfait kingdom ; tar th«n ta tbi H^ i 

Tlie MTereiKii power b tgntA tobe in l)i« Ktns: Wiillil 
King U a twofold poiriir; tlie ODe in partiamort, M ki >| 
wsiatecl with the coownl of tke wtioU st»t«; ibc oUMr<Nti 
parliiuaenl. m he is nAt and nngnlar, guided nuntf b; hk ««.| 
wilL And if of tbcce two powers in tlH Klt^ mm ia 
than t)M Mber, Mid can direct and control tlie otbtr. that iij 
wfimtkt potttuu, the soreragn pmcr. and ibe othtr i* 

It will tboD be eBittj proTfd, tlmt tHe po««r<f 4» (GlVJ 
parliament is gml«r tb&ii lib poner ont of pH^M 
doth rale nnd runtmt it ; for if t)ie King loftke k gnnt li« Ibi 
l«Ucra patents out of imrliamciit, it bindotb lum mhI lut oe- 
eeason; but bv hi* power in parlismrot he may defeat tai 
aroid it. and (hervfore that b tbe gr«*ter power. If a judgMal 
he gircR in the King's Bencb hy the King hiinaeU. as ma; la 
and by tbe low i* intrnded. • writ of «Tfor to revene iki 
JDdKni«Dl mftj be soed before the King in parliament . . . S» 
jon «<e the appeal is from tlie King ont of pariiamml. la tlir 
King in parliament : . . . ft-r in nets of parliament, b« t}wf b«% 
gromda or whatvorver elw, the act and povtr b lite King'k k« 
with tbe Bswnt of the Lord* and Commou. wldck RMketb ii 
lbs moM sorercij^ and tupnune power ahun atl and nw- 
trottahlir br none. Baidt-x llii* right of impoaing, ibete b> 
others io the kingdom of tbs eame natarv. As Ibe pMrarta 
make lava ; the power of natnnlitttiQa ; the power eS mtHm 
of arbilrary pivenitnrol : thv powi? to judiiw withoot appiml : 
ttic jHiwer to Uyititnate. nil which do beling t4 the Kiug ealy 
in parlinmrnt . .. 

It hath been alleg^ that those which in this caiHe hat« 
e n forced thetr rcaMns ftom Ibt* maxim of outs, that the Kit% 
ouinut alter the htw, have dinrlcd from the qoeetino. I uy atda 
faroor they hare not, 6*r that in effect is the *erT ijaettwa oew 
n band. For if lie aloue out of parlianMBt nmy inpoa*. be 
■Ittrrtb the law of England in nee of these twft win fundsMmtaJ 


Impositions : BaU^ case. 


poinlB. He mu^t etth«r tnke his subjects' ffxAa from th«m, 
without iLi^ent nf tJie psrly, wbtoh i.i ii{(iuii»t t]i<! Uw, or rl*L- 
)i« mart give Itis own letter; patent* tlio force of n law, to altor 
tlie property of liis BubJtKta' goods, which is alto sgiimBl the 
luw ... So wd ace llmt tb« puwrr of imjHiiuiif^ aii<I piwci' of 
making law" arc coniyerlihilia and coinciiUtUia, and whosoever 
can do tlie one, can do the other . . . 

Apd if ihii) powtT of iiii[iOHUi|; were <iuie(ly nettli'il in our 
king*, ooimiilcring wlint )* tlio greittont uii« tb^y niako of as- 
nemiiling of pnrliameiits, which ia the utipply of money, 1 do 
not «(« any likelihood to hope for often nieeliiiftti iu tliat kmil, 
Ikciiuxc Ibi-y woulil ]iroviile theuiBelvei hy ihftt otJier meitnii . . 

The lant iwault randc ngninflt the right of the kingdom, wns 
an objection grounded upon policy, and mntter of stnto ; as tbitt 
it may to fall out that an im[>o«ition may be ttl hy a foreigu 
prince that may viiojt our people, In wliidi aae the cauut«r- 
poiH i», to net on the like here upon the subjects of that 
pnnce ; which policy, if it be not speedily executed hut st&yed 
until A parliaiuuut, may in the mciiulime prove vnin niul idl« 
nnd much dnnmge mny be nunlained tlml cannot afl«'i-wnr<!s be 
remedied. Tiiii^ strain of policy makelh notliiug li> the )>oiiit of 
right Our rule is in tliia plain coniinunweultli o( ouni, oporttt 
jiemitttm tMtf. tapUntioTfm Uyibtu. If there be an iocon- 
vtnienc*, it is fitter to have it remored by * lawful mtuuia 
thiui by uii unlAwftil. But this in rutlier a miwhief Ibnn an 
tnconventPiict^ that is. a prrjuilioe in prc*ent of •onM few but 
not hurtful to the commonwenlth. And it is more tolerable to 
suffer an hurt to some few (or n short time, than Iu give way to 
tlie breach and rioktion of Ibe right of tbo whole nution ; for 
that is the true iiiconveiiicDce. Keither need it lie fa difRcult 
or tediouH t» have the eon.ient af the parlinmviit, if tlify wore 
held 0* tbry ought or might he . . . 

titaU Trial; t<l. i;;9. vol. XL pp. $a-6l. 


Jtmta, hj the gmce of God Kinj; [Ac], to mir right tni>tj 
and right w«ll-betove<I councillor Itobert, K'lrl of Salisbury, 
our High Treasurer of Eagland, greeting. Il is w«U known 

A a 


James f. 


unto all m«n of jwlgmeat sod nixlerBla&diae tW ll« 
implied U|>uii prUtcea to proridc for Hie ulety uid •elfin i 
tbcir subject* ia Bccionipwiieiil with mi itrrflt adJ bmrj ■ i 
M »11 the drcumsliinm belonguig ttummto can 
uuder Hie eDue«it uf any olber than of Uioae who to* Mxp 
villi tlic oTTUkfie of iMblic al&in. anil Uierdbre tki* 
power and prerogative (aiiMKigtt mnnT otbcre) latb hfA I 
nwa of underftandini; in all ages and h\ the lam uf all 
licen yicldi-d aud ackuowledgfd to be proper and inlicnM i^ 
Ibc p)-rMin> of priocea, tbnt they may aoouHintt ta tbair i 
occa>ioD8 misR to tlirmiwlvcji sucb fit and eoapebeat 
Icvyiuif of customs aud impueitioiH npoo lacrctimnifiM* ' 
ported out of tlieir kingdoms or brooght into tlmir 
eillicr by tlie mlyvclBbom uodertbeirallEtfiunceor I71 
... as to their witdoBii pnd dticraliunf mnr Mtm < 
(witbont pnjudice of tradv and oominarce), nificieutly to 1 
and Nuitlain ibe great charge and expense ioddcDt Bntatbtai 
ibn maintcnnnM! uf tbttir cniiri» and difimtim ; n wi tt t 
time, out of many jii«t and weighty coiuid«ntion» as vill 1 
the ifXOiMraliug of tbe crown of din>n joat aad da» dtbb i* 
for the Kujiply of mauj' other our nr)niit aud inportjuit ae>- 
siiHiR known to us niid our oouDcil, uitd now iwucBlariy far te 
fcrvicr of Ireland, . . . have bwu forced to reaort to *anw mk 
Koont of raidiig profit Upon mercliaudise paanug o«n«ard ui 
inward an in former tintet hath tireu usual not only \ij wv 
pro^niton king* and prince* of this realm bat aUo oAcs it 
practice among otlier nations . . . htnA altlioagfa we ba«* n- 
solred to lay some kind of inipoaitioaa both opoD Baay fcra!^ 
nwrchaDdUes brought into Ihii our nadm and alao upon di*«R 
nattTecommodititsanil nkercb8ndise«,.,.yet lo the iDlcnt it stf 
np|>enr wliat eai« we have in all things of this natau* bi a«ai 
tlic lenst iuconvrDirDccorKriciwioc tliat mayariaa tooOTpeopte^ 
we have . . . given f|)ecinl clini-go in the levying of the ma> 
to foibear and exempt all such merchuodiEea oa a» requurt* far 
the food and sustetuuice of our pe<^le or which contstD ntftcT 
of munitioD nsceaMry for tbe defence i>f our rcalaii ... or aai 
other merchaodbea or fnalettals fit and proptr far tka mmn- 
li-jiauoe Bjid rnUrjrenicut nf Itade and unvtgntion . , . Kaow yc 
therefore that for the comtilctatioiu afonesaiil . 


impositions: Feudal Aid, 


appointed and onlaiurd . . . thut tbcrc slinU b« for ever IVom 
and aft«r the t{|tL day of Sept«mbcr next rnxuitig . . . levied, 
tukeii aud I'ecoived by way tit iiii|)osition now uewly eet, over 
und lir^iilcK the cuntonm, «ub>iilii's mid utUer duti^K liemtufora 
due and payable unto ua upon all tncirchundiKeii . . . wliick . . . 
hliall hv v'ithtr bruu|;lit Ivnw any part beyoud tbo seas unto 
IbiH oar realm ... or which sdiull be trauispurled or carricid 
forth of tbc name. . . . junt m niucb fur t}ie iiuid new impoaition 
as bath been and is now answered and paid unti> us for tlic 
eubisiilyof Ibe wiid mercliaudiaes, and neither more nor Imr . . .; 
cxeirptinjf Kueh mrrcliiindise* only a> iu a schedule hereanto 
Banrxcd nro <txprei>Hcd, which ar« either altogether freed and 
«xenipled from puyment of any of the laid new inipoiiitioi>:i or 
dae are appointed uiid aet (o pay the (sime in such proportion a.r 
i* cither more ft Icnn thnn tli^ nubsidy piiyuble for the aame> aa 
ju iba Mid tchcilulc is more plainly . . . vxprenscxl. Wherefore we 
. . . couiuiand yuu ibut forthwith . . . you give order . . . unto 
cuvtoiuem i>r cullrctora . . , aud other our officers and 
miiiiftcrs of nil nur port« . . . that tbcy flmll demaud, levy and 
take of all Eoglighmen, nlicna . . . and all persoim . . . which 
shall bring into thin our realm . . . or . . . carry forth ... of the 
Kume . . . any gocniit, vrare* or nierchiindi*eii, . . . ao much fur and 
by way of the eaid new imposition a* hnth been uiid now ia 
answered and paid unto ua for the subsidy of the said mcr- 
ehaudige^ . . , excepting [an before] . . . 

[Dated] at We»tiuinirt«r, j8 July. 

Fat. Ball, 6 Joe. I, put 30. 

3. Lkty op a Twudu. aid. 
(a) OnlfT to Ih* Chancellor to iuue eommimmu. i4n. 

'^A'lici'cos our eldest daughter Ii^lixabctb liath long tince kc- 
compliubed the age of aeveu yeara, by reason whereof there ia 
duo unto u« by the luwa ami itntutea of thix our realm of 
Kuglnnd n-nsonablo aid to be had and l«vied of all our im- 
mediale tenants by kniKhl's service and in soccage fur her 
inarriuge : Tbew ore tbcrvfore to will niid require you our 
Cliaucellor to cauEc to be mode and sealed under our great seal 

A a 3 


James I. 


of England u well te%'eTiil commiMionf 1o be ilireclfd oaui 
the oovntiea oC this oar said tMlni Kconliag to tlie (n i 
« dnafufat of a coramiaauMi for tint parpcac to (Imb 
■nncxi-d, ns nlao wTernl commUuiNis for tl)« (.Intjiie EWtii 
for cniapoaiMliDg wttii all the Lonk epirilual uu) tanfool* 
this oar rralm aud with tlw nwiten . . . uid other tlw kaAi 
bouifes, halls and «olkge» of our Uiiiveniti«s at Oilsd i 
Ciiuibri()|t«, accurdiii{[ to mvotbI drauglita brrcunto til 
Dcxed, diai^ii^ such things thcntn h ore to be cfaaapd. Milt 
diiYct them to nch conimif»iao«ra as 70a with the \jari I 
8«al and our Lliancellor of our E»:he(|Uer Uiall 
a])])cuiiL, relumaUc a\ tbe Aikft of tbc avvar*! dni^ila | 
and tba aaau (cvemi onmtnisHWW to renav to tha 
mttaionen or any others ncoording (o juur directiDiw u < 
aa need shall reijuire, aud ako to name and chnoM an; *«■ < 
the mid «(iininiNion(M« in vntj countj* rasfwctiftlj It 
collectora for Ibe tame aid ; and tbne sliall be yvmt sn 
warrant iu that behalf. 

iMxva nnd«r oar eigiiet at Woodstock the jotb dar 1 
August in the lolh year of our r«i][D of England, Fiance 1 
Iraland, ai>d of Scotland tlw six and fortirth. 

*^ (1>) Appoimtaitat 0/ CcmtaiMMtert to ttUett ike md, iStt. | 

Bex eto^ diluclie et fid«]il>tw raia v»oe>conuti mi * 
A. B. «t C. D. nacnoa Mcaelori et feodanis bdU is 
prsadieto mlut«n>. Rctatis quod, cam in statato' in 
Dwnim Edwardi naper Uogin Auglia« teitii apud Wc 
tcgui Mii 15 lento edito, inter »e(«i« proviran tuimtt tt 
ardiflatnm tiuod ratioiMbilc nuxilrum «d primogenitam filial 
tttfpit maritandam p«tatur rt It^rtur secundum furnun statsu 
itidc piiu editi et ncn alio modo : ridelicet de qaolibvt f*«d« 
militari Itato de Ite^ u^e umnUu viginti folidoa H nan fim, 
el da viginti Ubfntis tcmte tcntii de regc tin* tncdio in aoo^pa 
riginti aolidM et noo plus, ptwit in ood«in atatiUo inter aUa 
pltiiiiu coatinftnr: Nob de fidelilate i-t |«i>nda cimmitpfctWiwr 
fntric in negotiis uottrts agendi* plnrimnni coofidratct Mngva* 

* B]*^ laA ftr tW cmM; 

■ JiE.UI(i]ii;«p.Siat. Wwtn. I (3 EJL I), I 3«. 


Feudal Aid. 


viiuus Toe, qiutnor vel plurcn vi'itruin no l«ior« praNrntium 
dAmtu vobis (etc] plrnnm potcalAUMn et tiuthoritiitcin ad pnw- 
dictiim auxilium vigiDti solidorum, tsm de ungulia feodU 
TuiiitAiiliUB de iiobix aiiiu medio i}uuiti d« ittiif[uli» viginti 
libi'iitis t(-rrn<r tlu iiohiK in FOrngici iiino tncilio RimiUlAr ut proa- 
furtur tciiliii. At pliirc plus et At niinnro minus justa raluin, 
iu comitatu pniedicto tain iufrs libertatc-s ([uura extra, lut 
Eluutbetbuin primoKctiitani filinra DOstnun, nrluti* ticxdcciin 
juiuunim ct lunpliiis jnm cxititnit'^ni, brnvi {Doo daote) mftri- 
tandAm levaodnm, its quod omoes denarioB d« auxilio pn«dicto 
pri>veiiteiit«B bubcialin ad Mcnccnrium uuntruin die Jgri» proximo 
[Kjnt crantiiiuin PunficatioDi) IteatnL' Mariiic prosimum futtirain, 
illi vel iilis cui vol quibiu dmftrioB iilgs ]iberaii inaiidaveriuius 

I£d ideo toIhs [«tc.] maodaiuua quod, bnbitn del i bent i one 
pleiiuria ni|)«r fucKlii el pnrtlbus fcodonim ac lerrorum prae- 
diclonim in coniilatu pnedicto, iofro libei-tatea et extra, per 
inquttiUonea distiuote et u]i«rte quotiona opuk fuaril oapieiubu 
vel aliRH per vinm conipoHitioiiit pro nobis ct in nomine iiostro 
cum bujittnindi t«tientibus nostris in «a parte lieudae et &Iiu 
viU ct ntodie legitimis ijuibuH \n-o uccel^iulioiie prttunuiHiomni 
Tobis videbitiir expedirc, n<i nuxiliutii pmedittum in comitatu 
praedicto le**Di!nm tA, colligeiidutn circa praemisaa diligenter 
inteudalis ac ca fiiciati» el expleatia in forma pniedictu, balietiteM 
Ui^bitnm CDUBiilvnitiuiieiu iiistmctiuiium iicitranim qung pro 
veit.nt nictioru trt pivtiiore dirvi^tiotie niniiilniH nliqaorum ««x vhI 
pliirium ronniliarioruai nnKtixiram signatarun) Tobi§ uua cum 
hac no«tm commiaeioDe mitti fecimus . . . 

Et m praefatua vicecomea vclilre fiicintr comm vobU [etc.] 
i|ui>tii-nii DcccHMi fucrit tot ot biloi pn>bo« ct legalcn homino de 
balliT* tua tain infra libert«tes quam extra per quoB praeinissa 
expediri et ivi Tcritoa in bac parte melius vein poterint et 

DumUH nibiloniiniu vobin A. 1i. ct C. 1). duobtiM cnmnii*- 
gionariia tnatum aittboritatiiii et potcstatem colligvndi et !«• 
cipiendi oRin*-^ ct Mngulas pecniiiarum tutumaa modo et fwma 
]>niedictia leTaiidaa «t ad dietu ct Iul'Uiii et peraooas ad hoc 
HKci^wlas vtJ (tsHgnandaa aolrendi. ac id«> lenoru pracat'iiliuiQ 
voE omiiea alios commiasioDarioa de praediclla peconiii aic ut 


James I. 

pnefeitnr I(^van<l)B et coHigenilw )iro doU*, Tmc n ililiiii « i 
voriUiK itoitrU cxonmuna* «t iKqnictaniai taipertKtnnii, iBf* 
in prracmtMiB coitt«nta to cantrariam non dlMwrte. 

ttymn'r forfiFa, roL XV]_p jn 

U' {c) Ajijwntment ofComtnitm/mgra to cempnDidf,rlSi 
md, 1609'. 

R«x He. ivaedilecto ct 6Adt oonsiHsrio nostra 
Domino £llcnn«re C^nwllkrio txMiro AnifLnv [rt Ntiaj < 

Sciattt ^uod, CDin in fI«IdIo [eit. ss in |tircHiiiK 
CTiiiM|ue Mpsniles eotmniisioDei mistnu d» nuadalo nmm 
enanuiut in iingnlwi comilnhi* aoUma ... ad 
colligvudiiia auxilium pnuitictnm . . , ; uode notna ptr 1 
privato ooDcilio nootro tiumillime Hipplioitnni mi <p^< 
tarn ip*i ifoun neteii praifluli. dnmini, niBgiul>3 H [inoBB 
hojns ngm nortri Angli*i- liaWnt et poandcot dimwi wth 
■nt ra tliverMa «t vparaka coniitalas, . . . nolnu pUcmt jvd «■■ 
nodo «( qntele ipmram ac oeteroit i in doraJiioraB [(*c.] i^ 
pmctnara *t aMgnarc a]ti|vo* dan Ion conunissMMwiiw nuim , 
Ad eOMpoMndam ex parte ooslia com i-u m cmo aGu Poaagil| 
. . . : DM itaqne . . . tenoie pnearatiitm dnmaa voliit anl 
ifutia* qnaraor vel plnnlw* Tcrtmin (qnoraai ««• prat£id«1 
Ckil»Ilaritira tnabwii An^ia« aal TbenantriaiB 
AagliaF nnuni een voimniB) plraam potertatrm ... ad 
4ktM magnate* . . . coram Tofaif . . . crorandi . . . et ad ptafdituaT' 
aaxilism viginti tolidarain . . . pn- vUm mmpgntiaaif . . . 
feTamtiiBi el coUigeudum . . . , Ita quod nmMs dowiM d> 
Bdxilki prandicto pvr nam caoipcwiticiiiie tit \trmtlrrvu pF»- 
Tfuientva hab«atta ad Foucarinm Boatrum die Joni pmiB* 
fn.t rnitinum Saoclu Trinil^tis proilmnm fatnran, UE vd 
illia c«ji nl qntbua ilnumca ilkw libcnui naixlaviBS* 

fnalcd 31 laar, 1609.] 

Xfmtr't Frn-tim, ti4. XVLp. 1 

lw*kkil(kii«(rf Kac* Dean ia ifoa, bit Ub tan* t a gtwlai a 
^ ha*« kM fidonl ia bMh MH. 



Vbt rodearoitn hi* .Majcrt]- hath xueA b^ treaty and Iit nil 

'■ad Mniatile waj's to rwwver ibe palriniociy of Iii* children 

I OcrnMUiy, now fur th« mo*t [nft witlibotHeii [rom them by 

{* not noknowii In all his loving subjectA, udou bn 

'*jrUj wu plnied to commuuicate to tli«in in pMrlmmrnt 

' whole pn>c««<liiigB iu tint busiutM: nf wkidi tmtty, being 

frtutrate, he wn* cnfoK^d to ttike other raaolutions, 

f, to ici»Trr tli«t br tbc sroni wliicb by otbcr meiui* bo 

no lik«libuoi] to coBi|wta. For whicli {nirpoae it wu 

ctcd by bis ilnjettf tbnt hi* p«opl« in pnrlitttDeiit wnuM 

I a esuM so ueniiy concerning his and his ebildren'a interest) 

*ve cli«vrfully contriboted tbereutito. But tlie Mni« ud- 

tanntrly fnilinKi biH Mr^eity in conttrsincd, in n ciue of ik> 

ht necefisitj, to trr the diilifut tdToctioos of hit lovinfr rabjcds 

I aaulber way, ne bis predt-ceewra har« done in fomicr liuioH, 

pnpuuiHlitig uulu tbeiu a Tuluntaiy contribulioo. And 

tforr, IU jouriclvn luivi: alivndy gircn a libtrml nud worthy 

eiamplo (whi^'li bis .Majcay doth take in v«ry gracious port), tut 

p)MUiii« iH, aini wo do accordingly hereby antliorize and 

ir^nire your lordsbips, ns wril tii coiiulcnBnce and nwiiil tbe 

trvke by TDur best innibK. in your next circaita, in tbe seTeral 

mtioiwbere you bnid general awoxea, as rdaouow preaently with 

4II connniciit irxprditiuu to call btlbre you nil tlie ofBeera and 

i belonging to any his N[ajf«ty's oouits of jiislirv, and 

all nch others of tbe houtes and ftocieliea of court or that 

■rwiie bave depeodeticc upon the law, nx luv meet to be 

'^Irtated witbnl in Ibis kind and bare not already oonlriliatcd ; 

and to move them to juin vtllingly iu tbia contribution in midi« 

gDOil aicasurv, imi>irer.ihl() to (bat yuumlvm niid o(li«ra havit 

tAaae before, arcording to thoir mrans and Tortnitcs ; wherein 

Majcfty dtmbtetli not, but beeide the iulciei^t of bi6 children 

bis uwn crown and dignity, the religion profeiued by bi* 

■jeety and bappily flourishing under bim within this kingdom 

ftviofr a great part in tbe Mic«eu of this buineu) will bo 

■ TW* Uu«r *M KRi 'tu Um Ju>lk» uf ilifl Oxirw at Wodmlwur 
i la IW Buiuui cf Uin KiTh*i|iM«,' anil btticr* l» l\v> mat effect hi tlic 
aV^ IW JuMkn uf the Pnoc, &«. 


Jatttts L 


s vfwctal motive to Incite ami perNftde thtin titereiuito. Xfl 
thelcfs, if anv peraou abuU, oot oil obstinKT or 
cefuM to contribute bcrein prxportKHiftblf tu their eiuto lai 
means, jou are to cifrtify tli«ir iiaii>r« uiitn tliii beanL 

And •■> rtoini mane) lag this service to jokt bat iMt nl. 
eudeavoar, and prayiun j«u tu rvtum uuta ob aai 
aauMS of mcii m sfaall contribute nnJ iif (be saau cflii 
ibem, wo bid [&f..\ AMi«wU,nLLii.fe 

[KmiUr letters were sent to the AichbUiop of Cut«fBT | 
niid the Biabop of Lincoln, Lord Ke<-']<er, for cimlatioa tmm^ 
Uie buhops, and were cireiilated iritb t)i« follwing aiUttica.) 

Tour Lordship by thew letter* may see bow fur it tonotnati j 
biH IklajcMy iu honour and the realm tu Mfetj, that the filn- 
mony of the King's childtrn «lioutd be nraxtnA oK^in I17 lira 
of war, aiiice it canuoi be obtained by treaty . . . We ihenftn, 
who ujion tiie receipt of ibcae bis Mi^eUj't Wtvn faart art 
togfthcr and iluly conHdcrud what was moat cuanum l*_ 
be done, haro resolved that 3*. tod. in tbe poond b m 
as we can pooaibly offer towards »o ftreal an cntcxprfaa. ; 
hoping (hilt mcb nr be of ability will exceed tha nma. Ta 
sIkII Ihvrcfore do well by all forcible reason, drawn Craa ltf| 

defence of relifpou and jiutice. lo incite all viiur eler^ 1 

also the leotnivni and licenned achoolmaaten wilkta jw 
dioceae, tliat with nil rcadinens thoy dg contribat* towarcU tlii 
noble aclion. And wbereaa there be divers co«xtmcndalwis^ 
dignilarica, prebeudariea and dunblir-lieueflcic*! nwn llut ba« 
livinj^s in aevetal dii)crM!i, we hold il fit tlut for tnt; Mi 
of theee within your LonMiip's dioooa the caalribatiaa I* 
nteubli;, to that the monies iu web aort to be git^n any U 
braugfat to London by tb» totb day of AfaRh aoxt. la b* 
delivered to tbe hands of stieh receiver* u for that |nir|j«» 
•ball be appuiiiled. And to the end tliat trae uotin m^ U 
taken of mch a* arw beat dbpoied to Ibka wi good a aervkc 
we expect ihat your I^^itbhip send np to the Arcbbiibofi J 
CautcAiury the sereral ratal and names of all llwac wha 
contribute; and lastly . . . thai yon eaiiM the |ireaeben vitUo 
jTDur dtoc«*e in a grave and discreet faahion to c»eit« Uw i 

lommtStS^^^^^^M^tfrMmer. 3(Si 

, wben occasion dull serv*. titty ilo extend their libonlitics 
I n Chrotiad Btid worthy »a eo(«rprU« . . . 
Fram lArabctb, ii Janaant. 1621. 

G. Cajttcab. 

Jo. LtKCOLK. C. S. 

[ikoA twelve otlivr Usfaops.] 
Carttmtll, Dvamm. Aanal; voL IL p. 141. 

I. CoxHissiOK OP Otcb isxt Tkbuixxr, 1607. 

JMnboa ilci gntin Aogliw, ScotUo, Fiuncwe et Hiliemiae 
Bex, fidui defeuwr, etc., pFMditeelo et lideli eonailiaria »uo 
ThotDH ilomino t^ieiinerc Oane«Utirio wo AngUae, ac ramsiiuia 
oooMngnineu rt conuliarii* aniii Tlumnc Cmiiiti I>iinct Tlmuu- 
I mo Angliae, Carolo Coinjti Nottingham nugoi) Adminillo 
AugUae, ac eliain cariMimb couaauguiueis niis Ueurico 
itti Kancue, Roberto Cumiti RuimcxiM!, «c curisniino con* 
linco ct ootisitiario sao Itobcrto Comiti Knlinburr pi-incijiiili 
Bnovlano ano, tiecnon pnedilectis et fidelibos auia Tboouw 
Ddawaie, Etlwardo domino Morley, JdIwiui! doraioo 
nlejr, Roberto domino Kicbc, Johsnni ilomiiw d« llnnKloi), 
phanui domino PHre, ac dileclia et fldelibua auia JaooUi Altbam 
ilitt oni RaroBum Scaccurii *ui, Jofaaiini Crako militi uni 
HrrHntinm guomm ad )e-,jeiit. Edwanio Kcnner militi aui 
Juticlariontm «aommad placitavtinun nobis leiii^nda aui^[uato. 
Rtcardo T.cwkrnor militi Justicisrio «ao Ceatriiie, Edwardo Curie 
Biliti magigiio jMaliuta norom [also to tbirty-two knights 
(iuclndii^ Uie Atluruey of tbe Ducby of Lancaster, a Matter in 
Cbanvery, and a Seijeant at Law) oiid eltveii Ksquiref^ aalutem. 
Sciatii qnoi] aangMvioitw vo« <t tren Trolmm quorum aUqaein 
natram to« pnierate Jacobe Altbam et Johaniws Croke unum 
eaae Tulainiu. Jiutioiarioii nontro* ad tm|uirendum per aucra- 
metitum proborum «t Irgtdiam homiimm dc comilatibtu uoatiia 
Kaudae, 8<i<«exia«. Surraiae, U^rtfordiae et K^eexLae ac in 
cirittttii Cuntuariae el eonun quolibet, ac alUa vtii 


James /. 


modU et mediia ijDibiifl m^lins sciverilis ant potetitis, (kid infV* , 
libei1at«B quam extra, per quo* rei v«rtlua mcliua sciri |)iiterit I 
et iii(|u)i'i, (1« <|uil]ii!H:ani{iir proditionibua, miii{iiidonitiuii, pro- 
clitonim' iiiMinTcttnniliiifi. robcllioiiil^ii^ ninnlrig. ftloniis, homi- 
cidiis, intcrf«ctioDibiie, burgulai-u». raplibus mulierum, rongre- 
gAlioiiibuB et convciiUculis ilHi-Jtia, Terborum protaliimilma, 
cciuduuutioiiibiie, niispvisioniliiiii, confrdcralutnibav, ihliiii< nlle- 
ganciigi, tnirmgrefsionibiiFi, riolifi, roiltiH, rrtvntioDibiU, CM^npiU, 
CODtemptibus, faUitatibtu, Degligentiis, concclsmenti*, toann- < 
tctiviioUs, oppresiiioiiibtis, cniiibt{«rlii«, ilecrptioiiibus et aIus 
mnlt'rnctii', oD'cii<^<» ft iniiiiiiii <|tiil>ii9(Mirii]uo, nrciign nr/ii'inMiriiB 
«oruindein infra comitatus et civitateni prsedictos ant eorumi 
aliquem, tarn lufnt libcrtuteH ijuiiiii «KtrA, per quoxounque eti 
qualilcrcnnqiic hiibitn, facta, pcrpHratii give commima, oi per] 
quoi Tel per quem. cui xttl (juibii«. quando. qualiier «t quomodo, j 
ac lie aliin urticultHctdrcunislaRtiiiipreiiiiFXH et eorumquMltibetJ 
"ive rorum aliqtio« vel aliqun qualitr^i'ciinqiic conceriMntibtiS, j 
pleiiiuH vui'ilHtem; et ud cu.idtm piixliliones et alia praemivuil 
(hac vice) nudiriiduTii ct trrmiiiaDduni aciriinilnm li-gcm ct 
consuctudiDriD rrgui iio(<tri Anglian. F.t ideo vobiii manJamusJ 
quod, ad certOB dies et lui'a quuB vos Tel ties vestiiiin qaortmii 
[etc. as before] ad hoc proriikTitls, diligeiiter super jirnrmifids ' 
faciatia inquiBitionrii, ct prneinixsn otnnia «t singula audiatia et 
lenninelii', ax ca fauiatis et e^pleatiu in forma praediotA, bctoriJ 
iiide quid ad justitiam pi^rtiuet Heeuudum Irgeni et consul- j 
tudinrm regni ngidri Atigliiie; snlvis nobis am crciain« litis et 
aliiH ad nos iiido tipe>;tantibuH. Mandavimus cnim Ticecomililiuit 
iiutilriii foniilntuum rt civitutis praedictoruui, quod, ad wrrloii ' 
die* ct lofii, qiiiis TDs vcl Ires Vfstnim quonira [etc. ii* before] 
eia scire fcooritis, veDiro dicinot coram vobia vel tribus v^stntm , 
quorum [etc. aa before] tot et talea proboa et le^alef liomuKB 
de hntlivi* iiiiii, taiii iiifm HbL-rlntcs quam extra, pur quoq reil 
Trrilnii in piacroiBsis melius uciri poi«Tit et inquiri. In cujtia^ 
rei, etc. Teste me ipeo upud Wtsliu. vicceiiiio die Febnuirii i 
anno regni noslrt Augliae, ynmoiue et Uiberiilae (|uarto et 
Scoline quadrngesitno, 

Ful. BoH,4Jae.t,fM^ i 

* 'linxUdunam' la tha R>U. 

ouncit of the North. 363 

3. ComosBio^r or Gaol-deutrkt, 1607. 

jBSobtn, D«i grfttik, etc- diltrtie et fidfliboa sub Jkcobo 
AHlisai mi'Iiti nni Baronnni ecBccarii tui, Johaani Croke mililt 
Bai eervieiitium luonira od lr|{uni. Henric« Oliucock, Jnlinnni 
fioTTvll, Jobnimi M^dc d Edwarrio RonrluiKla wlutcm. Sciutia 
qnod cooflilnimus vi>», iiauiqu«, quatuoi-, trea et dtiui veMrum, 
qWM^m a1i<)iitu veslmtn vuk, [)nufat« Jacobi! Allhflm ct 
Jolnuior* Crokc, imoni in>9« volumun, jinctirinriox noetroa ail 
ganlam nwtrniR ca^tri lusln Cantuanenfis tiei-non ad fravliini 
■MMtlKOt it ^laid-tlotie At i)rii«iiilNui in riwieui cxulralibiui it«- 
ndsm. £t itleo vobtK tnatidiunun ijitud nd cfrildn) dien) 
ptn v<>* f«tc. us Wore] ad hoc providerius coDTeoiHlh apud 
«d Koolae illas dcliberandoa, facturi iuile quod ad 
ietam pertiitet, Mcaiuliun lejceu ct cuuioieludiMin rrgni 
MMtri Angliae ; twlTti nobu aincicinmcittu et alii* »d nns inde 
tilias. Alandavimua euim victoomiti ncHlro Kaj>oi)ie 
. ■)] cvrtBin diem (jnetn vos [ct«. u belbnj ei *ciiv fMeritiR, 
priwim caniiiidcni gaolaniin r4 Mram attuehiaoMiilft 
robts [«tc. ** Iwfoi-e] ibidem venire facLat. 
In ciijus rei tie. Xtsie nge n|)ii(I Wentm. vi<««iiao die 
^cbntarii, uiao rcgiii *m •{unito ct qusdnigninio. 

fat. Roll. 4 Jite. J, fvt 1'. 

I. IxsTxucnoxs rok tim PneionixT svv Cocxcil or thk 
NoKiu, 1603. 

Inttruirtiuiit for our Hplit ti-usljr and well-beloved Edmoiid 
81irflnrtd. Pnwdcnt of our Cnandt iii tlie iKirtli [mrU and 
[niflht of our Order of the Garter, nnd for all otiirr hereaner 
■ed being >)ipoiiited by us (o be of tbe said Council, to le 
*td hy titem aecordinn; tu tlie HitDe be kerealter declared. 
, the isrnl of Julj ID the ytar of [our] reign of Englaod, 
and Ireland the Brat and of Scotland the «x and 

I, Kint, wt« deiiriDK tl'<^ quiet gonrninent uf our people aud 
atijeeto uftlie north pnrlii of thia our rtmlm of Kugland, and 
br ibe good and upecdy adminiBtrattoo of jutico to bo there 
: betwcco party aad i«rty, ai>d iuiendii^ ta ooatiuue in the 


James I. 


ttmp parts our right bonoornblF Cooucil cAlkd our Omural M 
the North, «niJ wc IcuowiDp the appmrtd wudan »dA tijtnta 
at you our right tnatx aod well -Iw loved Eitmoixl Lonl ifliAU. 
and upoD JiTcra otlner coniidcnOumt niuriDg us M thit }jtaaa 
tiiu« to have jour nnic* in thoM north \mti» with ;oiir Mnd 
and nwur«d ^ectJou to tlie executioo of jurticc, hvn ' W*** ^ 
yoM to be Ijwtj I'ltMdent of the said Coiiocil, witk piiwfri^ 
nitthority to call togcthrr nil tuch pcrwiu aa br •f^NuMdH 
Iw of tl>e Mud Council at all tine* when jrati shall tlnok m- 
{•edieut, and utbi-rwiw hy yoar letters ta apjnint tbcm to JA 
aut-h tbirtiri for the furtberaiice of juatic* uxl (or Uw priA- 
nictil uf evil doen aa bf the lulrice of tioeh of the aid Onol 
as then shall be preeent with yourtclf i>hall be tbauKht nwAk 
the furtheraui-e of oar oauaea and for the due adnriniilntiw^ 
ju.Ktii'e between ourwlvea [aod otheral- 

II. Further, that nil diK care a»d tf^d ■wana laarbW 
for the adTaucement of God's true rrligtou and tornae la t*^ 
parta, w« do re<|tUT« yoa upon confrrrneiT vttli the rwt la ttkr 
Kood and ape«<lT ordi-r Uutt every bubop. arcbileacMi or dto 
cuaimtnnry or offidal in hi« porticular jnriadlctian 4o in tbtv 
ncTi-ml TJHlationt by oath of side-men tali* pnavntmeut of ^ 
nunilwr of lecn-auta and truly cer